CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

HISTORY OF ISLAM

CORRECT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE TRIBULATIONS THAT STRUCK ISLAMIC NATION DURING 632-80

 

PART 7

MUAWIYA'S (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ROLE AS HEAD OF  STATE 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and criticized by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

There are two articles on our network about Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  In this article Part-7, we have provided differences of opinions of people about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) role as Head of State,  after Rashidun Caliphs.

In our earlier Article (Part-6) we have discussed about the differences of opinions among people and Ahl Sunnah Ulema about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) role as Governor of Syria Province during the Rashidun Caliphate. 

Both articles contain three sections, A,  B and C.   Sections 'A'  and 'C' are common in both the articles. Section A provides information about the Groups of people in this context and Section C provides information about 'Correct Aqeedah' of Ahle Sunnah wal Jam'a. 


The articles aim at clearing the misunderstanding of people on historical issues.
We have described facts, as contained in authentic History books/Islamic literature, Quranic verses and Ahadith.  Ahle Sunnah scholars' opinions have been cited all through the article. 

We have refrained from expressing our personal opinions throughout the article.

We have avoided Shia sources all together, because they criticize and condemn Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) 

Condemnation of Sahabah is not allowed in Islam.  Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is a Sahabi e Rasool (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم); therefore it is important that we keep our mouth shut from his criticism. However, it is essential that we know the historic facts, as they are, in order to keep our Sahih Iman in tact.

We have avoided Salafi / Deobandi sources because they excessively praise Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and criticize Hadhrat Ali, Hadhrat Hassan and Hadhrat Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین ).

It is important to keep in mind that there was a long a deadly conflict between Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Bait e At Haar  (رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین).  Thus,  exclusive and single out praise and glorification of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) will have a direct bearing on the respect of Khulafa e Rashideen and Ahle Bait e At haar (رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین) as it  reduces their importance  in the eyes of the people and  demonizes their pivotal roles in building the Islamic nation.  

Distinction among Sahabah is mandatory in Islam.  If you do not keep this distinction in mind, you have strayed, you have lost the right path of Islam.    

We hope our readers will greatly benefit from this article.  If you think some information related to a particular issue has been left, please write to us, giving authentic Ahle Sunnah references. We will try to accommodate it as far as possible.

There are 11 articles in this series that cover various misunderstandings and differences of opinions about the tribulations that hit the Islamic nation during 50 years immediately after the death of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  For better understanding, it is important that you read these articles in the same sequence, from part 1 to 11.

 

 

SECTION - A

 

As we have described above, Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and condemned by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

There are 2 distinct groups among Muslims in this context.  

(i) Those who claim love of Ahle Baite-at-haar but accuse and abuse Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Sahabah.  Like Shia Ithna Ashari, Zaidi and other groups who also hate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for his fight against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  In their blind hate, they shower choicest abuses on Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). Needless to say that they have lost the right path of Islam.    

(ii) Those  who single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and  spend their lives in his over-glorification knowing fully well that their behavior undermines the importance and sacrifices made by Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Baite At Haar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) in the eyes of people.   

Every Muslim respects Sahabah and praises them individually and collectively. But Muawiyeen behave strangely. They praise one to undermine other Sahabah. They single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and shower excessive praises and place him equal in status with Khulafa-e-Rashideen.  In order to justify their behavior, they give references from Quran and Sunnah about generalized praise of Sahabah, and taking it as a  cover,  they write books, conduct seminars, sing encomiums over-glorifying Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in their choicest terms

There are two sub groups of this category. 

(a) Salafis, Ikhwan, Deobandis, and their like minded groups claim Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was on Haq in his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They claim that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) should have surrendered to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه  ) as was done by his son Imam Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They also claim that  Yazid was a pious Khalifa.  They add   رضئ الله تعالی عنه with Yazid's name and claim that Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was at fault. They say Karbala was a political episode. They blame Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) to be a Mutineer who revolted against a just Khalifa. (Astaghfirullahal azeem).

(b) Muawiyeen and their like minded claim that both Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) were right in their fight with each other. They equate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in spite of the fact that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was the Khalifa-e-Rashid and Head of Islamic nation and Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a Governor of a Province under him. There were 12 provinces of Islamic State at that time. They choose Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for their over-praise and keep their mouth shut about Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  They write books, conduct Seminars, Conferences, shower accolades, sing  praises and  scream slogans and emphasize Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) importance and greatness among Sahabah. They claim Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) was Khalifa-e-Rashid and Amir-ul-Momineen on par with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and other  Khulafa-e-Rashideen.   They proudly say that they are the defenders of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They cite references from Quran and Sunnah about the praise of Sahabah in general, and taking it as a cover,  over glorify Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in the choicest terms possible. 
 

