CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

HISTORY OF ISLAM

SAHIH UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE TRIBULATIONS THAT STRUCK ISLAMIC NATION DURING 632-80

 

PART 8

MUAWIYA'S   (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ASSOCIATES WHO HELPED HIM IN DEPOSING RASHIDUN CALIPHATE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and condemned by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

There are three articles on our network about Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

In our Article (Part-6) we have discussed about the differences of opinions among people and Ahl Sunnah Ulema about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) role as Governor of Syria Province during the Rashidun Caliphate.

In Article (Part-7) we have discussed about the differences of opinions of people about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Reign as Head of State,  after he deposed Rashidun Caliphs.

In this Article (Part-8) we have discussed about the role of certain people who were instrumental in helping Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in deposing Rashidun Caliphate. 

These articles are aimed at clearing the misunderstanding of people on historical issues. We have described historical facts, as contained in authentic History books/Islamic literature, Quranic verses and Ahadith.  Ahle Sunnah scholars' opinions have been cite and we have refrained from expressing our personal opinions all through these articles.

It is part of our belief that respect of all Sahabah is of paramount importance.  Abusing/cursing of Sahabah, as done by Shias, is not allowed in Islam.  At the same time it is important to know the facts about Islamic History, particularly the events during 632-80 AD, so that we remain on the right path of Islam.  If you are not aware of these facts, there is a possibility that you will form some extreme opinions about Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Bait-e-At Haar, as done by Wahhabis/Deobandis and their like minded groups. 

Status and ranks among Sahabah is an established fact from Quran and Sunnah, therefore, we should look for the perfect model of conduct of Sahabah and try to emulate it in our lives.  It is consensus of Ahle Sunnah Ulema that the  model of conduct of Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Bait-e-At Haar, particularly Imam Hassan and Iman Hussain (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم) are the perfect examples that can be emulated by all Muslims.  

We hope our readers will benefit from the historical facts contained in the Article.  If our readers think some information related to a particular issue has been left, they can write to us, giving authentic Ahle Sunnah references. We will try to accommodate it as far as possible.

There are 13 articles on our Netwrok in this series that cover various misunderstandings and differences of opinions about the tribulations that hit the Islamic nation during 48 years immediately after the death of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  For better understanding, it is important that you read these articles in the same sequence, from part 1 to 13.

 

 

SECTION - A

(Extreme Groups)

 

As we have described above, Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and condemned by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

There are 2 distinct groups among Muslims in this context.  

(i) SHIAS - Those who claim love of Ahle Baite-at-haar but accuse and abuse Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Sahabah.  Like Shia Ithna Ashari, Zaidi and other groups who also hate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for his fight against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  In their blind hate, they shower choicest abuses on Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). Needless to say that they have lost the right path of Islam.    

(ii) MUAWIYEEN - Those  who single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and  spend their lives in his over-glorification knowing fully well that their behavior undermines the importance and sacrifices made by Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Baite At Haar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) in the eyes of people.   

Every Muslim respects Sahabah and praises them individually and collectively. But Muawiyeen behave strangely. They praise one to undermine the other.  They single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and shower excessive praises and place him equal in status with Khulafa-e-Rashideen.  In order to justify their behavior, they give references from Quran and Sunnah about generalized praise of Sahabah, and taking it as a  cover, write books, conduct seminars, sing encomiums over-glorifying Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in their choicest terms

There are two sub groups of this category. 

(a) Muawiyeen Grade (1)

Salafis, Ikhwan, Deobandis, and their like minded groups claim Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was on Haq in his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They claim that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) should have surrendered to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه  ) as was done by his son Imam Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They also claim that  Yazid was a pious Khalifa.  They add   رضئ الله تعالی عنه with Yazid's name and claim that Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was at fault. They also say Karbala was a political episode. They blame Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and claim he revolted against a just Khalifa. (Astaghfirullahal azeem).

(b) Muawiyeen Grade (2)
This Group claims that both Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) were right in their fight with each other. They equate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in spite of the fact that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was the Khalifa-e-Rashid and Head of Islamic nation and Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a Governor of a Province under him. There were 12 provinces of Islamic State at that time. They choose Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for their over-praise, write books, conduct Seminars, Conferences, shower accolades, sing  praises and  scream slogans and emphasize Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) importance and greatness among Sahabah.  They claim Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) was Khalifa-e-Rashid and Amir-ul-Momineen.   They proudly say that they are the defenders of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They cite references from Quran and Sunnah about the praise of Sahabah in general, and taking it as a cover, over glorify Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in the choicest terms possible.  Read more about Muawiyeen and their beliefs.

   

 

SECTION - B

 

MUAWIYA'S (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ASSOCIATES WHO HELPED HIM IN DEPOSING RASHIDUN CALIPHATE 

 

When we go through the History of Islam, particularly the events during 632-80 AD, we witness an unprecedented expansion of Islamic State during Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم) caliphate that lasted for about 12 years.  Following this, we witness  a tribulation during the Caliphate of Hadhrat Othman and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم). It is a well known fact that certain Governors of the Islamic Caliphate played a major role in creating unrest and tribulation. Most prominent among them were (i) Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Governor of Syria province,  (ii) Amr Ibn Al-Aas, (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Governor of Egypt province,  (iii) Mughira Ibn Shubha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Governor of Basra, (iv)  Ziyad Ibn Abhi (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), also Governor of Basra, and (v) Marwan bin al-Hakm, Secretary of Khalifa-e-Rashid, Amir al-Momineen Hadhrat Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).
We have provided below some details about these Governors and their roles in deposing the Rashidun Caliphate.
 
(i) MUAWIYA IBN ABU SUFYAN (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)
 
Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), was the son of  Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the wife of  Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the mother of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the leader of Makkan Pagan women who mutilated the dead bodies of Muslims who were martyred in the battle of Uhad in 625 AD.  She and her women associates cut off the ears and noses of martyred Sahabah, made the relics as anklets, and put across their necks.  It is reported that Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) even cut open the body of Hadhrat Hamza (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), took out his liver, chewed and swallowed a part of it. 
 
