CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

HISTORY OF ISLAM

CORRECT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE TRIBULATIONS THAT STRUCK ISLAMIC NATION DURING 632-80

 

PART 2

SHIA CONFUSION IN CALIPHATE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The misunderstanding about the issue of Caliphate resulted in the first division in Muslims ranks.  History records that it was the beginning of the emergence of two extreme Groups among Muslims, (i) Shia, and (ii) Kharijis (present day Salafis).  Shia groups claim excessive love of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and members of Ahle Bait and in the process use abusive language for the majority of Sahabah.  Kharijis/Salafis hide their hate for Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and other members of Ahle Bait, but openly hold them responsible for the early tribulations in Islamic State. They show a lot of respect towards the enemies of Ahle Bait and try to degrade the respect of members of Ahle Bait in the eyes of the people.     

The majority of the people among Muslims are Ahle Sunnah wal Jamaa,  who walk on the middle path. 

The issue of Caliphate is very important in Islam because a slight misunderstanding will have profound affect on your Sahih Iman. It is important that Ahle Sunnah safeguard their  Iman from extreme opinions of Shias, Salafis and their like minded groups. 

We have described facts as contained in authentic History books/Islamic literature. Ahadith, Quranic verses and scholars' opinions have been cited all through the article. We have refrained from expressing our personal opinions.  Please note that the article  is aimed at clearing the misunderstanding on historical issues. We hope our readers will greatly benefit from this effort. 

There are 13 articles in this series which cover various misunderstandings and differences of opinions about the happenings during 50 years, immediately after the death of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  For better understanding, it is important that you read these articles in the same sequence, from part 1 to 13.  

     

 

The first groups who alienated themselves from the mainstream Islam and formed  separate  sects were Shias and Kharijites (currently Salafis and their like minded groups).   
 
Shias regard Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as divinely appointed legitimate successor of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and disregard and denounce the first three rightly guided Caliphs (Khulfa-e-Rashideen) (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) as usurpers of power. For them the first three Kulfa-e-Rashideen (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) were politically motivated and denied Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) his rightful position  in Islamic Government (Astaghfiruallah).

Shias have altered Islamic 'Shahadah' (Kalima Tayyiba) and have included the name of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as the successor of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and  first Caliph.

Shia Shahadah There is no god but Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Messenger of Allah;  Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is the Friend of Allah, the successor of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his first Caliph".

The above Shahadah implies that one has to believe that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the successor of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the first rightful Caliph of Islam.  This way one has to deny the Caliphate of three rightful Caliphs of Islam as wrong.  The Shia Shahadah also implies that the three rightful Caliphs (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین ) were wrong doers (Nauzubillahi). 

Khomeini, in his book 'Kashful Asrar' (pages 119-20) has written the following.

Quote - "From the examples I (Khomeini) have given, it shows that the Shaikhs Abu Bakr and Umar (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم)  had acted against the Quran. For these people to behave in such a manner amongst the Muslims was not surprising. The Muslims (Sahaba) were also in such a state that they were either part of the same group (Abu Bakr and Umar -  رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم) or they had similar intentions of becoming the government in power.

If they (the Muslims) did not side them (Abu Bakr and Umar -  رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم) then it was certain that they did not have the courage to speak out against those who behaved badly towards Rasoolullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his beloved daughter (Fathima - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) .
In short, even if mention was made in the Quran in clear words on this matter (the succession of Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ - as Caliph), they would not have changed their intentions, and even at the Command of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) they would not have given up the seat (of Government). Unquote.  

Ask any Ahle Sunnah Mufti about the above beliefs, he will say that whoever believes that Khulfa-e-Rashideen (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین ) were wrong doers and denounces them in such a derogatory language, he will be treated as out of Islam.  Read more about Shia Groups.

 

Authentic accounts from Islamic History have recorded that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was never an eager contestant for the Caliphate. As a matter of fact, no one from among the Khulafa-e-Rashideen was an eager contestant for the Caliphate.  The Caliphate was entrusted to them by the people as they were best suited to shoulder this important responsibility.

It is wrong to say that Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) right of Caliphate was usurped. 