Read more about Muawiyeen and their beliefs

 

 

 

SECTION - B

 

DIFFERENCES OF OPINION ABOUT MUAWIYA'S ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) REIGN AS HEAD OF STATE

 

 
(1) Some people try to equate Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on the basis of their common ancestry. The great-great grandfather Abdu Munaf bin Qusay had 4 sons; (1) Hashim, (2) Muttalib, (3) Nawfal and (4) Abdu Shams.  Hadhrat Hashim was the great grand father of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) while Abdu Shams was the great grand father of Muawiyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Yazid
 
To equate Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with Muawiyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on the basis of this equation is misleading.  Read the following Hadith. 
 
It is in Hadith -  Hadhrat Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) narrated: The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said -  "Allah created mankind, and made me from the best of them, from the best of their two groups. Then He chose tribes and made me from the best tribe. Then He chose families and made me from the best family. So I am the best of them from the best family." (Tirmidhi with Sahih Isnad)
 
The Hadith clearly specifies that Banu Hashim were the best family of Quraish among whom Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) were born.  Banu Abdu Shams or their sub clan Banu Umayya cannot be equated with Banu Hashim. Read below some Ahadith which clarify the merits and importance of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and other members of Ahle Bait among Sahabah.
(i) It is in Hadith -  Narrated by Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) . The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) left Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) behind, in the campaign of Tabuk. The latter said: “O Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )! Are you leaving me behind with the women and children?” The Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) replied: “Are you not happy to stand next to me like Hadhrat Harun (علیھ السلا م) next to Hadhrat Musa (علیھ السلا م), save that there is no Prophet after me.  (Bukhari, Muslim). 
(ii) It is in Hadith - Hasan al-Basri  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) narrated, "I heard Abu Bakra ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) say, 'I saw the Prophet, (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on the pulpit while Hadhrat Hasan Ibn Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was beside him. He would face the people one moment, and him the other. He said -  إِنَّ ابْنِي هذَا سَيِّدٌ وَلَعَلَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى أَنْ يُصْلِحَ بِهِ بَيْنَ فِئَتَيْنِ عَظِيمَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِين  ( This son of mine is a leader/master. Perhaps Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) will make peace between two great parties of Muslims through him) (Part of the Hadith). (Bukhari)
 
(2) Some people cite the following facts : 
 
Abu Sufyan's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) family was among the most influential people in Makka during Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time.  Muawiya Ibn Abu-Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was born in Makka in 601.  Out of the total of 23 years of preaching of Islam (during 609-632) by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his family remained a formidable enemy of the Prophet of Islam (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for 21 years and 7 months. 
 
It is reported that Muawiya Ibn Abu-Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) led the Group of Makkan Pagans who were chasing  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to kill him when he was on his way  to Madina in 622 AD. Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was 21 years old then. The Group had even  reached to the opening of the Cave of the Bull (غار الثور ) where the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was hiding for three nights along with Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) at the start of his Makkan Journey. 
 
Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abu Sufyan) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was not the daughter of Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the mother of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). She was the daughter of Safiyyah bint Abi al-'As, another wife of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Safiyyah bint Abi al-'As was the daughter of Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah. And Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was the daughter of Utbah ibn Rabi'ah.   Meaning, Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) were born to different mothers. 
 
Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) embraced Islam in 614 AD and Makka fell in 630 AH.  Meaning, she became Muslim 16 years before the fall of Makka.   It is not known if her mother had also accepted Islam along with her. 
 
Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), his wife Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted Islam when Muslims defeated them and conquered Makka on Ramadhan 20, 8 AH (630 AD).  Since they were the archenemies of Islam and Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), they tried everything possible to eliminate Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) until they were subdued by Muslims in 630 AD. 
 
Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the mother of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the leader of Makkan Pagan women who mutilated the dead bodies of Muslims who were martyred in the battle of Uhad in 625 AD.  She and her women associates cut off the ears and noses of martyred Sahabah, made the relics as anklets, and put across their necks.  It is reported that Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) even cut open the body of Hadhrat Hamza (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), took out his liver, chewed and swallowed a part of it.
 
Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad  was the son of Ziyad bin Abih, who was the illegitimate son of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).   Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad massacred Imam Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), his family members and associates in Karbala in 680 AD. The bodies of the martyrs of Karbala were mutilated by horses and left in open desert under the sun. 
 
It is reported that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Ziyad knew that Abih was not the father of Ziyad even though the mother of Ziyad gave birth to him when she was married to Abhi and lived with him in his house as his wedded wife.  They both knew that Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the biological father of Ziyad. This fact was disclosed by Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to Ziyad and a few other people in Makka. 
 
In 664, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) officially declared Ziyad to be the son of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).   His name was  changed in official records from Ziyad bin Abih,  to Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan.  He was also made beneficiary of Abu Sufyan's inheritance as his son.  After declaring Ziyad as his brother, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rewarded Ziyad lavishly and made him Governor of Basra Province.
 
Scholars say that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not care much about Islamic Sharia. Legitimate and illegitimate Children were treated on par with each other.  The Head of State, by a decree made it a law and became himself the first example. The law of Pagans was reintroduced by the King in his State. This law opened the floodgates of adultery for the rulers and the rich which were closed by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).    
 