Read more about Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) on the following links.
 
 
 
 
(ii) ZIYADH BIN ABIH (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)
 
 
Ziyad bin Abih (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was the son of Sumaya, wife of Abhi. They belonged to  Thaqif tribe of Taif.  Since Ziyad was born in the house of Abhi while she was married to him, he was named as Ziyad bin Abhi.  It is reported that Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was the biological father of Ziyad, meaning Ziyad was Abu Sufyan's illegitimate child.  This fact was known to some people in Makka.  After Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه ) took over the reigns of Islamic Caliphate, he made this fact public and declared Ziyad  to be the son of Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). He arranged witnesses in this context who testified that Ziyad was the son of Abu Sufyan.  His name was changed in the official records from Ziyad bin Abhi to Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan and he was given share in Abu Sufyan's inheritance as his son.  He was made Governor of Kufa by Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).

Many Imams and  Islamic scholars have written about this episode. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal wrote: 'The first law of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) that was rejected in the Islamic Caliphate (and the Pagan law was reintroduced) was done by Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in the case of Ziyad.  (Masa'el Ahmed bin Hanbal, page 89).

It is reported that in 671 AD, Ziyad bin Abih (Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan) was appointed as Governor of Kufa  by Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) he started abusing Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) from the pulpit as was done by his predecessor, Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). It is reported that Hujr bin Aadi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) objected to the public insults of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) by Mughira and Ziyadh. Enraged over his objections, Ziyad arrested Hujr bin Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) along with 6 others and sent them to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), who sentenced them to death with the condition that if they abused Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) openly, they will be pardoned. They refused to do so. Finally Hujr bin Aadi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), his son Human Ibn Hajr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and 5 others were brutally masaccred in Adra, outskirts of Damascus.

Details about this massacre are available in (a) Kanzul Ummal, Ahadith Nos. 30887, 35510, 37511, 36530, (b) Dalail al-Baihaqi, Vol 6,  (c) Tareekh Ibn Asakir, Vol 12 - 'Zikr Hujr Ibn Adi, (d) Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad by Mohammad bin Yusuf al-Salehi al-Shami (d 942 H), Vol 10, (d)   (e) Khasais al-Kubra, Vol 2, etc.

It is in Hadith - Saeed bin Hilal narrated that Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) went to Hajj and (after Hajj) came to Ummul Moineen Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ).  She said to him: ‘Oh Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )! You killed Hujr bin al-Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his companions! By Allah! I heard (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  saying) that some people will be killed at Adra (Syria) and Allah and the people of heaven will get angry over that. (Kanz ul Ummal, Vol 13, Hadith # 37511) 

Baihaqi dedicated a full chapter in his book ‘Dalail’ titled باب ما روى في إخباره بقتل نفر من المسلمين ظلما بعذراء من أرض الشام فكان كما أخبر صلى الله عليه وسلم [Chapter about what he has narrated of some Muslims getting unjustly killed in a land in Syria, namely Adra, and it was true as He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) had told]. 

Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad was the son of Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan. He inherited the Governorship of Kufa after the death of his father in 673 AD.  He was the one who brutally massacred Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), his family members and associates in Karbala in 680 AD. Dead bodies of the martyrs of Karbala were mutilated by horse riders. The severed heads of the members of Ahle Bait-e-At Haar (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم اجمعين) were placed on top of the spears and displaced all over Kufa for weeks on the orders of  Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad.  The severed head of Imam Hussain (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was later taken to Syria and was placed in front of Yazid.  Read more.
 
 
 
(iii) MUGHIRA IBN SHUBAH (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)
 
 
Mughirah Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was the son of Abi Amir Ibn Masud at-Thaqafi. Details about his mother are not known.  He also belonged to Thaqif tribe of Taif. Mughira Ibn Shubah is directly related with the martyrdom of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in the sense that it was his slave who killed Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). We have provided below some details in this context.

Shahadat of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)

Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) discipline and his purest Islamic style of functioning was not liked by certain people in the Islamic Caliphate because they wanted to rule like Kings.  They conspired to get rid of him in order to acquire the leadership of the nation.

There were secret plans and a unified action by the conspirators.  In October 644, when Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) went for Hajj, the hired people of the conspirators were seen telling the people that this was the last Hajj of Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as he will be assassinated soon. Jubair Ibn Mutim who was the companion of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) during the Hajj,  witnessed a man standing atop a hillock shouting "this is the last Hajj of Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and he will never come here again". After shouting for a few minutes, he disappeared in the crowd.  He could not be identified as everyone wore the same cloths during Hajj.  During the 'Rami of Jamaraat' (the stoning of the devil ritual) someone from the crowd threw a stone at Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) which struck his head and he was wounded.   A voice was heard that Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) will not attend the Hajj ever again.  He was not apprehended as it would have created a commotion among the large number of Hajis.

The above incidents show the widespread conspiracy against the Caliph. They wanted to create an atmosphere of fear in the Caliphate.

Who were the conspirators and how did they carry out the assassination?

Some people site the following facts

There is a strong evidence that the ends of the net of the conspiracy were fastened far and wide in the Caliphate. All the players were very much active behind the curtain and a  person named Piruz Nahavandi or Abu Lulu   (أبو لؤلؤة‎‎) was used to carry out the assassination. 

Piruz Nahavandi was the slave of Mughira Ibn Shubha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) who was staying in Madina after he his removal as the Governor of Basra. 

What was the reason for the removal of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) from the Governorship?

Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) married over 80 women one after the other.  In spite of so many women in his life, it is reported that  he was caught by his neighbor, bare and in a compromising position, with an attractive widow named Umm Jamil.  Everyone in Basra knew that Umm Jamil visited him often in  the Governors house.  The act was also witnessed by a few other people.  The matter was brought to the notice of Caliph Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was summoned to Madina for a fair trial.  During the trial he pleaded not guilty.  The trial court was surprised when  one of the four eye witnesses who was part of the original complaint and had arrived from Basra to give witness, backed out. The remaining three were cross examined and Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was acquitted on account of insufficient testimony.  After the trial, Mughira was not restored to the office of the Governor. 