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Sa'eed Ibn Amr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - On the day of the battle of the Camel Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: “In truth, Allah’s Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) did not give us a covenant concerning leadership (after him), but we did see something on our own (concerning his preference). Then Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was made to follow him, and he kept to a righteous path, then Hadhrat Umar, (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and he kept to a righteous path, then the Religion was stabbed in the throat (with the killing of Hadhrat Uthman - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).” (Ahmed)

Several accounts of Islamic history and literature have documented that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  resisted to take up the responsibility of Caliphate for a long time.  He eventually accepted it after Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) martyrdom when he was forced by the people under compulsive circumstances.

It is in Hadith - Allegiance was pledged to Hadhrat Ali  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) just after the assassination of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) did not like to be the successor of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). Thus, he refused this responsibility, but he was pressured and urged by the Companions to accept it. Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said " I nearly lost my senses when I heard of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and I denied myself. When they came to me to pledge allegiance, I said, 'By Allah! I feel ashamed in front of Allah to accept the allegiance of people who killed a man of whom the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: "Shouldn't I be shy of a man before whom even the angels are ashamed?" and while  Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is murdered and is still lying on the ground and has not yet been buried." At this, they left until after the burial.

"They came to me again and asked me to accept their allegiance. I said, 'O Allah! Indeed I am anxious and afraid of what I am about to undertake. Then a group came and pledged allegiance. When they said, 'O Leader of the Believers!' it was as if my heart was stricken. Then I said, 'O Allah! Take from me and give to  Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) until you are pleased".

(Narrated by Al-Hakim, who said it was sound and that it fits the conditions set by Bukhari and Muslim. ad-Dahabi agreed with Al-Hakim).

 

Shias have cooked up stories about the fact that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) pledged allegiance on the hands of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) later than other Sahabah. They also claim that the Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was prevented  by Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to write a will appointing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as his successor.  They also claim that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) proclaimed Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as his successor in Ghadir Khumm. We have discussed these claims in the following and have provided conclusive evidence that all these are cooked up stories to create misgivings in peoples' minds about the conduct of Khulafa e Rashideen, Sahabah and Ahle Bait e At haar.     

 

(1) THE ISSUE OF FADAK  ( فدك‎  )

Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) received three things exclusively for himself when booties of various battles were distributed among Muslims. These were (1) Abandoned property of Banu an-Nadir, (2) Khaybar,  and (3) Fadak.  The Banu an-Nadir property was kept for his emergent needs, Fadak for travelers, and Khaybar was divided by him into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family.  If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor emigrants.

Shias claim that after the death of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) claimed the ownership of the Orchard at Khybar which was kept for the contribution for Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) family.  It is reported that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) had bequeathed this property to Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) during his life time.

The difference of opinion among Sahabah occurred after the death of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) when all his belongings, were treated as public property by Caliph Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

It is in Hadith - Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "Verily, the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, 'We do not leave inheritance, what we leave goes into sadaqah.' Verily, the members of Prophet’s ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) family will get provision from this money. By Allah! I shall not change the distribution of the sadaqah of the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) from what it was in the time of Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). I shall continue to spend them under the same heads as the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was spending." (Muslim)

It is in Hadith  - Narrated by Urwah Ibn Zubayr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) from Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), She said  "... So far as the charitable endowments at Medina were concerned, 'Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) handed them over to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), but Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  (naturally) got the better of him. And as far as Khaibar and Fadak were concerned, Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) kept them under him (under the Caliphate), and said: These are the endowments of the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) (to the Ummah). Their income was spent on the discharge of the responsibilities that devolved upon him on the emergencies he had to meet. And their management was to be in the hands of one who managed the affairs (of the Islamic State). The narrator said: They have been managed as such up to this day.  (Muslim).

There are more Ahadith in this context.  When we study all these Ahadith, it is very much clear that the dispute was only limited to the title of certain properties  as public or private.  However, the usage of those properties was never disputed by any one.  The income from those properties was continued to be handed over to the same recipients as was done during the Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) time. This policy was continued under all the  three Caliphs before Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) became the Caliph, he continued the policy of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  and Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and these properties remained titled as "Public".  So where is the dispute and why it should be treated as a dispute between Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  These are historical facts sufficient to establish that the Shia claim of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) holding up his pledge of allegiance to the Caliph Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in view of his dispute over a property is absurd and malicious.   