It is important to note that Muslim armies under the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Khulafa-e-Rashideen (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم) were never allowed to mutilate the  bodies of their dead enemies in any war as was done by Makkan Pagans. However, when Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) deposed the Rashidoon Caliphate, this practice was started again. Muawiyan forces were specially trained to create terror among people.  They used to mutilate the  bodies of Sahabah, and display their severed heads in public. It is reported that the head of  Ammar Yaasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was cut off from his body after his martyrdom in the battle of Siffeen and brought to Damascus, Syria, where it was displayed in the Court Hall of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  Similarly, the cut off fingers of Amir ul Momineen Hadhrat Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his blood stained shirt were displayed in Damascus, Syria to incite people against Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). There are many instances when the dead bodies of Sahabah were mutilated, their heads severed and displayed after they lost against Muawiyan forces. The worst example in this context is the killing, mutilation and burning of the martyred body of Mohammad bin Abi Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  This  practice was continued by Yazid bin Muawiya in Karbala, Makka and Madina. Read more - Tarikh al-Khulafa by Imam Suyuti. 
 
 
(3) Some people claim that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had accepted Islam in 7 AH but he did not disclose it to anyone. They quote a Hadith narrated by Abdullah Ibn Abbas  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in which he said that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) told him so.  This Hadith is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad.  After citing the Hadith, they equate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) with Hadhrat Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) who is reported to have accepted Islam before the battle of Badr.  
 
They also mention a Hadith in Bukhari - "Narrated Abdullah, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and some of his companions got their heads shaved and some others got their hair cut short, narrated Muawiya    (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), "I cut short the hair of Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) with a long blade (during his Umra in 8 AH)."  
 
Some people  cite the following  authentic facts about the above Hadith
 
(i) As per authentic references in Islamic literature, (Suyuti, Tabari, Ibn Hisham, etc.,)  it is mentioned that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted Islam along with his family after the fall of Makka in Ramadhan,  8 AH.  
 
(ii) It is highly unlikely that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) could have come close to the Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) during Umra in 8 AH, before the fall of Makka, as he was the  son of Abu Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), the bitter enemy of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). Muslims would not have allowed him to come near the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) with a long blade in his hands risking Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  ) life. They would have caught hold of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) with the blade in his hands and would have demanded to know his intentions. There was no way that he would have been allowed to cut the hairs of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) unless he professes his Islamic faith and submits himself to Islam.  In such a scenario, there was no chance that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) could have kept his faith secret from people.
 
(iii) If Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had indeed cut the hairs of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), it would have made a big news among Muslims as he was the son of Abu Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), the ruler of Makka.  Many Sahabah would have noticed it and would have narrated this event with Tawaatur in many Ahadith.  Nothing of this sort had happened. 
 
With the above facts in view, the above Hadith is clouded into uncertainty.  Be that as it may, we will leave this issue for our Hadith scholars for their good counsel.  
 
The circumstances in which Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted Islam has been recorded in Islamic literature, as follows :
 

It is in Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said (at the time of conquest of Makka) to Abu Sufyan - "Woe to you, O'Abu Sufyan.  Is it not time for you to know that I am the Apostle of Allah?" Abu Sufyan answered: "By God, O'Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), of this,  there is doubt in my soul." Then 'Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who was present with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told Abu Sufyan: "Woe to you! Accept Islam and testify that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the apostle of Allah before your neck is cut off by the sword." Thus he professed the faith of Islam and became a Muslim.

[ (i) Ibn Kathir, "The Prophetic Biography", part 3, p. 549; (ii) Ibn Kathir, "The Beginning and the End"; (iii) Ibn Hisham, part 4, p. 11; (iv) Chronicle of the Tabari, part 2, p. 157;  (v) Ibn Khaldun, the rest of part 2, p. 43; (vi) Al-Sira al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3. p. 18 ] 
   
 
(4) Some people cite a reference in 'Ghunia-tut-Talibeen' a book attributed to Ghousul Azam Shaikh Abdul Qader Jeelani (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in which there is mention of a Hadith  which  says that the power of  Islam will continue for up to 35 or 36 or 37 years.  This Hadith has been interpreted in the book saying that since Khilafat-e-Rashida ended in 30 years, therefore the additional 7 years period belonged to Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه). This way Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) rule/khilafat is established.
 
Some people present the following  facts in this context.  
(a) The book Ghunia-tut-Talibeen has been edited/added by publishers in successive editions/translations.  There are many translations available in the market which were carried out by Deobandis and their like minded groups.
See the picture of this Urdu translation of the related  page, and the cover of the book, in which it is  written that the book has been edited and added based on the interpretations and research  (تحقیق و تخریج کے ساتھ اضافہ شدہ ایڈیشن) by the people who are involved in this publication.  When we see Gunniyatut Talibeen translated/edited/published by different people in different languages, we realize these differences as a routine.  This is the reason it is advised that we should read books written/compiled by authentic Ahle Sunnah scholars so that your Iman remains intact.  
 