Mughira stayed in Madina and started complaining about the Caliph in front of the people.  When this was brought to the notice of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Mughira was called again and Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) warned Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)  saying  "you should be thankful to God that a witness backed out and you were saved from disgrace by a technical flaw even though there was a strong case against. You were given the benefit of doubt. Remember if the evidence was complete, you would have been stoned to death."  

A story was spread by the conspirators that Piruz Nahavandi, the killer of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) had personal grudge against Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).

Who was Piruz Nahvandi alias Abu lulu? 

He was a Zoroastrian slave of Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). Mughira Ibn Shubah had taken special permission from Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) to allow Piruz to stay in Madina on the plea that he was a good craftsman and will be more useful in Madina. 

What was the reason for his so called grudge against Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)? 

The story spread was,  Piruz complained to Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) saying Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was overburdening him by a heavy tax.  Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was asked to provide details about his dealings with his slave.  The complaint was disposed off in favor of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as it was found that  Piruz's complaint was not based on facts.

It is hard to believe that a slave of a Governor will dare to complain to the Caliph against his Master.  Secondly, can this be a reason for the slave to go and kill the Caliph?  No.   If his voice was not heard by his master in spite of his appeal to authorities, then it is most likely and logical that he would kill his master rather than kill the Head of the State in Federal Capital. 

Also for over an year, Caliph Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was continuously been threatened for his impending assassination at different places in the Caliphate.  When so many people were talking about the assassination, then how can it be treated as the work of a single person who would kill the Caliph for the atrocities committed by his master?  

The fact is that Piruz was the slave of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and slaves generally do not enjoy free will.  They have to listen to the orders of their masters.  In addition, they are kept under close watch by their masters.  Piruz planned the assassination so meticulously in the company of so many people and his master, who happened to be a Governor of a province, was not aware of it;  is indeed a strange phenomenon.

Piruz was to play the part of a suicide killer and he knew that he had to kill himself, rather than be caught alive. If he was caught alive, the entire conspiracy would have become public and the kingpins would have been exposed. Therefore, he acted as per the plan.  After he fatally attacked Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) during the Fajr prayer, he tried to escape from Masjid-e-Nabawi in the cover of dawn. However, he was  intercepted by the people praying behind Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) with their bare hands. In order to escape from the mosque, he stabbed and killed 9 more people and many others were wounded. Finally, when he was overpowered, he killed himself from the same dagger.  Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) died 3 days later.

The above facts, and the fact that Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was made Governor again during Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) rule, make the issue of assassination of Hadhrat Umar more  complicated.  
 
It is reported that after he was made Governor by Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه),  Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)  started cursing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in mosques and public platforms in Kufa. 

Hujr Ibn Aadi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a pious Sahabi. He objected  to Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) on his insulting speeches against Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) from public platforms. Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) got angry on these objections and tightened the noose  around Hujr (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and his associates to subjugate them to fall in line in cursing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) from public platforms.  In the meantime Ziyadh bin Abu Sufyan was made Governor of Kufa. He followed the policy of his predecessor and pressurized Hujr (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) to succumb.   When Hujr (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) did not agree,  he was taken to Syria along with his son and 5 others,  where they were brutally massacred in a place called Adra, outskirts of Damascus on the orders of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).       

It is in Hadith - Saeed bin Hilal narrated that Mu’awiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) went to Hajj and (after Hajj) came to Ummul Moineen Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ).  She said to him: ‘Oh Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )! You killed Hujr bin al-Aadi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his companions! By Allah! I heard (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  saying) that some people will be killed at Adra (Syria) and Allah and the people of heaven will get angry over that. (Kanz-ul-Ummal, Vol 13, Hadith # 37511) 

Baihaqi dedicated a full chapter in his book ‘Dalail’ titled باب ما روى في إخباره بقتل نفر من المسلمين ظلما بعذراء من أرض الشام فكان كما أخبر صلى الله عليه وسلم [Chapter about what he has narrated of some Muslims getting unjustly killed in a land in Syria, namely Adra, and it was true as He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) had told]. 

 
 
(iv) AMR IBN AL-AAS (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)
 
 
Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)  was the son of Layla bint Harmalah. 
 
It is in Hadith - Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ الله تعالى عنها). 'There were four types of marriage  in pre-Islamic Arabia. The first one was (known as) 'Combined Marriage' (Nikah-e-Ijtema - نکاحِ اجتماع).  In this marriage a group of less than ten men would assemble and enter upon a woman, and all of them would have sexual relations with her. If she became pregnant and delivered a child and some days had passed after her delivery, she would send for all of them and none of them could refuse to come, and when they all gathered before her she would say to them "You (all) know what you have done and now I have given birth to a child. So it is your child O'so and so!" Naming whoever she liked (generally she would name the person who was more generous in giving maintenance to the child rather than predictable biological father) and her child would follow him and he could not refuse to take care of him.  (Bukhari, Vol 2 Chapter 37).
 
Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) outlawed this type of marriage in Islam. 
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), famous Arab historian  wrote in his book Muqaddimat Ibn Khaldun - 'li Kitab al-Ibar wa Diwan al-Mubtada wa al-Khabar',  published from Cairo in 1930,  that it was a known fact in Makka that Layla bint Harmala was married in Nikah-e-Ijtema with 5 people who visited her regularly.  Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb and Aas Ibn Wa'il were part of these 5 people.  Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was a well known miser in Makka while Aas Ibn Wa'il was Chief of Banu Sahm tribe and a wealthy merchant in Makka. 
 
Layla bint Harmalah gave birth to another child after Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) who was named Hisham Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).   
Ibn 'Abbas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) said that the Quranic verse - إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ  [Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity.] (Al-Kauther - 3)  was revealed about Aas Ibn Wa'il.
 
It is reported that Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) were natural allies. There was a long mutual understanding, cooperation and chemistry between them as they both opposed and fought against Rashidun Caliphate. 

