صحيح العقيدة الإسلامية
There are 5 Tenets (pillars or principles) of Islam, (i) Shahadah (Iman - faith), (ii) Salah (Distinctive Submission - a form of Islamic Prayer ), (iii) Zakah (Islamic Charity), (iv) Sawm (Islamic Fasting), (v) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah).
It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - Islam is based on (the following) five (principles) - (i) 'there is no (real) god except Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) and Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is Allah's Apostle, (ii) to offer Salah ( prayers) dutifully and perfectly, (iii) to pay Zakat (Islamic charity), (iv) to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makka), and (v) to observe fast during the month of Ramadhan. (Bukhari Book 2 Hadith 7 )
Allah (SWT) created Angels from "Nur" (light). They are responsible for various tasks in the cosmosThe World of Angels
The world of Angles is also known as ‘the world of souls' (Aalam-e-Arwah) and ‘the world of command’ (Aalam-e-Amr).The soul (rooh) has seven basic attributes; Life, Knowledge, Will, Power, Hearing, Seeing, and Speech.
The World of souls is pure from ‘form’, ‘space’, ‘period’, 'traces of appearance', 'age', 'shape' and ‘weight’.
Unlike our creation in the world of manifestation (Aalam-e-Shahadah) where we acquire skills and proficiency gradually, (we are born, we grow gradually and reach to the zenith of knowledge and expertise later in our old age), the creation of angels is instantaneous. Meaning, the moment an angel is born, he becomes proficient in everything that was required of him.
There is no age (in the history of creations) when the angels were not there. Therefore, their creation is ‘timeless antiquity’ (Dahri). Meaning we cannot prescribe a time frame for their creation.
It is not like ours, which is ‘periodic antiquity’ (Zamani). Meaning, we can prescribe a time frame of our creation. Like, the grand father is born first, followed by the son and then the grand son.
The Unity of Allah (SWT) is eternal antiquity (Sarmadi). Meaning, there is no one before Allah (SWT).
It is in Quran – ‘And our command is but an instantaneous single word like the twinkling of an eye’. (Al-Qamar – 50).
It is in Quran - ‘ Say O’Prophet (SAWS) the soul is of the command of my Sustainer’. (Bani Isra’el – 85).
It is in Quran - ‘ And when Allah (SWT) wants to decree His behest, He only says ‘Be’, and there it is (the thing comes into existence).’ (Aal-e-Imraan – 47).
Angels are responsible for various types of assignments. (1) Angels who are busy is special prayers to Allah (SWT). (2) Angels who are responsible for various works in the Cosmos.
There are 4 Honorable Resolute Angels; as follows.
Hazrat Jibreel (AS) is Allah’s (SWT) Personal Assistant and nucleus of knowledge in the Cosmos. He has been responsible to bring revelations to all Prophets from Allah (SWT). He is very active and chief architect of major works.
Hazrat Micha’el (AS) is the nucleus of Subsistence in the Cosmos. His primary responsibility is rainfall on planet Earth.
Hazrat Israfeel (AS) is the nucleus of Life in the Cosmos. His primary responsibilities include arrangements of the Day of Resurrection.
Hazrat Izra’el (AS) is the nucleus of Allah’s (SWT) Wrath (Qahar) in the Cosmos. His primary responsibility is to cease the souls of human beings when they die.
There are innumerable subordinate angels who work under the 4 Resolute Angels.
Various assignments of Angels have been mentioned in Quran. Following Quranic verses specify some of these assignments.
It is in Quran – ‘Who is an enemy to Allah (SWT), and His angels and His messengers, and Jibreel (AS) and Michael (AS)! Then, look! Allah -SWT (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers'. (Al-Baqara – 98).
It is in Quran - 'Say (O’ Mohammad - SAWS, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Jibreel (AS)! For he it is who has revealed (this Scripture - Quran) to your heart by Allah's (SWT) assent, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers’. (Al-Baqara – 97).
It is in Quran – '(Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (shoulder, to note his or her actions) . Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it)'. (Qaaf – 17-18).
It is in Quran – ‘Yes, if you hold on to patience and piety, and the enemy comes rushing at you; your Lord will help you with five thousand angels having marks (of distinction)'. (Aal-e-Imraan – 125).