There were three pressing reasons why Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) kept aloof from the worldly issues for a few months, after the death of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). 

(i) The death of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was a great shock for Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), particularly as he was responsible for the last rights of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )

(ii) The shock of the Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) death also shattered Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) to an extent that she fell seriously ill and never recovered from it. Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) entire household was in a state of shock and the fast deteriorating condition of Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was another serious blow to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  He did not want to loose her so soon after the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and Sayyida Fatimah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) were very dear to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and their loss, one after the other, was unbearable and unmanageable for him.  He was unable to focus on anything except to care for his ailing beloved wife and praying for her recovery. This fact  was known to everyone in Madina, therefore Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and other dignitaries did not bother him for the Caliphate issues and waited until the situation at his home comes back to normal.  In spite of Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) personal care and full time attention, Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) died of her ailment within months.

(iii) In addition to the care and attention Sayyid Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) needed during her ailment, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was also busy in collecting all parts of Quran for preservation.  He realized the importance of this task and had taken a woe at the time of Prophet's  ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) death that he will not do anything else until he collects all parts of Quran and preserves it for future generations.

The above issues were more important and urgent for Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) which required his full time attention.  These facts are recorded in Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd, the famous book on History of Islam, as follows:  

"When Hadrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) inquired of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) why he was so late in taking public pledge of Caliphate?  Did he dislike his (Hadhrat Abu Bakr - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate?  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied "I do not dislike your Caliphate but the fact is that I had taken an oath after the death of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) not to put on my sheet (meaning get engaged in any work) except for performing Salah until I have collected all the parts of Qur'an." Then Hadrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) publicly took pledge on the hand of Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and helped him throughout his Caliphate. He was very active during the time of Hadrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and also married his daughter, Umm-e-Kulthum (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) to him. In the matter of Hadrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) election he voted in Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) favor." (Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd)


Hadrat Ali
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was member of the core Group 'Majlis e Shura'  (Advisory Council) and also Jurist of Madina during the time of all his predecessor Caliphs.  He was also among the panel of six Sahabah who were responsible to select a Caliph after Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) death. Hadrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had great regard for him and consulted him in all issues related to the Caliphate. He sent his sons; Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  to guard Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) residence when the rebels laid siege to his house.

 

(2) THE ISSUE OF PEN AND PAPER 

Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was not well for about 15 days before his death. During this time his condition gradually deteriorated.  He had high fever, severe headache and some fainting spells.  The incident of 'Pen and Paper' occurred during this period.

On Thursday, June 8, 632;  4 days before his death, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) asked for a pen and paper in order to write down some religious advice for Muslims. However, immediately after asking for the pen and paper, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) fainted and became unconscious. While the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) lay unconscious, a person among the people in attendance,  got up to get the pen and paper.  Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked him to wait and prevented him from bothering the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) as he had fainted. On this, the people attending the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) got divided.  Some said they should obey the Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) instructions, some others said,  looking at the condition of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), they should wait till the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) recovers a little and is able to write/dictate something. Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said "the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) is seriously ill and you have Quran (from which we should be able to deduce what the Prophet  -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  is intending to say now). In Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) opinion, "the Book of Alah (and Prophet's صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  Sunnah throughout his life) is enough for us, and we should avoid bothering the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) in this critical condition". However, the view of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was disputed by some Sahabah who felt that  they should get the pen and paper and that they should implore the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) to write for them  so that "Allah’s Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him". The difference of opinion became a subject of debate between the Sahabah which resulted in loud arguments and counter arguments and a cause of disturbance to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Among this disturbance, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) regained consciousness and the voices of Sahabah were painful for him as he had severe headache.  He asked all of them to go away from the room. 

This episode is described in many Ahadith books.  We are providing below some Ahadith from Bukhari and Muslim for our readers.