(b) The Hadith does not specify that the Caliphate will last for 37 years.  It says that 'power of  Islam will be for 35, 36 or 37 years.

(c)
If we interpret this Hadith to include Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) rule into the Caliphate, then his entire 19 years rule has to be treated that way.  We cannot say that for 7 years he was Caliph and the remaining 12 years he was not a Caliph. 
 
(d) We have an authentic Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) Hadith which says that Khalifat-e-Rashida will remain  for 30 years. 

It is in Hadith - Safeena said : The Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said: “Khilafah will be in my Ummah for thirty years, then there will be monarchy after that." Then Safinah said : "count the Khilafah of Abu Bakr ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ),' then count the Khilafah of Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and the Khilafah of Uthman ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), and the Khilafah of Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )."  He said: "So we found that they add up to thirty years."  Sa'eed said: "I said to him: 'Banu Umayya claim that the Khilafah is among them.' Safeena said : the sons of the blue woman (nick name for Umawi Grandmother) are liars; they are  Kings of the worst kind". ( Sunan Abu Dawood 4646, Jami Tirmidhi 2226.  Salafi Scholar Al-Bani graded it as Saheeh).

 
(e) If we say Khilafat-e-Rashida was for 37 years, then we will have deny the above authentic Hadith. 
 
(f) How do we reconcile both these Ahadith to understand the facts in this context? 
 
To find the answer to this question, we need to  look at the Islamic History.
 
The Hadith mentioned in Ghuniyatut Talibeen says that the power of  Islam will last for 37 years.  We all know that Muslim kings ruled in the world for centuries.  Then, what is this 37 years which is mentioned in the Hadith? Apparently, this Hadith mentions about the purest Islamic Government/power which will last for 37 years.
 
Everyone knows that the power of  Islam was established towards the end of second Hijri when Muslims won the Battle of Badr in Ramadhan 2 AH (624 AD). This win marked the establishment of real Muslim Power.
 
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) died in the beginning of 10 Hijri (12 Rabi I, 10 AH).  Meaning he was alive for about 7 years (after Badr) by which time Muslims continued their conquest of the entire Arabian Peninsula.
 
After Prophet Mohammad's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) death,  the Khilafat-e-Rashida (the purest Islamic rule) continued for the following 30 years.
 
Thus the power of (pure) Islam continued for 37 years straight;  first 7 years under Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and the following 30 years under Khulafa-e-Rashideen.
 
Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) deposed the Islamic Caliphate and became ruler of Islamic nation after abdication of Caliphate by Imam Hassan (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  Read more. 
 
(5) Some people write books and give lectures about the reign of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), appreciating his abilities as a politician and a good administrator under whom the Islamic State was united. They claim it was a model of an Islamic State.  Salafis, Deobandis, Muawiyeen,  and their like minded groups even claim Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to be Khalifa-e-Rashid.  They not only  appreciate him for the expansion of Muslim State during his reign, but also go a step further and claim  that it was because of Hadhrat Ali   (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) the expansion of Islamic State at the western front was halted.  He should have handed over the Caliphate to Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), like his son Hadhrat Imam Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did. (Astaghfirullah).
  
(6) Some people say that there is no doubt about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) abilities in manipulating things to his advantage and silencing his enemies by rewards, threats and eliminations to  establish order in the State. He learned these practices while his family ruled Makka.  But as a Muslim, he needed to use his abilities within the parameters of Sharia. Also, he should have used his political and administrative skills as a loyal supporter of the Rashidun Caliphate. Expecting his loyalty to the Islamic State,  Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) elevated him from a commoner to the Governor of Syria.  He was given full freedom to run the affairs of the Province during Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate. Where was the need for him to engineer descent among Muslims, using Amr Ibn al-'As (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Marwan and others; create anarchy in the Caliphate, spill the blood of Khulafa e Rashideen, Sahabah, taba'een and establish his empire on the martyrs' dead bodies?  To justify their claims,  they cite the following references.
 
(a) Al-Hassan al-Basri said - لقد تصنّع معاويه للخلافة في ولاية عمر بن خطاب  (Muawiya had been preparing himself for Caliphate since Hadhrat Umar's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) tenure (Mukhtasar Tarikh Damishq, Vol 25, Page 24.  It is also recorded in 'Tathbit Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, Page 593)
(b) Ibn Kathir wrote in his famous book al-Bidaya wan Nihaya as follows:   

Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was not appointed (as Caliph) with the consensus of Muslims at large as was the case with his predecessors.  Despite this Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) wanted to be the Khalīfa and he fought for this position and became ruler by force.  When he imposed his Caliphate on people, they had no choice but to give him bay'a.  If people did not give him bay'a, they would not only lose their positions/jobs but also would have lost their lives.  It would have been a catastrophe for them.  People would rather give bay'a than confront these consequences. That is why Imam Hassan ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) stepped down and other Sahaba joined him so as to avoid the risk of civil War among Muslims. Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was well aware of this strategy.  He himself confessed, "I was absolutely aware of nation's discontent with my caliphate; however, I secured it by sword" (Al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya, Vol 8, Page 132).  