It is in Quran – 'The night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months. Therein descend the angels and the Rooh (Jibreel -AS) on Allah's (SWT) behest with all Decrees. Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allah - SWT) to the believers) until the appearance of dawn. (Al-Qadar – 3-5).
In addition, angels are responsible for works in Heaven, Hell and for various works related to Cosmic Administration. Angles are appointed for providing comforts or torment to human beings after their death. There are various Ahadith giving details of Angels' assignments. Concerned books can be studied for details.
We believe in all the books that have been revealed to the Apostles of Allah (SWT).It is in Quran - " Say - We believe in Allah (SWT) and that which has been sent down on us (Quran), and sent down on Abraham (Ibrahim -AS) and Ishmael (Isma'eel - AS) , Isaac (Is-haq -AS) and Jacob (Ya'qub -AS) , and the Tribes, and in that which was given to Moses (Moosa -AS) and Jesus (Isa -AS) , and the prophets, of their Lord; we make no division between any of them". (Al-Baqara - 136)It is in Quran - "This is the book in which there is guidance, without doubt, for those who fear Allah (SWT)". (Al-Baqara - 2).
It is in Quran - "We (Allah - SWT) have revealed Quran and We only will preserve it." (Al-Hajr - 9)It is a word (speech) of Allah (SWT) revealed on Prophet Mohammad's (SAWS) heart. Quran is not a creation of Allah (SWT), as believed by Mua'tazila sect. It contains 114 chapters covering many subjects. It was revealed over a period of 23 years. Quran is the only Divine Book that has been preserved in its original form. Not even a vowel sign of a word has been changed in it over a period of 1,440 years. It is indeed guidance to the entire mankind till the Day of Resurrection.Allah (SWT) also sent down His (scriptures) to some of His Messengers for guidance to their nations. These scriptures are known as "Kitab" (larger scripture) and "Sahifa" (smaller scripture).The following are the 4 books revealed by Allah (SWT) to His Apostles.
- Torah (Tawrat) was revealed to Prophet Moses ( Musa AS ).
- Psalms (Zabur) was revealed to Prophet David (Dawood - AS).
- Gospels (Injil) was revealed to Prophet Jesus (Isa -AS).
- Quran, the final book was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (SAWS).
In addition, Sahifas were revealed to Prophet Ibrahim (AS).It is in Quran - "Or, has he not been informed of what is in the scriptures of Musa (AS)? And (of) Ibrahim (AS) who fulfilled (the commandments)" (An-Najm - 36)
We believe in all Prophets who are mentioned in Quran and Sahih Ahadith. All of them have communicated the same message. The religions of all the Prophets is same which is monotheism (one-ness) of Almighty. There are no differences of teachings among prophets with regard to Allah (SWT) because all of them are honest and Allah (TSA) is the same who is there from the beginning and who will remain existent for ever.
We believe in the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment. There are many Quranic verses and Ahadith giving details about Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.
It is in Quran - "Whatsoever is on it (earth) will perish." (Ar-Rahman -26)
When there are no Awliya Allah left on the Planet earth, Allah (SWT) will call it a Day. No one knows about the Day of Resurrection except Allah (SWT). However, there are Ahadith and Quranic verses that indicate the circumstances in which the end of the world will happen.We will have to answer for our deeds to Allah (SWT) on the Day of Judgment. We believe, real Muslims will see Allah (SWT) on the Day of Judgment. We believe in 'Sirath' (the bridge) on which everyone will be required to walk on the Day of Judgment. We believe in Hell and Paradise as these have been described in Quran and Ahadith. We believe some people will be awarded Jannah from the beneficence of Allah (SWT) and some will realize that they deserved punishment of Fire in view of their faithlessness and evil deeds.In short, we believe in everything about the Last Day; about the things we know and about the things which are known to Allah (SWT) and His Apostle Mohammad (SAWS).
We believe in Life after Death. We believe in the Questions of two Angels in Grave after our dead bodies are buried. We believe in the torment of Grave and the life of Burzakh (Life after Death). We believe in Fateha and Eithaal-e-thawaab. It is established from Sahih Ahadith that Prophet Mohammad (SAWS) visited the graves of Sahaba, therefore it is Sunnah to visit the graves of dead believers and Awliya Allah.We believe in everything about the Life of Barzakh as known to Allah (SWT) and His Apostel Mohammad (SAWS).