(1) It is in Hadith - Narrated Sa'eed bin Jubair (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, “Thursday! What (an unforgetable thing) took place on Thursday!” Then he started weeping till his tears wet the gravel of the ground. Then he said, “On Thursday the illness of Allah’s Apostle  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was aggravated and he said, “Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray.” The people (present there) differed in this matter and people should not differ before a Prophet. They said, “Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is seriously sick.” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, “Let me be alone, as the state in which I am now, is better than what you are calling me for.” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, “Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them.” I forgot the third (order)” (Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 288)

(2) It is in Hadith - Narrated Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): When Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was Umar bin Al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, “Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.” Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is seriously ill  and you have the Quran; so the Book of Allah is enough for us.” The people present in the house differed and quarreled. Some said “Go near so that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray,” while the others said as Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Allah’s Apostle said, “Go away!” Narrated Ubaidullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, “It was very unfortunate that Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise.” ( Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 70, Number 573 )

(3) It is in Hadith - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: The illness of Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took a serious turn (on Thursday), and he said: “Come to me, so that I should write for you a document that you may not go astray after me.” They (the Companions around him) disputed, and it is not right to dispute in the presence of the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). They said: “How is (Allah’s Apostle - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? Has he lost his consciousness? Try to learn from him (the condition).” He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم said: “Leave me. I am better in the state (than the one in which you are engaged). I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality. He (the narrator) said: He (Ibn Abbas - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) said: But I forgot that. (Muslim, Book 013, Number 4014)

(4) It is in Hadith - Narrated Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  When the ailment of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) got aggravated, he became unconscious whereupon Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) said, "Oh, how distressed my father is!  He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, "Your father will have no more distress after today .. (Part of the Hadith) (Bukhari, Book 5, Hadith # 739)  

 

When we read the above Ahadith, we realize that the opinion of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was very much natural and an act of utmost concern for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). It was not appropriate to bother the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in that critical condition.  It was important to let the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) recuperate a little, be able to write something, then the pen and paper is brought to him.

The Shias try to create a storm in a tea cup, make 'the Mount Everest' out of a mustard seed. They claim that Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rebelled (Astaghfirullah) against the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and prevented him from writing his 'will' in which he was going to appoint Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as his successor. They write books on this episode adding all cooked up material to mislead masses. If the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) really wanted to write a will appointing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as his successor, then he had 4 full days to do so.  After 'Thursday', he never asked people to bring him the pen and paper again.  Also, he gave three specific instructions anyway, which are described in the above Ahadith.  

Look at a similar episode. Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was assigned to write the Treaty of Hudaibiya. When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to erase the words "Mohammad Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)" and replace them with Mohammad Ibn Abdullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)" as per the unreasonable demand of Makkan Pagans headed by Abu Sufyan (who later became Muslim after the conquest of Makka), Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) refused to do so out of his love and commitment to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his mission. When Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was not willing to erase those words, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took the paper from his hands and erased it himself and wrote Mohammad Ibn Abdullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and signed the treaty (Bukhari, Vol 3, Book 49, # 862).  In this episode, not adhering to the instructions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was a show of love and concern for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his mission.

There is another incident when Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) acted against the specific command of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), but it was an act of utmost respect of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

It is in Hadith - Narrated Sahl bin Sad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : There was a dispute amongst the people of the tribe of Bani Amr bin Awf. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went to them along with some of his companions in order to make peace between them. The time for the prayer became due but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not turn up; Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) pronounced the Adhan for the prayer but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not turn up, so Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) went to Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and said, "The time for the prayer is due and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is detained, would you lead the people in the prayer?" Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied, "Yes, you wish." So, Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) pronounced the Iqama of the prayer and Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) went ahead (to lead the prayer), but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came walking among the rows till he joined the first row. The people started clapping and they clapped too much, and Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used not to look hither and thither in the prayer, but he turned round and saw the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) standing behind him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) beckoned him with his hand to keep on praying where he was. Abu Bakr  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) raised his hand and praised Allah and then retreated till he came in the (first) row, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went ahead and lead the people in the prayer. When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) finished the prayer, he turned towards the people and said, "O people! When something happens to you during the prayer, you start clapping. Really clapping is (permissible) for women only. If something happens to one of you in his prayer, he should say: 'Subhan Allah', (Glorified be Allah), for whoever hears him (saying so) will direct his attention towards him. O'Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)! What prevented you from leading the people in the prayer when I beckoned to you (to continue)?" Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied, "It did not befit the son of Abu Quhafa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to lead the prayer in front of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). (Bukhari, Vol 3, Book 49, # 855)

 

Also, during the illness of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he asked his attendants not to administer him medicines.  He hated those medicines and asked people to avoid them.  In spite of that his attendants mixed these medicines in water, in food and sometimes administered him orally without his consent.  These acts are not treated as a defiance.  These are  show of concern and love of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Let our Shia brothers consider this example. Ayatollah Khomeini’s illness before his death lasted eleven days during which he was hospitalized. His  followers emptied out his hospital room and did not trouble him with the concerns of the State. No man was allowed to disturb him or pester him, even though the political situation at that time very much demanded his advise and instructions. How is it then that our Shia brothers would like Ayatollah Khomeini to be treated with more courtesy than the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? We hope this issue is clear to everyone now.