Early Life
 
The date and year of birth of Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) is not known.  Historian predicted that he might have been born between 585 and 592 AD. It is reported that he was shrewd and intelligent. He opposed Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for over 21 years (out of 23 years) and fought wars against Muslims  alongside Makkan Pagans. He was part of the delegation of Makkan Pagans to Abyssinia (Ethopia) asking the King to expel Muslims who had taken asylum in view of their persecution in Makka.  But the mission failed as Abyssinian ruler  Najjashi, refused to oblige. 

Treaty of Hudaibiya -  In 628,  a 10-year peace treaty was concluded between the Muslims and Makkan Pagans which was known as Treaty of Hudaibiyah.   The period that followed the treaty saw consolidation of Muslims and their rise in Arabian peninsula. Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was an intelligent person.  He observed the scenario and felt the wind shifting in Muslims' favor.  He left the company of Makkan pagans and quietly traveled to Madina.  On the way he met Khaled bin al-Walid (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) who was also going to Madina.  They both reached Madina in May, 629 and embraced Islam on the hands of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

The Battle of Mu'tah - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sent an emissary to the ruler of Bosra  in June 629 which was a Byzantine province in Jordan.  While on his way to Bosra, the emissary was caught and executed in the village of Mu'tah by the order of a Ghassanid tribe official. To punish the Ghassanids, a Muslim Army consisting of 3000 men was sent in September, 629.  The Byzantine province got the news of the impending Muslim attack and gathered a huge army of over 100,000 men.  This was the first battle between Muslims and Byzantine Empire. Muslims fought bravely but had to retreat in view of their losses on the battle field.

Dhat-us-Salasil - After the retreat of Muslim army at the Battle of Mu’tah, it was decided to retaliate against the tribes that supported the Ghassanids in Mu'tah.  Banu Qudah were one such tribe. 

Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), a new Muslim convert then, was appointed to lead the expedition against Banu Qudah tribe. He was chosen because he was related to Banu Bali tribe, who were located in the area he was to carry out this operation.   The contingent consisted of 300 men and 30 horses.  In the event of formidabale opposition, the tribes who had already accepted Islam were expected to come to his aid. 

After Marching for 10 days, Amr ibn al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) encamped at a spring called Dhat-us-Salasil.  There he found that the enemy had assembled in large numbers.  He rushed a messenger back to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asking for reinforcement. As a response, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sent 200 men, which included Abu Bakr and Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم). This reinforcement was headed by Abu Ubaidah Ibn al Jarrah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه ). 

When the reinforcement reached Dhat-us-Salasil, Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was asked to fight under the command of Hadhrat Abu Ubaidah Ibn al-Jarrah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  Amr Ibn Al-Aas refused to fight under Hadhrat Abu Ubaidah's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) command.   It is reported that he also disagreed in a few issues with Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم). Looking at the delicate situation, he was allowed to command the unified force.  Even though he was a new convert to Islam (hardly 6 months), Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) insisted to lead 5 times prayers as the commander of the united force during that expedition. And Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Hadhrat Umar, Hadhrat Abu Ubaidah and others (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم اجمعين) followed him in prayers. These were the clear indications about what was to come  later in the Islamic Caliphate.  

It is in Hadith - Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) narrated. 'On my return (from the expedition of Dhat-us-Salasil), I came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and asked, which people do you love most?' He replied, 'Aisha (رضئ الله تعالى عنها).' I said, 'From among the men?' He replied, 'Her father (Abu Bakr - رضئ الله تعالى عنه)'. I said, 'whom (do you love) next?' He replied, "Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).' Then he counted the names of many men, and I became silent for fear that he might regard me as the last of all of them.  (Bukhari).

During Hadhrat Abu Bakr's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate, Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was sent to Palestine.  He was also part of the Muslim armies at the battles of Ajnadayn, Yarmouk and in the siege of Damascus.  He did a commendable job at all these places.

During Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate,  Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was sent with a Muslim Army of 4000 men to Egypt in 639.  Egyptian campaign was the epitome of Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) career as he was instrumental in liberating Egypt from Byzantine oppression.   All of Egypt came under Muslim rule by 641 and he was made the  Governor of Egypt province.

 

Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate 

Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) caliphate lasted for 10 years during 634-44.  Under him, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate. The Sasanian (Persian) empire came under Muslim rule.  In addition, more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire also came under Muslim rule. Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) carried out massive reforms in Islamic Caliphate. 

Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate is known for Justice and discipline in the nation.   No one can be spared from justice and the voice of the poor was supreme.    The rich, powerful and formidable were kept under watch so that justice and peace could prevail throughout the caliphate.  Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) instructions to the  Governors/Officials/Military generals  were as follows.

Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut on their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them.

Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was a staunch believer, and the rightly guided Caliph. In 638, after the conquest of Syria, he called Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) to Madina.  His intention behind this decision could have been to rest him for sometime and later use him in central administration.  Also people had started admiring Hadhrat Khaled (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) for his successes at the battle field to an extent that it was becoming like a Hero worship.  That was needed to be corrected. Whatever may be intention of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), it was a surprise decision for Khaled bin Walid (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  He was a born fighter and wanted to be martyred in the battle field serving Islam.  But bravo Hadhrat Khaled (رضئ الله تعالى عنه); he did not raise an eyebrow on this decision and accepted it in all humility, because he knew that his intelligence, bravery and successes were a reward of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and Sadaqa of Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  People like Hadhrat Khaled (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)  are the role models in Muslim Ummah. They had no personal desires.  If Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and others had followed the example of Khaled bin Walid (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), the history of Islam would have been different altogether.

 

Shahadat of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)

As we have described above, Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) style of functioning was not liked by certain people in the Islamic Caliphate because they wanted to rule like Kings.  They conspired to get rid of him in order to acquire the leadership of the nation.

