CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

HISTORY OF ISLAM

CORRECT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE TRIBULATIONS THAT STRUCK ISLAMIC NATION DURING 632-80

 

PART 5

 HADHRAT ALI IBN ABU TALIB  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

There are two extreme groups in Muslims, (1) Shias, and (2) Kharijis (Salafis). Both these groups are further divided into innumerable sub groups.  The prominent among Shia groups are 'Ithna Asharis' (twelvers), while the prominent among Kharijis are Salafis. The majority of Ithna Ashari Shaias live in Iran and other places, while the majority of Salafis live in Saudi Arabia, Arabian gulf and other places. 

Shia groups claim excessive love of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and members of Ahle Bait and in the process use abusive language for the majority of Sahabah.  Salafis hide their hate for Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and other members of Ahle Bait, but openly hold them responsible for the tribulations in Islamic State. They show a lot of respect towards the enemies of Ahle Bait and try to degrade the respect of Ahle Bait in the eyes of the people.     

The majority of the people among Muslims are Ahle Sunnah wal Jamaa,  who walk on the middle path. 

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). "The Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) called me and told me: "You are like Jesus (Isa - علیھ السلا م ).  Jews hated him till they slandered his mother, and Christians loved him till they put him in the position that is not for him. With regard to me (Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), two categories of persons will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much and the love takes him away from rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes him away from rightfulness. Verily, I am not a prophet, and there is nothing revealed to me. But I work according to the Book of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and the Sunnah of his Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) as much as I can. So whatever I have asked you in regards to obeying Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), it is your duty to obey me whether you like it or not." (Ahmad)

Correct comprehension of Islamic issues is very important because a slight misunderstanding will have profound affect on Sahih Iman. It is important that we safeguard our Iman from the extreme opinions of Shias, Salafis, Ikhwan, Deobandis and their like minded groups. 

We have described facts as contained in authentic History books/Islamic literature. Ahadith, Quranic verses and scholars' opinions have been cited all through the article. We have refrained from expressing our personal opinion throughout the article.   Please note that the article is aimed at clearing the misunderstanding about important personalities of Islam. We hope our readers will greatly benefit from this effort.
 
There are 11 articles in this series which cover various misunderstandings and differences of opinions about the happenings during 50 years, immediately after the death of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  For better understanding, it is important that you read these articles in the same sequence, from part 1 to 11.

 

 

Hadhrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was born on Rajab 13, 22 BH ( 30 al-Fil ) (600 AD) inside Kaaba. Almost all Awliya Allah have mentioned in their books that Hadhrat Ali was "Maulud e Kaaba". Shah Waliyullah has mentioned in his book, Izalatul Khifa that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was born inside ka'aba and  he backed his statement by a report by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.  

Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  accepted Islam when he was 9 years old. He was first among the children who accepted Islam. Ummul Momineen Khadeeja (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was the first woman to accept Islam while in men this honor goes to Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) father Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and mother Fatimah Bint Asad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) were father and mother figures for the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) as he grew up under their guardianship. Read more...

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Sa`d Ibn Abi Waqqas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) When Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) revealed the verse: فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ (Meaning - Come! We will summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, then we will pray humbly and invoke the curse of Allah upon those who lie) (Aal-e-Imran - 61), the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) summoned  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), Imam Hasan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) , and Imam Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and said: “O Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی)! These are my Family. (Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, and Hakim) 

 

Islam's continuance in its original form even today is greatly because of the sacrifices of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), his sons and other members of Ahle Bait.  They sacrificed their lives to keep the purity of  Islam from worldly politics. We the Muslims of the world are greatly indebted to the Ahle Bait e Rasool ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  They showed us the right path and set an example of piety in the midst of confusion, chaos and anarchy created by evil doers, selfish politicians and those who committed Ijtehadi (interpretation) mistakes during the first century Hijri.

Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is a glittering star among Sahabah. Imam Ahmad said: “There is no Companion about whom are reported as many merits as Hadhrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). (al-Hakim Mustadrak  3-107).

It is in Hadith -  Narrated by Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) . The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) left Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) behind, in the campaign of Tabuk. The latter said: “O Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )! Are you leaving me behind with the women and children?” The Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) replied: “Are you not happy to stand next to me like Hadhrat Harun (علیھ السلا م) next to Hadhrat Musa (علیھ السلا م), save that there is no Prophet after me.  (Bukhari, Muslim)

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Zayd Ibn Arqam, S’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Buraida bin Husaib, Abu Ayyub al Ansari, Bara bin Azib, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Sa’eed and Abu Hurraira (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said : For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is his Mawla. O' Allah befriend those who befriend Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). [Ahmed (4/370), Ibn Hibban (2205), Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368) Haythami (9/104) Tirmidhi (2/298)]

 

All Khulafa e Rashideen preceding Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Uthman - رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) depended heavily on Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) advice in running the day to day administration of the Caliphate.  Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, " Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is the best judge among us."  More than once, when Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had to leave Medina, he left Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in the capital as the Care taker Caliph.

It is in Hadith - When the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) sent  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to Yemen the latter said: “O Apostle  of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) , you are sending me to people who are older than me so that I judge between them!” The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said: “Go, for verily Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) shall empower your tongue and guide your heart.” Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: “After that I never felt doubt as to what judgment I should pass between two parties. (Ahmad)

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is the best in judgment among us, and Ubayy (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is the most proficient at the Qur’anic readings. ( Ibn Sa`d in his Tabaqat (2:339), Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Isti`ab (3:39-41), Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (42:404), and Abu Nu`aym in the Hilya).