Everything in this Cosmos is being run in a systematic and organized manner. There is no mismanagement or discrepancy in the happenings of this world. Allah (SWT) is aware of His creatures before they were created from His command "Be".
The Universal Administration and its happenings, one after the other in a sequence, are known as "Destiny (Qadar )".
There are two facets of Destiny; (i) With reference to Allah (SWT) and (ii) With reference to Human Beings.
We will explain this issue with an example.
When we appear in an examination, we do not know how much percentage of marks (or grade) we will get till the outcome of its result. Sometimes it happens that the result is as per our expectation, sometimes the result is close to our expectations and sometimes it is totally against our expectation.
Similarly, in a world cup final football match we do not know the outcome, until the match is over. Sometimes it so happens that a very strong and favorite team looses the Cup in Penalty shoot out. At that time we say it destiny.
Let us find out what actually happens.
In both the above instances there are causes that need to happen to decide the outcome.
Like in our exam, what are the causes that can affect our results?
The causes are (i) our study and preparation in the subject, (ii) our freshness and confidence on the day of exam, (iii) our reaching the Exam Center well before the commencement of exam, (iv) nothing untoward incident should happen to us on the way to exam center, (v) our mental abilities working 100% on that day to grasp the questions fast, (vi) the safety of our answer sheets at the exam center, (viii) our answer sheets corrected by a broad minded evaluator who should be in a jolly mood while correcting our answer sheets, (ix) correct tabulation of our marks/grades by the computer operator, (x) honest officials overlooking the results, (xi) an efficient computer program and printing facility at the University / Education Board to publish our results, etc.
If all the above causes work 100% positively, we get an outstanding result, may be we will get a gold medal. If some of the causes work positively and some negatively, it affects our results accordingly.
When the cause (or causes) work favorably for a positive outcome of a work, we term it as 'complementary cause' (illat-e-mutammim); meaning the cause has complemented the positive outcome of our effort/work.
When the cause (or causes) work unfavorably for the negative outcome of a work, we term it as 'impediment cause' (illat-e-ma'ane), meaning the cause has resulted in the negative outcome of our effort/work.
A destiny (Qadar) about which nothing is clearly known is called 'Pending fate' (Qadha-e-Mu'allaq).
By 'complementary cause', or 'impediment cause' when the thing becomes clear, it is known as 'Inevitable fate' (Qadha-e-Mubram).
'Inevitable fate' is also known as "Destiny" (Qadar). And 'Pending Fate' is also known as "Fate" (Qadha).
With reference to Allah (SWT) everything is 'Destiny' or Inevitable fate. Some people call it predestination. And with reference to Human beings, it is 'Fate' or Pending fate; meaning we generally do not know what is in our "fate".
However, we have been taught about the "positive causes", and warned about the "negative causes" which effect our fate. This is the reason, Prophet Mohammad (SAWS) emphasized all of us to undertake good deeds.
What are good deeds? These are positive causes that may effect our fate in this world and in Hereafter. We are required to strive in the way of Allah (SWT) and expect good results. But we are told that we need to depend totally upon Allah's (SWT) mercy for positive outcome of our efforts. We should not say that because of our efforts, we got certain thing. Rather we should say that because of Allah's (SWT) mercy and Hidaya we were able to do good work and it is Allah (SWT) who has accepted our work and rewarded us with this thing.
We are also taught to accept the 'inevitable fate' or destiny without any complaints.
These issues are part of the subject of Ihsan. Be in the company of Sufi Shaikhs, they will insha-Allah lead you to the straight path of Islam.
Some people misunderstand the meaning of Destiny and become lazy. When you ask them to get up and work for the welfare of themselves, their families and community, they say that whatever is destined for us will happen and we cannot change anything in this world. This disease is more common in misguided Sufis and among people who misunderstand teachings of great Sufi Shaikhs of Ihsan. They should find a right teacher to learn true Islamic facts.
It is in Quran - "Human being gets what he strives for. Man sees the result of his efforts" (An Najm 39-40)
It is in Quran - Whoever does a good deed, it will be better for (His) self. And whoever does bad, it will cause loss to him (Ha-Meem - 46).