(7) Some people cite the following facts :
 
During his reign,  Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) ordered people to kill each other and  unjustly consume wealth (without regard to Islamic Sharia).  They provide following references.

It is in Hadith - It has been narrated on the authority of 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abd Rabb al-Ka'ba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who said: I entered the mosque when 'Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-'As ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was sitting in the shade of the Ka'ba and the people had gathered around him. I betook myself to them and sat near him. (Now) Abdullah ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said: I accompanied the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on a journey. We halted at a place. Some of us began to set right their tents, others began to compete with one another in shooting, and others began to graze their beasts, when an announcer of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announced that the people should gather together for prayer, so we gathered around the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He said: It was the duty of every Prophet that has gone before me to guide his followers to what he knew was good for them and warn them against what he knew was bad for them; but this Umma of yours has its days of peace and (security) in the beginning of its career, and in the last phase of its existence it will be afflicted with trials and with things disagreeable to you. (In this phase of the Umma), there will be tremendous trials one after the other, each making the previous one dwindle into insignificance. When they would be afflicted with a trial, the believer would say: This is going to bring about my destruction. When at (the trial) is over, they would be afflicted with another trial, and the believer would say: This surely is going to be my end. Whoever wishes to be delivered from the fire and enter the garden should die with faith in Allah and the Last Day and should treat the people as he wishes to be treated by them.

He who swears allegiance to a Caliph should give him the pledge of his hand and the sincerity of his heart (i.e. submit to him both outwardly as well as inwardly). He should obey him to the best of his capacity. If another man comes forward (as a claimant to Caliphate), disputing his authority, they (the Muslims) should behead the latter. The narrator says: I came close to him ('Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-'As -  رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and said to him: Can you say on oath that you heard it from the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? He pointed with his hands to his ears and his heart and said: My ears heard it and my mind retained it. I said to him: This cousin of yours, Mu'awiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), orders us to unjustly consume our wealth among ourselves and to kill one another, while Allah says: "O ye who believe, do not consume your wealth among yourselves unjustly, unless it be trade based on mutual agreement, and do not kill yourselves. Verily, God is Merciful to you" (4-29). The narrator says that (hearing this) Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-As -  kept quiet for a while and then said: Obey him in so far as he is obedient to God; and disobey him in matters involving disobedience to God.  (Muslim, Book 20, Hadith #  4546)

 

(8) Some people cite the following facts :

Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used Haram in his food, drink and clothing during his reign.  They provide the following references in support of these facts.

(i) Imam Ahmad has recorded the following Hadith in his Musnad.  

It is in Hadith -   حدثنا عبدالله حدثنى أبى ثنا زيد بن الحباب حدثنى حسين ثنا عبدالله بن بريدة قال - دخلت أنا و أبي على معاوية فأجلسنا على الفرش ثمّ أتينا بالطعام فأكلنا ثمّ أتينا بالشراب فشرب معاوية ثمّ ناول أبي ثمّ قال ما شربته منذ حرمه رسول الله عليه و سلم  ثمّ قال معاوية كنت أجمل شباب قريش وأجوده  ثغرا  وما شيء كنت أجدله لذة كما  كنتت  وأنا شباب غير اللبن أو اِنسان حسن الحديث يحدثني اِسناده قوي  (Abdullah bin Buraida said: ‘I entered on Muawiya with my father, then he (Mu’awiya) made us sit on a mattress then he brought food to us and we ate, then he brought drink to us, Muawiya drank and then he offered that to my father, thus (my father) said: ‘I never drank it since the messenger of Allah made it Haram’….” (Musnad Ahmad, Vol 5, Page 347, Hadith # 22991)

Abi Bakar al-Hathami  recorded this Hadith Majma al Zawaid, Vol 5, page 554, Hadith # 8022 and stated رواه أحمد ورجاله رجال الصحيح (Ahmad narrated it and the narrators are Sahih). A Salafi scholar Shaikh Muqbil al-Wadi’e also decalred it ‘Hasan’ (Musnad al-Sahih, page 185).

 

(ii) Shah Abdulaziz, Muhadith-e-Dehalwi has recorded the following in his book Tuhfa Ithna Ashariya. 

Abada bin Samit was in Syria when he saw Muawiya’s convoy comprised of a queue of camels having alcohol on their back. Abada asked: “What are these?”. People answered: “These are alcohol that Muawiya has sent for the purpose of selling”.  Abada came with a knife and he cut the ropes on the camels till all the alcohol spilled out” [Tuhfa Ithna Ashriya (Persian) Page 638]

The above incident is also available in Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Volume 26 page 197 and in Siyar Alam al Nubla, Vol 2, page 10.   Salafis have removed the name Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) from the new edition of these books and replaced it with word "Fulan" (such and such).  But the statement remained even in the new editions saying that 'alcohol belonged to the ruler of Syria was spilled'.  It is a known fact that the ruler of Syria at that time was Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) only. 