It is in Hadith - Narrated Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (part of a long Hadith) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: “The most compassionate of my Community towards my Community is Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); the staunchest in Allah’s (سبحانہ و تعا لی) Religion is Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); the most truthful in his modesty is Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and the best in judgment is Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  ( Ibn Majah)

It is in Hadith - Ibn Mas`ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: “We used to say that the best in judgment among the people of Madina was Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). [al-Hakim (3:135), Ibn Sa`d in his Tabaqat (2:338), and Ibn `Asakir (42:404)]

 

Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) bravery, knowledge and eloquence were distinct among Sahaba. 

It is in Hadith -  Narrated Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Jabir bin abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : "I am the city of knowledge and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is its gate".  (Tirmidhi, al-Hakim, Bazzar, Tabarani)

It  is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - On the eve of the campaign of Khaybar, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: "I shall give the standard to a person who loves Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and whom Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) loves and also His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)." Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: "I never liked to be entrusted leadership before that day." The next day the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) summoned Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and gave him the flag. (Bukhari, Muslim)

It  is in Hadith -  Salama Ibn Amr narrated that on the day of Khaybar, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) summoned Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who came led by the hand, as he was suffering from inflammation of the eyes. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then blew on his eyes and gave him the flag. (Muslim).  

It  is in Hadith - Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abi Laila (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - "I asked my father to ask Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) why he wore summer clothes in winter and winter clothes in summer"? Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: "On the day of Khaibar the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) summoned me when my eyes were sore.  I said to him: O' Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)! I have ophthalmic. He blew on my eyes and said: O' Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی)! remove from him hot and cold. I never felt hot nor cold after that day. (Ahmad, Ibn Majah) 

 

Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate

After Hadhrat Othman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) martyrdom, there was no one to rule the Islamic State for 3 consecutive days.  Ghafqi, the leader of the Egyptian rioters led prayers in the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) mosque.  It was important that the chaos and lawlessness was ended and normalcy restored.  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the towering personality among Sahabah then. He was bravest, most experienced, knowledgeable and best judge among people. Whoever thought of a new Khalifa to rule the Islamic nation, the only name that came to their mind was that of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Hadhrat Ali was the only choice in front of them who could restore the rule of law back into Islamic State.  Also, the rioters did not object for him to be the new Khalifa.  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), was persuaded by the senior Sahabah to come forward the save the nation. After initial reluctance, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) agreed and everyone in Madinah pledged their allegiance to the new Khalifa.

In any federal set up, it is important that the Central Government remains strong.  When Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) took over as Caliph, the central authority was weakened and crippled. The Caliph was attacked by the rioters who had come from provinces. And since Hadhrat Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not use force against the rioters, they were emboldened and the entire structure of the Caliphate was in disarray.  When we read Islamic History, we realize that it was a great conspiracy by the vested interest to occupy the Caliphate from the back door.  

Hadhrat Ali faced 3 serious problems during his Caliphate. 

(1) The demand to punish the people who were responsible for the assassination of Hadhra Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). This culminated into the Battle of Camel.  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) won this crucial battle.  We have covered details in a separate Article.  Follow this link. 

(2) When Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was chosen as Khalifa, there was near anarchy in the Islamic State.  In order to bring back normalcy, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) asked all Governors to formally resign from their positions. Later they could have been reshuffled or re-appointed again. In such a delicate and needy time when it was important to solidify the Unity of the State and strengthen the hands of the Khalifa, Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) staged a rebellion and proved the Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) prophecy about him. (Ref: Ad-Dahabi in Siyar A'alam Al-Nabulaa).

Ad-Dahabi wrote in his book "Siyar A'alam Al-Nabula" as follows:
قلت : قتل بين الفريقين نحو من ستين ألفا . وقيل : سبعون ألفا . وقتل عمار مع علي ، وتبين للناس قول رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- : تقتله الفئة الباغية

[In my opinion about 60,000 thousand people died (in the battle of Siffeen) and Ammar Yaasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was killed fighting on the side of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and this demonstrates what the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : you will be killed by the rebels)!

The Hadith referred by Ad-Dahabi in his above statement is as follows.

It is in Hadith Bukhari - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari)

The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows: 

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."

 

To repel the rebellion, Battle of Siffin  was fought. Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces won this battle but at the decisive moments of defeat, Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces played a trick to avoid crushing defeat. They took the copies of Quran in their hands and pleaded to spare their lives. The battle was stopped, but Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not surrender. An arbitration was organized between the Khalif and the Governor. History tells us that the Khalifa's representative was deceived and Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) representative unilaterally declared Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as the winner of Arbitration which was rejected by the Caliph. Later, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) took control of other Provinces, one by one, by force. 

(3) Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) successfully controlled the fitnah created by Kharijees in the last years of his Caliphate.

 

Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was martyred by an assassin in Kufa in 661. Who hired this killer to assassinate the Khalifa is not known, except that he was a Khariji. 

 

 

 FURTHER READING

 

Part (1) Caliphate of Hadhrat Abu Bakr ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )

Part (2) Shia Confusion in Caliphate

Part (3) Martyrdom of Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

Part (4) Mohammad Ibn Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

Part (6) Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Role during Rashidun Caliphate

Part (7) Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  Role as Head of State after he deposed Rashidun Caliphs

Part (8) The Battle of Camel

Part (9) The Martyrdom of Imam Hussain  (علیھ السلا م)

Part (10) Yazid Ibn Muawiya ( لعنة الله عليه )  

Part (11) Muharram and Ashoora

 

 

 

 
  

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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