There is another version of the above episode. 

It is in Hadith - Reported by Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked for a paper and pen to write something very important before his death. 

Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was not sure if the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) will be alive before he brings the pen and paper.  Therefore, he asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to tell him about it verbally so that he can convey it to people.

Then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, I ask you all to take care of Salah and Zakat and treat your slaves kindly. (Ahmed )

 

(3) THE ISSUE OF GHADIR KHUMM  غدیر الخم  )

(a) Shia misrepresentation of Facts

Shias claim that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was divinely appointed as Caliph and Successor to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) at Ghadir khumm, therefore, the caliphate of three Khulafa e Rashideen, before Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was illegal and usurped. The following is the Shia version of Ghadir Khumm. 

SHIA CLAIM : After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada), Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was leaving Makka toward Madina, where he and the crowd of people reached a place called Ghadir Khumm. It was a place where people from different provinces used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes.  In this place, the following verse of the Quran was revealed:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ  (O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people)” (Al-Maeda - 67) 

The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from people. Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as the leader of the Muslim Ummah. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) held up the hand of  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and said:

" من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه [For whoever I am his Leader (Mawla), ‘Ali is his Leader (Mawla)]."

Immediately after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) finished his speech, the following verse of Quran was revealed:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا  (Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favor upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion).” (Al-Maeda - 3)

The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) immediate successor. 

 

There are four points in the above Shia claim, as follows. 

(1) After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada), Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was leaving Makka towards Madina, where he and the crowd of people reached a place called Ghadir Khumm.  Ghadir Khumm was a place where people from different provinces used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes. Meaning everyone who performed Hajj with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) accompanied him till Ghadir Khumm.

(2) At Ghadir Khumm, a Quranic verse was revealed asking asking the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to announce the Leadership/Caliphate of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) after him.  In the Quranic verse, Allah assured the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) not to worry about his people, how they will react after the announcement, as He will protect him from them  after the announcement.

(3) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announced the leadership of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on this place after the verse was revealed.  

(4) After the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announcement, another Quranic verse was revealed announcing the completion of religion.

We have discussed these points below to see if Shia are truthful in their claims.

 

(1) Ghadir Khumm is located in Rabigh Vally, Hejaz, Arabian Peninsula.  During Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time there was a pond formed by a spring at this place.  

 Ghadir Khumm was located at roughly 180 kilometers from both Makka and Madina on the route between Syria and Yemen where travelers used to replenish their drinking water supplies in order to survive in the desert.  Shias claim that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announced Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to be his successor at this place in front of the huge crowd  who had performed Hajj with him. 

 

The claim of Shias that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announced in front of the all the people who performed Hajj is false, because he did not instruct people to accompany him to Ghadhir Khumm.  Hajj was performed in Makka and after the Hajj, a large number of people went back to their homes in Makka, Taif, Yemen and other areas south of Makka. Madina is in the north of Makka. The people who were the residents of Madina or probably Syria, accompanied the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) till Ghadir Khumm. Thus, not everyone who performed Hajj was with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) at Ghadir Khumm.  The announcement was made in front to a fraction of the crowd who had performed Hajj with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

(2) Shias claim that when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) reached Ghadir Khumm, the following Quranic verse was revealed.  

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ  (O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people)” (Al-Maeda - 67)

Above claim is not based on facts. Shias do not write the full verse which would make the whole issue clear. The following is the full text of the verse.

 يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ (O'Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people. Verily, Allah guides not the people who are kuffar.)” (Al-Maeda - 67).

Shias write only three parts of the above Quranic verse, and claim that  in the Quranic verse, Allah assured the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) not to worry about his people (Muslim Ummah), as to how they will take the announcement as He (Allah) will protect him from them after the announcement. 