There were secret plans and a unified action by the conspirators.  In October 644, when Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) went for Hajj, the hired people of the conspirators were seen telling the people that this was the last Hajj of Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as he will be assassinated soon. Jubair Ibn Mutim who was the companion of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) during the Hajj,  witnessed a man standing atop a hillock shouting "this is the last Hajj of Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and he will never come here again". After shouting for a few minutes, he disappeared in the crowd.  He could not be identified as everyone wore the same cloths during Hajj.  During the 'Rami of Jamaraat' (the  ritual of stoning of the devil) someone from the crowd threw a stone at Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) which struck his head and he was wounded.   A voice was heard that Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) will not attend the Hajj ever again.

The above incidents show the widespread conspiracy against the Caliph. They wanted to create an atmosphere of fear in the administration.

Who were the conspirators and how did they carry out the assassination?

Some people site the following facts

There is a strong evidence that the ends of the net of the conspiracy were fastened far and wide in the Caliphate. All the players were very much active behind the curtain and a  person named Piruz Nahavandi or Abu Lulu   (أبو لؤلؤة‎‎) was used to carry out the assassination. 

Piruz Nahavandi was the slave of Mughira Ibn Shubha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) who was staying in Madina after he his removal as the Governor of Basra. 

What was the reason for the removal of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) from the Governorship?

Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) married over 80 women one after the other.  In spite of so many women in his life, it is reported that  he was caught by his neighbor, bare and in a compromising position, with an attractive widow named Umm Jamil.  Everyone in Basra knew that Umm Jamil visited him often in  the Governors house.  The act was also witnessed by a few other people.  The matter was brought to the notice of Caliph Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was summoned to Madina for a fair trial.  During the trial he pleaded not guilty.  The trial court was surprised when  one of the four eye witnesses who was part of the original complaint and had arrived from Basra to give witness, backed out.  No one knew why did he back out.  The remaining three were cross examined and the Judge acquitted Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) on account of insufficient testimony.  After the trial, Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) did not reinstate Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as the Governor was acquitted from the charges on technical grounds.

The conspirators of Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) assassination spread the story that  Piruz Nahavandi had personal grudge against Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).

Why, what was the reason for his grudge against Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)? 

The story spread was,  Piruz complained to Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) saying Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was overburdening him by a heavy tax.  Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was asked to provide details about his dealings with his slave.  The complaint was disposed off in favor of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as it was found that  Piruz complaint was not based on facts.

It is hard to believe that a slave of a Governor will dare to complain to the Caliph against his Master.  Secondly, can this be a reason for the slave to go and kill the Caliph?  No.   If his voice was not heard in the province, and even in the central Government, then it is most likely and logical that he would go and kill his master rather than kill the Head of the State in Federal Capital. 

Also for over an year, Caliph Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was continuously been threatened for his impending assassination at different places in the Caliphate.  When so many people were talking about the assassination, then how can it be treated as the work of a single person who would kill the Caliph for the atrocities committed by his master?  

The fact is that Piruz was the slave of Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and slaves generally do not enjoy free will.  They have to listen to the orders of their masters.  In addition, they are kept under close watch by their masters.  Piruz planned the assassination so meticulously in the company of so many people and his master, who happened to be a Governor of a province, was not aware of it;  is indeed a strange phenomenon.  

Also the fact that Mughira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was reinstated as Governor  during Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) rule;  all these facts  makes the issue of assassination of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) very complicated.

Piruz was to play the part of a suicide killer and he knew that he had to kill himself, rather than be caught alive. If he was caught alive, the entire conspiracy would have become public and the kingpins would have been exposed. Therefore, he acted as per the plan.  After he fatally attacked Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) during the Fajr prayer, he tried to escape from Masjid-e-Nabawi in the cover of dawn. However, he was  intercepted by the people praying behind Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) with their bare hands. In order to escape from the mosque, he stabbed and killed 9 more people and many others were wounded. Finally, when he was overpowered, he killed himself from the same dagger.  Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) could not sustain fatal injuries and died three days later on October 31, 644. During these fateful days, he formed a Committee to choose the next Caliph.      

While Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was still alive, Abdur Rahman Ibn Awf (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and Abdur Rehman Ibn Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) revealed that they had earlier seen the dagger used in the assassination.

Abdur Rahman bin Awf (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) reported that a night before the assassination,  he saw Hormuzan, Jafina and Abu Lulu (Piruz), while they were suspiciously discussing something.  On his arrival on the spot they tried to disperse in a hurry and in the process the dagger they were carrying fell on the ground.  And it was the same double edged dagger that was used by Piruz.  

Abudur Rehman ibn Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) also confirmed that, a few days before the assassination, he saw the dagger with Hurmuzan.

The above eye witness accounts confirmed that there was not just one single assassin who acted on personal animosity.  It was a well knitted conspiracy and many people were involved in it. 

When eye witness accounts became public,  Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) youngest son, Hadhrat Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) got enraged.  He went in search of the attackers and killed  Hurmuzan, Jafina and the daughter of Piruz. All these murderers would have been put to death anyway by the State for their involvement in the Killing of the Caliph.  And if they were caught alive, more people would have come under the net of law enforcement authorities and punished.

Another notable event took place at that time.  Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was the Governor of Egypt but he happened to be in Madina at that time.  When the names of the assassins were disclosed and Hadhrat Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) went to punish them for their crime,  Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) along with a few of his associates rushed towards him,  intercepted him, captured him and brought him in front of the wounded Caliph who was on his death bed, charging Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) as the killer of three innocent people.  Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was arrested and Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) advised,  let the new Caliph take care of this case. 

Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was the Governor of Egypt, not responsible for the security issues in Madina.  It is not known why he was in Madina at that time and what prompted him to take that swift action, level murder charges against Hadhrat Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) even before the law enforcement authorities in Madina could act. 

The presence of Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in Madina at that time; his attempt to stop Hadhrat Ubaidullah Ibn Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and later becoming the right hand man of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) reinstating him as the Governor of Egypt during his rule, all these facts make the issue of assassination of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) intriguing.