 

(iii) Ibn Asakir has recorded the following Hadith in Tarik Damishq.

It is in Hadith - Muhammad bin Ka’ab al-Qurdhi said: ‘Abdulrahman bin Sahl al-Ansari participated in a war during Uthman’s (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reign and Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the ruler (Governor) of Syria, then a barrel of alcohol passed before him (Abdulrahman), so he went there while holding his spear and penetrated into every barrel, the slaves resisted him, till Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was informed about that. (Mu’awiya) said: “Leave him, he is an old man and has lost his mind’. (Abdulrahman) said: ‘By Allah, he has lied, I didn’t lose my mind, but Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade us to drink it, I swear by Allah that if I live till I see what I heard from the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) about Mu’awiya, either I will split and open Muawiya’s stomach or I will die’. 

[Ibn Asakir recorded this Hadith in Tarik Damishq, Vol 34, page 240.  Muttaqi al-Hindi recorded it in Kanzul Ummal, Volume 5, page 713, # 13716 Mohammad al-Manawi recorded it in "Faydh al-Qadir, Vol. 5, Page 462.  Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani recorded it in 'Al-Isaba', Vol. 4, Page 313. Asad al-Ghaba recorded it under topic 'Abdulrahman bin Sahl bin Zayd', Vol 1, page 699]

 

(iv) Abu Dawood has recorded the following Hadith in his Sunan.

It is in Hadith - Narrated Al-Miqdam Ibn Ma'dikarib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : "Khalid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: Al-Miqdam Ibn Ma'dikarib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and a man of Banu Asad from the people of Qinnisrin went to Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

Mu’awiyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to al-Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): Do you know that Hassan Ibn Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has died? Al-Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) recited the Qur’anic verse "We belong to Allah and to Him we shall return."

The man (from Banu Asad) asked him (Al-Miqdam - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Do you think it a calamity? He replied: Why should I not consider it a calamity when it is a fact that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to take him on his lap, saying: This belongs to me and Hussain (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) belongs to Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)? The man of Banu Asad said: (He was) a live coal which Allah has extinguished.

Al-Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: Today I shall continue to make you angry and make you hear what you dislike. He then said: Muawiyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), if I speak the truth, declare me true, and if I tell a lie, declare me false.

He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: Do so. He said: I adjure you by Allah, did you hear the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  forbidding  use to wear gold?

He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied: Yes. He said: I adjure you by Allah, do you know that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  prohibited the wearing of silk?

He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied: Yes.  He said: I adjure you by Allah, do you know that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  prohibited the wearing of the skins of beasts of prey and riding on them?

He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: Yes. He said: I swear by Allah, I saw all this in your house, O' Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: I know that I cannot be saved from you, O' Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

Khalid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) then ordered to give him what he did not order to give to his two companions, and gave a stipend of two hundred (Dirhams) to his son.  Al-Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) then divided it among his companions, and the man of Banu Asad did not give anything to anyone from the property he received. When Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was informed about it, he said: Al-Miqdam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  is a generous man; he has an open hand (for generosity). The man of Banu Asad withholds his things in a good manner”. (Sunan Abu Daud Book 32, hadith # 4119)
 

(9) Some people mention that  public curse and insult of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was officially sponsored by Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) which continued for several decades after his death. For over 65 years, between 657 and 720 the curse was an official Government policy. During this period, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was cursed and insulted at public platforms and Juma sermons in Government-controlled mosques all over the Islamic State. What Salafis/Deobandis are doing about Ahle Bait today is the legacy of that period. They mention the following authentic references. 

(i) It is in Hadith - Abdullah al-Jadali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said: "I came to Umm Salama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and she said to me: 'How come Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is being cursed among you?'. "I replied: We seek refuge from Allah or praise Allah or some similar words". She said: 'I heard Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying "whoever curses Ali Ibn Abi Talib ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) has (indeed) cursed me" (Musnad Ahmad, Vol 6, Hadith # 26791)

(ii) It is in Hadith - عن سعد بن أبي وقاص قال قدم معاوية في بعض حجاته فدخل عليه سعد فذكروا عليا فنال منه فغضب سعد وقال تقول هذا  -  [On his way to Hajj, Sa'd ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) met Mu'awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his companions mentioned Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) upon which Mu'awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) showed disrespect towards Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); Sa'd (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) got angry and asked "why do you say such things?]  (Ibn Maja - Salafi scholar Al-Bani said this Hadith is authentic - Sahih Sunan Ibn Maja by Albani - Vol. 1).   