When we read the fourth part of that verse, it says :  إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ  (Allah does not guide the people who are unbelievers).  When we read the whole verse, we know that this verse was not meant for Muslims. It was meant for Kuffar.  Shia hide the last part of the verse, and impose it on Muslims and relate it to the announcement of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Ghadir Khumm. 

If you read a verse in Quran before the above verse, you will know for whom this verse was revealed. We have provided below both these verses together.

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِم مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِم ۚ مِّنْهُمْ أُمَّةٌ مُّقْتَصِدَةٌ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَعْمَلُونَ    ( And if they had kept up the Taurat and the Injeel and that which was revealed to them from their Lord, they would certainly have eaten from above them and from beneath their feet, there is a party of them keeping to the moderate course, and (as for) most of them, evil is that which they do) (Al-Maeda - 66)

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ (O'Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people. Verily, Allah guides not the people who are kuffar.)” (Al-Maeda - 67).

When you read both the verses together, you will know the reference to context of these verses.  These verses were revealed with reference to Jews and Christians of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  time, and were not meant for Muslims, as claimed by Shias. Allah is commanding the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to proclaim Islamic faith fearlessly; assuring him divine protection against the conspiracies of  Jews and Christians. Since the episode of Ghadir Khumm is completely unrelated with the subject matter of these verses, there is strong likelihood that these verses were revealed at another place, in another context.     

(3) Shias also claim that one more verse was revealed at Ghadir Khumm after the announcement of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) appointing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as leader of Ummah.

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا  (Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion).” (Al-Maeda - 3)

Shias say:  'the above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) immediate successor'.

However, authentic Ahadith narrated in trusted Ahadith books like Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Nasai, etc., confirm the fact that this verse was revealed at Arafa, during Hajj when Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had finished his farewell sermon.

It is in Hadith - Narrated Tariq bin Shihab , "A Jewish man said to Hadhrat Umar, `O Leader of the Believers! There is a verse in your Book, which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of celebration.' `Umar bin Al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked, `Which is that verse' The Jew replied;

 الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا  (Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion).” (Al-Maeda - 3)

Umar replied, 'By Allah! I know when and where this verse was revealed to Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) . It was the evening on the Day of `Arafah on a Friday.' (Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Nasai).  Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Hassan bin Sabbah from Ja'far bin Awn - رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم ).

Thus, it is clear that, the Shia claim,  that the verse was revealed in Ghadir Khumm after Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announcement, is not based on facts. They try to mislead people and sow the seeds of misgiving and hatred in people's minds about Sahabah.

(4) We have provided below,  Ahadith related to Ghadir Khumm. 

(i) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Zayd Ibn Arqam, S’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Buraida bin Husaib, Abu Ayyub al Ansari, Bara bin Azib, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Sa’eed and Abu Hurraira (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is his Mawla. O' Allah befriend those who befriend Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

[Ahmed (4-370), Ibn Hibban (2205), Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368) Haythami (9/104) Tirmidhi (2/298)]

(ii) It is in Hadith - Narrated Buraidah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - "I invaded Yemen with Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and I saw coldness from his part; so when I came (back) to the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and mentioned Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and criticized him, I saw the face of the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) change (in anger) and he said : 'O'Buraida (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), am I not closer to the believers than they are to themselves?' I said 'Yes O'Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )'.  He (then) said  'Whomsoever's Mawla I am, this Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is also his Mawla'.

(Musnad Ahmad - v5, p347, #22995 with a Sahih chain of transmission and all trustworthy [thiqa] narrators relied upon by Bukhari and Muslim; an-Nasa'i in Sunan al-Kubra - v5, p45, #8145; al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak - v3,  p119, # 4578; Abu Nu'aym; Ibn Jarir and others)

 

Shia claim that the meaning of 'Mawla' in the above Ahadith is 'Leader and Master' and therefore,  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was divinely appointed as Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) successor.  

Imam Shafi’i said with regards to Mawla in Hadith of Ghadir Khumm, it  is meant 'the bond of Islam'.