It is in Hadith - Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) declared in front of a huge crowd (openly) that he was more rightful to be the Caliph than Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه ).   (Bukhari # 4108, Book 64, Chapter 29 - part of the Hadith )

  

Hadhrat Othman's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate
 
Hadhrat Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was chosen as the Caliph after Hadhrat Omer's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) martyrdom.  Hadhrat Othman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate lasted for 12 years between 644-56.  During  his Caliphate  he met with increasing opposition from the trouble makers. They did not allow him to focus on reforms.  All questionable people gathered around him and started running the affairs of the State in his name and the evils committed by them were labelled on the Caliph. 

Hadhrat Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was very gentle and forgiving; often overlooking the faults of others. This made the provincial governors and other officials overbold. Taking advantage of the soft attitude of the Khalifa, Marwan bin Hakam infiltrated the Caliphate, won the trust of the Khalifa and became his Secretary. Gradually he started taking independent decisions in favor of all trouble makers. History records that Marwan was the person behind relaxing strict disciplinary rules for Governors that were in place during the Caliphate of Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  

Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) continued as Governor of Egypt during Hadhrat Othman's caliphate.  However, on receipts of some complaints he was replaced by Abdullah Ibn Sa’d.  It is reported that he was not happy on being removed from the Governorship. He increased the smear campaign against the Caliph openly.

Al-Tabari, wrote 'when Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was besieged, Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), who was a bitter critic of the Caliph and part of the people who were aiding the rioters, quietly left Madina and stayed in the palace of al-Ajlan he built for himself.   When he got the news of assassination of Hadhrat Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), he said some very harsh words accusing the Caliph and showing happiness on his assassination. (History of al-Tabari, English version, v15, pp 171-172).   

Some people say that Amr Ibn Al-Aas's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) rebellion against the Caliphate reached to its peak during the caliphate of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  He became the right hand of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). In the battle of Siffeen he played a big role in saving Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) from the clutches of defeat. And in the arbitration that followed, authentic history accounts have documented that  Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) representative Abu Musa al-Ashari (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was deceived by Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) representative Amr Ibn Al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) who  unilaterally declared Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as the winner of Arbitration and Caliph of the entire Islamic State.  In view of open deception, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rejected the out come of the arbitration.
 
Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was later assassinated in Kufa.  This time also, a story was spread that three people,  Ibn Muljam, al-Baruk Ibn Abdullah and Amr Ibn Bakr al-Tamimi together decided each one will kill Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Amr Ibn al-Aas and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  Ibn Muljam succeeded and the other two did not succeed.  
 
When we read Islamic history, it becomes clear that the assassinations of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالى عنه),  Hadhrat Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) are the anklets of the same Chain.
 
After Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  was chosen as Caliph.  He was forced by Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) to relinquish the caliphate.  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه)  negotiated a Peace Treaty with Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in 661 AD in order to save the lives of Muslims. As per the Peace Treaty, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was to : (a) follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah in ruling the Islamic nation, (b) allow a Parliament (shura) as regards to Caliphate after his death,  (c) refrain from public cursing and insult of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) which was being carried out through out the nation, and (e) provide security to Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his followers. Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted all conditions attached to the peace treaty. 

However, history is witness that none of the above conditions were fulfilled.  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was brutally murdered in 670 AD by a deadly poison which tore his liver into pieces.  It is reported that when he vomited, pieces of liver came out of his throat. He died after suffering for over 40 days from that deadly poison. According to Tarikh al-Khulafa by Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti, Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was poisoned by Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath Ibn Qais, who was lured for this purpose by Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  

Ahle Sunnah scholars have mentioned that the killing of Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was a Government sponsored conspiracy. (Ref: Tadhkara al-Khawass, Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, p 191-94;  Ibn Abd al-Barr in his 'Seerah'; al-Shudhi;  Amir al-Sha’bi; Abu Nu’aym, etc.).

Ibn Abdul Barr wrote in al-Istiab that Hadhrat Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was poisoned via his wife.   Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) sent poison to Hassan's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) wife Jada and upon administering the poison, she was rewarded lavishly. Tariq Ibn Asakir records that Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) prepared the deadly mixture which was administered to Hadhrat Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).

Hadhrat Hassan's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) murder was followed by the brutal killing of Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and his associates in Karbala in 680.  Read more

 
 
(v) MARWAN BIN AL-HAKAM
 
 
Marwan bin al-Hakam was the son of  Hakam bin Abi Aas, who was expelled from Madina by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in view of his involvement in aiding the hypocrites and disbelievers. After his expulsion he lived in Taif.  It is reported that during the last illness of  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Hadhrat Osman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) sought the permission of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to allow Al-Hakam, who was his paternal uncle,  to come back to Madina.   The permission was granted and as such he came back to Madina during Hadhrat Osman's (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Caliphate.  
 

Marwan played a key role in the tribulation and eventual assassination of Hadhrat Othman (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  He is held directly responsible by the historians in the killing of several Sahabah.  His involvement in the massacre of Karbala and in the battle of Harra is beyond doubt as he was the chief adviser of Yazid at that time. The historians and biographers stated,  without doubt Marwan has committed atrocities and abominable acts.  

 

Ibn Hazm wrote - 'Marwan  was the first to cause dissension among Muslims. He killed An-Nu’maan Ibn Basheer, the first person who was born in Islam and revolted against Ibn Az-Zubayr after he had pledged allegiance and obedience to him'.

 

Ibn Abdul Barr wrote - 'There is no difference of opinion among the trustworthy scholars that Marwaan killed Hadhrat Talha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه )'. 

 

Ad-Dahabi wrote - 'Marwan committed grave and serious acts and  we seek refuge in Allah from that.  He shot Talha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) with an arrow and he did so many things which were the cause of killings of thousands of people and destruction of the Islamic Caliphate.  He killed Talha (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) during the Battle of the Camel, while he himself escaped death. I wish he had not escaped death.'

 

Islamic literature is full of authentic references that the practice of abusing, accusing and cursing Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was started during Muawiya's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) reign in all the state-controlled mosques and public platforms.  This practice was continued  for over 65 years;  from 657 to 720. During this time Governors, State officials, Imams of mosques used to abuse Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) during Friday Sermons.