(iii) It is in Hadith -  عن عامر بن سعد بن أبي وقاص، عن أبيه، قال أمر معاوية بن أبي سفيان سعدا فقال ما منعك أن تسب أبا التراب فقال أما ما ذكرت ثلاثا قالهن له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فلن أسبه لأن تكون لي واحدة منهن

Amir bin Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) reported on the authority of his father that Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) appointed Sa’d ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) as the Governor and said: What prevents you from abusing Abu Turab (Hadrat ‘Ali  رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), whereupon he said : It is because of three things which I remember Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) having said about him that I would not abuse him and even if I find one of those three things for me, it would be more dear to me than the red camel. I heard Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say about ‘Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) as he left behind him in one of his campaigns (Tabuk). ‘Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said to him: Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), you leave me behind along with women and children. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said to him: Aren’t you satisfied that you are to me  like Aaron ( عليه السلام ) was to Moses ( عليه السلام ) but with this exception that there is no prophet after me. And I (also) heard him say on the Day of Khaibar: I would certainly give this standard (banner) to a person who loves Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) love him too. He (the narrator) said: We had been anxiously waiting for it, when he (the Apostle - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: Call ‘Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). He was called and his eyes were inflamed (red). He applied (his) saliva to Ali's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) eyes and handed over the standard (banner) to him, and Allah gave him victory. (The third occasion) When the (following) verse was revealed: “Let us summon our children and your children (Aal-e-Imran - 61).” Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called ‘Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Husain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) and said: O'Allah, they are my family. (Sahih Muslim - Book 31, Hadith # 5915)

Qurtubi in his book Al-Mufhem, Vol 20 page 25 wrote -  وقول معاوية لسعد بن أبي وقاص : ما منعك أن تسب أبا تراب ؛ يدل : على أن مقدم بني أمية كانوا يسبون عليا وينتقصونه [The statement of Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )  to Sa’d bin Abi Waqas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) “what prevents you from cursing Abu Turab (رضئ الله تعالی عنه )” indicates that the first generation of Bani Umayya were abusing and insulting Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) openly (in mosques and public places).]  

Ibn Tamiyah wrote in his Minhaj as-Sunnah, Vol. 5, page 42 - وأما حديث سعد لما أمره معاوية بالسب فأبى [While the narration about Sa'd ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) (relates to) when Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) ordered him (Sa'd رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) to curse Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), but he refused.]

There is another version of the above Hadith recorded by  Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Fath ul Bari, Sharah Sahih Bukhari, Vol 7, Chapter 'Manaqib-e-Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ):

وعند أبي يعلى عن سعد من وجه آخر لا بأس به قال لو وضع المنشار على مفرقي على أن أسب عليا ما سببته أبدا

Sa’d ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said: “Even if a saw was placed over my neck to abuse Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), I wouldn’t do so."

 

(iv) Ibn Kathir recorded the following Hadith :

وقال أبو زرعة الدمشقي : ثنا أحمد بن خالد الذهبي أبو سعيد ، ثنا محمد بن إسحاق ، عن عبد الله بن أبي نجيح ، عن أبيه قال : لما حج معاوية أخذ بيد سعد بن أبي وقاص فقال : يا أبا إسحاق ، إنا قوم قد أجفانا هذا الغزو عن الحج حتى كدنا أن ننسى بعض سننه ، فطف نطف بطوافك . قال : فلما فرغ أدخله دار الندوة ، فأجلسه معه على سريره ، ثم ذكر علي بن أبي طالب فوقع فيه ، فقال : أدخلتني دارك ، وأجلستني على سريرك ، ثم وقعت في علي تشتمه ؟

When Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) went for Hajj, he held the hand of Sa’d bin Abi Waqas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and said to him: ‘Oh Abi Ishaq ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )! We are the people who abandoned Hajj because of wars until we almost forgot some of its rules, so we performed Tawaf to imitate your Tawaf’. When they completed (Hajj), he (Muawiya رضئ الله تعالی عنه) entered upon him (Sa’d رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in a conference room and sat with him on his sofa, then he (Muawiya رضئ الله تعالی عنه) mentioned Ali bin Abi Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and cursed him. He (Sa’d رضئ الله تعالی عنه) said: ‘You brought me to your house and made me sit on your sofa and then you have begun to curse Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )? (Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihayah, Vol 7, Chapter 'Virtues of Hadhrat Ali ).