Al-Jazari said in an-Nihaayah - The word Mawla is frequently mentioned in Ahadith and it is applied in various meanings, like (1) Lord, (2) Owner, (3) Master, (4) Benefactor, (5) Who frees a slave, (6) Supporter, (7) Who loves another, (8) Follower, (9) Neighbor, (10) Cousin (son of paternal uncle), (11) Ally, (12) In-law, (13) Slave, (14) Freed slave, (15) To whom one has done a favor, etc.  Therefore, the word Mawla should be understood in the manner implied by the context of the Hadith in which it is mentioned.

 

We are Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a and we proclaim our unwavering faith in whatever meaning the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) implied while declaring Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as our Mawla. 

Yes, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is our Mawla, our Master, our Leader, our Benefactor, our Supporter and our Guide in both the worlds. Yes, indeed, he is one of the successors (Khulafa-e-Rashideen) of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), there is no doubt about it.  We believe in all Khulafa e Rashideen;  Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Hadhrat Umar, Hadhrat Uthman, Hadhrat Ali,  Hadhrat Hassan and Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین).  All of them are our masters, leaders and guides in both the worlds.

Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) sacrificed his life and life of  his family and friends in protecting الخلافه الراشده Khilafat-e-Rashida.  He showed us the highest standard of Islam; performed Salah while he had uncountable deep bleeding wounds on his body and asked his assassin to wait a few seconds until he finishes his Salah. His head was severed while he was in prostration in front of Allah.

We salute our Khulafa e Rashideen.  Following the footsteps of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), you all have shown us the straight path of Islam.

 

(b) Salafi Misrepresentation of Facts about Ghadir Khumm 

Salafis are famous for undermining the respect of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Ahle Bait in every way possible. They associate all human weakness with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and members of Ahle Bait in a glaring way and spend their life times in equating them with sinful human beings. But they refrain to do so with Ibn Taymiyyah, Abdul Wahhab and other Salafi scholars. They portray their scholars as saviors of Islam.   

Like Shias;  Salafis have also cooked up stories about Ghadir Khumm. They claim that Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) praise of Hadhart Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) at Ghadir Khumm was an attempt by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to console Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  

Read the following Hadith which is generally presented by Salafis in order to portray a bad picture of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and relate it with Ghadir Khumm.  

(i) It is in Hadith -Narrated Buraida (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) sent Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to Khalid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to bring the Khumus (1/5th of the war booty from Yemen expedition) and I hated Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had taken a bath. I said to Khalid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), "Don’t you see this (Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ taking a slave girl from the khumus )?" When we reached the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), I mentioned that to him. He (the Prophet -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, “O Buraida (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)! Do you hate Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Do you hate him, for he deserves more than that (more than a the slave girl) from the khumus." (Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, # 637)

The subject matter of the above Hadith has no relation with the   exclusive praise of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) at Ghadir Khumm.  

The issue of Khumus 

Some  members of the Army who had taken part in Yemen expedition under Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) command wanted to have a share of the Khumus (1/5th of war booty) before it was handed over to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). They demanded  bracelets, cloths and Camels. Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rejected these demands and cautioned the Army personnel about indiscipline in Army ranks.  He instructed them not to touch the khumus till it reaches the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) then travelled  to Makkah to join the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for Hajj.  The Army command was assigned to his deputy Abu Saeed (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). The Army was scheduled to follow Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) later  and perform Hajj with the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  When the Army arrived, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) went to receive them before they enter Makka. When he saw Army men riding the camels of the booty and using cloths and bracelets against his specific orders,  he was furious and asked them to return back everything so that it can be presented to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

After the Army reached Makkah, Buraida (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) complained to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) about Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) saying he stopped everyone from using the khumus, but he chose to take a slave girl from it. 

As detailed in the Hadith we mentioned earlier in this Article, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) showed a lot of unhappiness on Buraidah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on this kind of complaint.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) deserved much more than a slave girl from the Khumus. Seeing the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) unhappy, Buraidah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is reported to have said : "I wanted the Earth to split open for me so that I could be swallowed into it. Then I said, I seek refuge in Allah and I pleaded for Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) pardon".  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forgave him.