It is in Hadith - (Tirmidhi) Prophet (SAWS) replied to a person who asked him - "Should I leave my camel untied and trust in Allah?" The Prophet (SAWS) said, "Tie it and trust in Allah (SWT).”
It is in Quran - "Allah (SWT) erases whatever He wishes and leaves whatever He wishes. He has the mother (original) of all the Books. (Ar-Ra'd - 39).
The meaning of "Mother of all books", is Allah's (SWT) Knowledge (Ilm-e-Elahi). Some people say it is 'Divine Tablet' (Lauh-e-Mahfooz). All the things which will appear or not appear in this cosmos are their in Allah's (SWT) knowledge.
What should we do in the light of the above verse?
We should do good deeds and pray earnestly that even if some bad is written in our fate, let Allah (SWT) erase it with His Mercy or change the bad into good. If torment is written in our fate in Hereafter, let Allah (SWT) change it into recompense from His Mercy. Remember, only our "Dua" can become (insha-Allah) the cause of changing our fate from bad into good. So, dear brothers and sisters don't stop from striving in this world and have faith in Allah (SWT) and His Apostle (SAWS). Insha-Allah, you will get the rewards of Allah (SWT) in abundance, in this world and in Hereafter.
Allah (SWT) is absolutely virtuous. Whatever is happening in the cosmos is as per the prior knowledge of Allah (SWT) and is therefore virtuous.
What is evil?
A thing could be virtuous for a certain thing and evil for another. Like a tiger killing a deer is virtuous for tiger because if he does not kill the deer, he will die of hunger. But the same act is evil for the deer.
How do we understand the following 3 verses of Quran?
(i) It is in Quran - "Laha ma kasabath wa alaiha maktasabath" (Meaning - The servant gets good of the virtue he earned and he suffers for the evil he earned". (Al-Baqara - 286).
(ii) It is in Quran - "Ma asabaka min hasanatin fa minallahi vamaa asabaka min sayyi'atin famin nafsik" (Meaning - Evil is from servant and virtue is from Allah (SWT)".
(iii) It is in Quran - "Qul kullun min indallah" (Meaning - Say O'Prophet -SAWS, Everything is from Allah (SWT). (An-Nisa - 78).
Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (r) has mentioned about this issue in his book "Islamic Wisdom". I am explaining this issue here based on Shaikh Siddiqui's (r) explanation.
Understanding of verse No. (i) - It is evident that we pray, we do fasting. But many of us also get involve in lie and back biting. Out of these, nothing can be attributed to Allah (SWT). Therefore, the virtue and evil concern with 'Servant', and not with Allah (SWT).
Understanding of verse No. (ii) - Everyone of us knows that the sunlight is coming evenly to everything on this planet. However when this sunlight hits different things, it gets reflected in accordance with the capacities of these things. This is the reason we see the colorfulness of this Universe.
Similarly, when you go to a laughing gallery, the mirrors kept there show your images differently. Some mirror shows you very fat, some shows you abnormally tall and some shows you upside down. The problem is not in the sun or in your viewing. It is because of the mirrors that are showing different shapes.
In the same way, Allah's (SWT) bestowal is reaching to everyone. Some people are using it properly, as per the guidance provided in Quran and Sunnah while others are misusing these bestowals and are getting involved in all kinds of sins.
Thus, it is proved that the virtue is from Allah (SWT) and evil is from servants.
Understanding of verse No. (iii) - We all know that everything in this cosmos is appearing after Allah's (SWT) command "Be". Meaning, Allah (SWT) is the creator of all the things in this cosmos. Unless He commands "Be", neither we can come into existence, nor our deeds. Thus, in the bestowal of being (Ata-e-Wajood), everything is dependent upon Allah (SWT). This is the meaning of "Qul Kullun min indallah" (Say O'Prophet (SAWS) everything is from Allah (SWT).
With the above explanations, it is clear that we need to understand Quranic verses in their proper perspective. We believe in Quran and all Ahadith books. By reading certain verses which apparently describe creature like attributes, you should not start saying that (Nauzubillahi), Allah (SWT) has hands, face, eyes, body and other limbs. This kind of understanding of Quran will lead you to go astray.
O’ Allah (swt), kindly reveal the facts of things, as they are, and keep us Muslim while dying and unite us with the group of righteous people for the sake of the happiness of your beloved Prophet Mohammad (saws).