When Hadhrat Ali Ibn Husain Zain al-Abedeen (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) asked Marwan why does he curse Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) from the pulpit, Marwan said 'Our reign would not be sound without that. (la yastaqimu l-amru illa bi-dhalik).  (Ibn Asakir).

It is in Hadith - Ibn Sa'd Umair bin Is-haq narrated "Marawan was our ruler (appointed as Governor of Madina by Muawiya -  رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  He used to accuse and abuse Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) every Friday from the Member of the Mosque (Masjid-e-Nabawi).  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) used to listen to this abuse but he never replied.  One day, Marwan sent a person to Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) with a message that the example of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) and Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was like Mule.  When a mule is asked as to who was his father, it says my mother was a Mare (female horse).  After listening to this abuse, Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) told the person to go and inform Marwan that 'I will not abuse him in retaliation because it may help him to lessen the evil from his record of deeds.  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) further said , Allah will decide between him and Marwan on the day of Judgment.  If Marwan is truthful, let Allah provide him recompense (thawab).  And if he is a liar, then Allah will give the severest of the punishments. ( Tariq al-Khulafa by Jalaluddin Suyuti).

 

 

 

 

SECTION - C 

 

AHLE SUNNAH AQEEDAH 

 

We,  the Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a, respect all 124,000 Sahabah, including Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). We honor them all.  However, it is important that we understand historical facts in their proper perspective. We cannot falter in this respect.  If we falter, respect for Ahle Baite at-Haar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) will vanish from our hearts, and  we will form some extreme opinions about them and will go astray. 

What are Sahih Iman priorities in this context? 

The answer is, you can glorify Khulafa-e-Rashideen or Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).  As a matter of fact, whatever glorification you do about Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Khulafa-e-Rashideen, it will amount to be a drop in the ocean of their greatness. No one can praise Khulafa-e-Rashideen appropriately. They are oceans of piety and greatest among human beings and Sahabah, next only to prophets.

What Khulafa e Rashideen did and what members of Ahle Bait did was "Haq".  They were right in their actions.  This is our Iman. 

Imam al-Manawi wrote:   أجمع فقهاء الحجاز والعراق من فريقي الحديث والرأي ، منهم مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة والأوزاعي والجمهور الأعظم من المتكلمين والمسلمين ، أن علياً مصيب في قتاله لأهل صفين كما هو مصيب في أهل الجمل ، وأن الذين قاتلوه بغاة ظالمون له    [There is Ijma of Fuqaha (Jurists) of Hijaz (Makka and Madina) and Iraq (Kufa and Basra), among them Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Awzai and majority of theologians and Muslims that,  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was on Haq in his fight against the people of Siffeen and those who fought him were Oppressive Mutineers (Zaalim Baghis).]

[Reference - Imam al-Manawi (1545 - 1621), wrote in his book  Fayd al - Qadeer with reference to Imam Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani's (1007-1078) Aqeeda.]

Imam Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Sana'ani said - "The Hadith of Ammar Yasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is a proof that rebel party is Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and those in his party;  and the Party of truth is Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions and there is Ijma of ahl al-sunna on this position". (Sharah Subul as-Salam upon bulugh al-maram of Imam Ibn Hajar Makki  V3, P 358)

However, some Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that Muawiya's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) mistakes were Ijtehadi.  

We respect opinions of all our Ulema.   We also respect their differences of opinions. 

As far as we are concerned, we prefer to keep quite in Muawiya's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) case.

 

AUTHENTIC HISTORY ACCOUNTS

All our Ulema have  consensus that  authentic Islamic history accounts confirm that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) openly accepted Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to be better than him in all respects and deserved to be the Khalifa more than himself. 

The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows:

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."  

Muslim scholars cite the following historical facts.

Before Hadhrat Ali's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) caliphate, there were many Sahabah  who acted differently in similar circumstances.  Like, Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) never blamed the Khalifa of any wrong doing.  He never questioned the Caliph on certain decisions even if they were made against his wishes / recommendations.   He did not stage a rebellion or even objected when Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) removed him from the post of Commander of Muslim forces without giving any reason. He never argued that he was made commander of Muslim forces by Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and continued in the same capacity in Hadhrat Abu Bakr's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) time and Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to fire him from this position; like Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to remove him from that position.  For Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), the job of commander of Chief of Muslim forces was so dear,  still he did not rebel and  lived as an example of piety and bravery.  He was never eager to become Khalifa even though he was popular among Muslims.  As a matter of fact he was a hero and role model for Muslims in view of his bravery and tactical successes on the battle field.  He never demanded that he be made Governor of the areas conquered by him. He was a big source of solidifying and strengthening the Islamic nation and remained a loyal/trusted Commander of Islamic State till his last breath.   

When Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was chosen as Khalifa, there was near anarchy in the Islamic State.  In order to bring back normalcy, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) asked all Governors to formally resign from their positions. Later they could have been reshuffled or re-appointed again.  Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) refused to resign and staged a rebellion and claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to ask him to resign. Muawiya's rebellion caused hundreds of thousands of deaths of Sahabah, Taba'een and Muslims. Ad-Dahabi wrote : About 60 to 70 thousand people died in the battle of Siffeen in which Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) fought against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). This demonstrates what Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said about Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  ( Ammar bin Yasser Hadith in Bukhari and Muslim)

It is in Hadith - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari  447, Muslim 7320)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said - "I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against (Muawiya's - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rebel Group.   (Ibn Abdul Barr  in  Al-Istiab ) 
 
It is narrrated in Hadith Bukhari that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) declared in front of a large gathering of Sahabah, Tabaeen and Muslims that he was more rightful to be the Khalifa  than Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  Read the following Hadith Bukhari. 
 
حَدَّثَنِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ وَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ طَاوُسٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى حَفْصَةَ وَنَسْوَاتُهَا تَنْطُفُ، قُلْتُ قَدْ كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ النَّاسِ مَا تَرَيْنَ، فَلَمْ يُجْعَلْ لِي مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَىْءٌ‏.‏ فَقَالَتِ الْحَقْ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ، وَأَخْشَى أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي احْتِبَاسِكَ عَنْهُمْ فُرْقَةٌ‏.‏ فَلَمْ تَدَعْهُ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ، فَلَمَّا تَفَرَّقَ النَّاسُ خَطَبَ مُعَاوِيَةُ قَالَ مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمَ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ فَلْيُطْلِعْ لَنَا قَرْنَهُ، فَلَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنْهُ وَمِنْ أَبِيهِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ فَهَلاَّ أَجَبْتَهُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَحَلَلْتُ حُبْوَتِي وَهَمَمْتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ مِنْكَ مَنْ قَاتَلَكَ وَأَبَاكَ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ‏.‏ فَخَشِيتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ كَلِمَةً تُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْجَمْعِ، وَتَسْفِكُ الدَّمَ، وَيُحْمَلُ عَنِّي غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ، فَذَكَرْتُ مَا أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ فِي الْجِنَانِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبٌ حُفِظْتَ وَعُصِمْتَ‏.‏ قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ وَنَوْسَاتُهَا‏.

Narrated `Ikrima bin Khalid ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) : Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I went to (Ummul Momineen) Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) while water was dribbling from her twined braids. I said, 'The condition of the people is as you see, and no authority has been given to me.' Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) said, (to me), 'Go to them, and as they (the people) are waiting for you, and I am afraid your absence from them will cause division among them.' "So Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) did not leave Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) till we went to them. When the people differed, Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) addressed the people saying, "'If anybody wants to say anything in this matter of the Caliphate, he should show up and not conceal himself, for we are more rightful to be the Caliph than he (Ibn Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his father ( Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )." On that, Habib bin Masalama ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said (to Ibn Umar -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه), "Why don't you reply to him (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )?" `Abdullah bin `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I untied my garment that was going round my back and legs while I was sitting and was about to say, He who fought against you (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and against your father (Abu Sufyan - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for the sake of Islam, is more rightful to be a Caliph", but I was afraid that my statement might cause differences among the people and cause bloodshed, and my statement might be interpreted not as I intended. (So I kept quiet) remembering what Allah has prepared in the Gardens of Paradise (for those who prefer Hereafter over this worldly life)." Habib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "You did what kept you safe and secure".   (Bukhari 4108, Book 64, Chapter 29  Battle of Khandaq )

 
Distinction in the status among Sahabah is mandatory in Islam.  If you do not keep this distinction in mind, you have strayed, you have lost the right path of Islam.
 
Some people cite the following Hadith to equate the status of all Sahabah.

It is in Hadith -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said :"My Companions are like stars, whoever among them you use for guidance, you will be rightly guided.

The above Hadith is Weak (Dha'eef).  Baihaqi in his book al-Makhdal, and Ibn Hajar in al-Kafi al-Shaf'fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Kashshaf (4:94) have stated that the above Hadith is narrated through many weak chains as follows:

(i) Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Musnad  Ibn Humayd 2-28.

(ii) Jabir Ibn Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Daraqutni - Fada'il-e-Sahabah - 4-1778.  

(iii) Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Musnad al-Shihab - Qudai 2-275.   

(iv) Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Baihaqi in Al-Madkhal 1-145.

(v) Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Baihaqi in al-Madkhal 1-147.

(vi) Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Ibn Hajr through Al-Bazzar in his book Takhlis al-Habr 2-191.   

However, many authentic Ahadith and Quranic verses confirm the merits of Sahabah. Therefore Hadith scholars agree that at least the contents of the above Hadith are sound.  In this context, the following issues are important. 

Ahle Sunnah Ulema are united (have consensus) that the Sahaba belong to the highest probity (udul) among people; in addition, their precision (dabt) can only be interpreted in the cases of conflicting narrations/reports of equal strength. 

Ibn Rajab wrote that the opinions of Abu Bakr ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) have precedence over other Sahabah. 

Similarly the actions, opinions and the model of conduct of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), Hadhrat Hassan ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Hadhrat Hussain ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) has precedence over the actions, opinions and the model of conduct of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), and Marwan. 

Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین ) were rightly guided Caliphs (Khulafa-e-Rashideen). No one from Ahle Sunnah calls Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), as 'rightly guided Caliph' (Khalifa-e-Rashid).  As a matter of fact, the rightly guided caliphate was ended by Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and he was the founding King of a dynastic rule in Muslim History.  

Generalized praise of Sahabah is a good deed.  Hadith books are full of generalized praise of Sahabah and in some cases references of praise of individual Sahabah.  Where there were differences of opinions among Sahabah, particularly between Khulafa-e-Rashideen and an individual Sahabi which resulted in killing of hundreds of thousands of Sahabah, Taba'een and Muslims, it is a good idea that while we praise the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, we keep quiet about the Sahabi who deposed rightly guided Khulafa. It is also our Iman that if we had lived during that time in Hijaz, we would have fought Siffeen alongside Khalifa-e-Rashid, Amir-ul-Momineen Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).      

Muawiyeen refer to certain accomplishments of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) after he deposed Rashidun Caliphate.  Like he build a strong Navy and broke the hold of Byzantine Empire in the eastern Mediterranean. He modernized the army and expanded Umayyed empire in all directions. Certain administrative reforms were also undertaken during Muawiya's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) monarchy. 

It is our Iman that if Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was allowed to continue as Khalifa,   he would have done a better job than Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  All Sahabah and entire Islamic Ummah are unanimous that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a great administrator and Jurist (Faqih). He was the adviser of all three Khulafa-e-Rashideen before him under whom the Islamic state was solidified and expanded extensively.

Islam's continuance in its original form even today is greatly because of the sacrifices of Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), his sons and other members of Ahle Bait.  They sacrificed their lives to keep the purity of  Islam from worldly politics. We the Muslims of the world are greatly indebted to the Ahle Bait-e-Rasool ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  They showed us the right path and set an example of piety and bravery.

 

 

 

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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