It is clear that the issue of khumus is totally unrelated  from the issue of  Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) praise of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  In Ghadir Khumm, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) delivered a speech in front of a large audience. During the entire speech he did not say a word about the war in Yemen or the distribution of its khumus. At the end of his speech, he took Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) hand into his hand and raised it and said - من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه (For whoever I am his Mawla, Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ is his  Mawla). [Ahmed (4-370), Ibn Hibban (2205), Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368) Haythami (9/104) Tirmidhi (2/298), etc.]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was never complacent in any issue whatsoever during his entire life.  But Salafis claim that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) meant to scare Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) detractors and showed his support to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in an attempt to console him against his detractors. Astaghfirullahal Azeem.

We all know that this kind of talk is a slander on the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). And indeed it is one of the many attempts of Salafis / Deobandis to demonize  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and other members of Ahle Bait.

 

KHULAFA-E-RASHIDEENالخلفاء الراشدين )  

 

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) indicated during his life time about the roles of Khulafa e Rashideen after him.  Ahadith books are full of praises of Khulafa e Rashideen.  There are specific Ahadith in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) indicated their roles as Caliphs after him.  Some of these Ahadith are given below.

 

(1) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Hudaifa and Ibn Mas'ud (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم):  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : "I don't know up till when I remain with you, so follow the ones (who will become Caliphs) after me. [Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) pointed towards Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)].  (Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Maja)

(2) It is in Hadith - Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) spoke from the pulpit in Kufa : "The best of this Community after its Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
 
(Narrated by Muhammad Ibn al-Hanafiyya - Bukhari, Abu Dawud;  Narrated by Abd Khayr - Ahmad; Narrated by Abdullah Ibn Salama - Ibn Majah; Narrated by Shurayh - Ibn Shadhan, al-Khatib, Ibn Abi Shayba, al-Lalika'i, Ibn Mandha, Ibn Asakir and others). Ad-Dhahabi said it is a mass narrated Hadith.
 

(3) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا): The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : "O `Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)! It may be that Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) shall vest you with a shirt. If they demand that you remove it, do not remove it. ( Ibn Hibban, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, all with sound chains).

Tirmidhi narration adds, "The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) repeated it three times." Another sound version in Ahmad states:  "If the hypocrites ask that you remove it, do not ...."
 
(4) It is in Hadith -  Narrated by Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) . The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) left Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) behind, in the campaign of Tabuk. The latter said: “O Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )! Are you leaving me behind with the women and children?” The Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) replied: “Are you not happy to stand next to me like Hadhrat Harun (علیھ السلا م) next to Hadhrat Musa (علیھ السلا م), save that there is no Prophet after me.  (Bukhari, Muslim).
 

(5) It is in Hadith - Narrated Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (part of a long Hadith) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: “The most compassionate of my Community towards my Community is Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); the staunchest in Allah’s (سبحانہ و تعا لی) Religion is Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); the most truthful in his modesty is Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and the best in judgment is Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  ( Ibn Majah)

(6) It  is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - On the eve of the campaign of Khaybar, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: "I shall give the standard to a person who loves Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and whom Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) loves and also His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)." Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: "I never liked to be entrusted leadership before that day." The next day the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) summoned Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and gave him the flag. (Bukhari, Muslim)

(7) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Zayd Ibn Arqam, S’ad bin Abi Waqqas, Buraida bin Husaib, Abu Ayyub al Ansari, Bara bin Azib, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Sa’eed and Abu Hurraira (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین) - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is his Mawla. O' Allah befriend those who befriend Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). [Ahmed (4-370), Ibn Hibban (2205), Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368) Haythami (9/104) Tirmidhi (2/298)]

 
(8) It is in Hadith - Hasan al-Basri  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) narrated, "I heard Abu Bakra ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) say, 'I saw the Prophet, (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on the pulpit while Hadhrat Hasan Ibn Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was beside him. He would face the people one moment, and him the other. He said -  إِنَّ ابْنِي هذَا سَيِّدٌ وَلَعَلَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى أَنْ يُصْلِحَ بِهِ بَيْنَ فِئَتَيْنِ عَظِيمَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِين  ( This son of mine is a leader/master. Perhaps Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) will make peace between two great parties of Muslims through him) (Part of the Hadith). (Bukhari)
 
(9) It  is in Hadith -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) declared "these two sons of mine (Hadhrat Hassan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ  and Hadhrat Hussain - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) are the leaders of the youth in Paradise.  (Tirmidhi, Vol 5, page 426).
 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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