(v) It is in Hadith - استعمل على المدينة رجل من آل مروان ، قال فدعا سهل بن سعد فأمره أن يشتم عليا ، قال: فأبى سهل ، فقال له: أمّا إذ أبيت فقل: لعن الله أبا التراب. فقال سهل: ما كان لعليٍّ اسم أحب إليهِ من أبي التراب و إن كان ليفرح إذا دُعيَّ به ( Meaning - A person from the offspring of Marwan was appointed as the governor of Medina. He called Sahl ibn Sa'd and ordered him to abuse Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Sahl refused to do that. He (the governor) said to him: If you do not agree to it (at least) say: May Allah curse Abu Turab. Sahl said: There was no name dearer to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) than Abu Turab (for it was given to him by the Holy Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم himself) and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) felt delighted when he was called by this name.) (Muslim)

(vi) It is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Hazim (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ): A man came to Sahl bin Sad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and said, "This is so-and-so," meaning the Governor of Medina, "He is calling Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) bad names near the pulpit." Sahl (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) asked, "What is he saying?" He (the man) replied, "He calls him Abu Turab."  Sahl (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) laughed and said, "By Allah, none but the Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called him by this name and no name was dearer to 'Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) than this." So I asked Sahl (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to tell me more, saying, "O Abu 'Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )! How (was this name given to 'Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )?" Sahl (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "'Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) went to Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and then came out and slept in the mosque. The Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), "Where is your cousin?" She said, "In the mosque." The Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went to him and found that his covering sheet had slipped off his back and dust had soiled his back. The Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) started wiping the dust off his back, and said twice, "Get up! O Abu Turab (O man with the dust)." (Bukhari)

The  Ahadith above show that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his Governors were using the title "Abu Turab" to insult  Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). 

Marwan, the fourth Umayyed ruler, emphasized the importance of cursing Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) as a tool of their Government.  

(vii) When Hadhrat Ali Ibn Hussain Zain al-Abedeen (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) asked Marwan why does he curse Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) from the pulpit, Marwan said : 'Our reign would not be sound without that. (la yastaqimu l-amru illa bi-dhalik).  (Ibn Asakir)

Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) forced people to abandon Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) because of his hatred for Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).

(viii) It is in Hadith - Saeed bin Jubair (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: ‘We were with Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Arafa and he said to me: O' Saeed (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), why don’t I hear the people performing talbya?’ I replied: ‘They are afraid of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)’. Then Ibn Abbas went out from his cottage and said:  لبيك اللهم لبيك، لبيك لا شريك لك لبيك إن الحمد والنعمة لك والملك، لاشريك لك they abandon the Sunnah for their hate towards Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

[(a) Sunan Nasai, Vol 5 page 253 Tradition 3019; (b)  Sahih Ibn Khuzaima, Vol 4 page 260 Hadith 2830; (c) Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol 1, Page 364-65 - All of them declared it Sahih.  Salafi scholar Al-Bani also declared it Sahih. (d) Baihaqi in Sunan al-Kubra, Vol 5, Page 113,  added in the Hadith : "Thus Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) went out from his tent saying: "لبيك اللهم لبيك" in defiance of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); may Allah curse them, they abandon the Sunnah in view of their hatred towards Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)".]

 

(ix) HUJR IBN ADI  ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )

Hujr Ibn Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a pious Sahabi.  There are differences of opinions among scholars if he was a Sahabi or Taba'ee.  Ibn Abdul Bar, Ibn Atheer, Hakim, Ibn Asakir, Dahabi and others have mentioned that Hujr Ibn Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a companion.  He came to Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) from Kufa in a delegation and accepted Islam. Whereas,  Bukhari and others have mentioned that he was a Taba'ee.  

Hujr ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was in the army that conquered Syria, and Qadisiya ( in Iraq). He took part in the Battles of  CamelSiffin and Nahrwan alongside Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  

Islamic literature is full of authentic references that the practice of abusing, accusing and cursing Aliرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was started during Muawiya's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) reign in all the state-controlled mosques and public platforms.  This practice was continued  for over 65 years;  from 657 to 720. During this time Governors, State officials, Imams of mosques used to abuse Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) during Friday Sermons.

When Hadhrat Ali Ibn Husain Zain al-Abedeen (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) asked Marwan why does he curse Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) from the pulpit, Marwan said 'Our reign would not be sound without that. (la yastaqimu l-amru illa bi-dhalik).  (Ibn Asakir)

It is reported that in 51 AH, Ziyad bin Abih [ who was declared by Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) to be the biological son of Abu Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his name was changed to Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan by a decree issued by Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) ] was appointed as Governor of Kufa  by Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) he started abusing Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) from the pulpit as was done by his predecessors. It is recorded that Hujr bin Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) objected to the public insults.  Enraged over his objection, Ziyad arrested Hujr bin Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) along with 6 others and sent them to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), who sentenced them to death with the condition that if they abused Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) openly, they will be pardoned. They refused to do so. Finally Hujr bin Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), his son Human Ibn Hajr ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and 5 others were brutally murdered outside Damascus. Details can be found in (a) Dalail al-Baihaqi, Vol 6,  (b) Tareekh Ibn Asakir, Vol 12 - 'Zikr Hujr Ibn Adi, (c) Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad by Mohammad bin Yusuf al-Salehi al-Shami (d 942 H), Vol 10, (d) Kanzul Ummal, Ahadith Nos. 30887, 35510, 37511, 36530,  (e) Khasais al-Kubra, Vol 2, etc.

It is in Hadith - Saeed bin Hilal narrated that Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) went to Hajj and (after Hajj) came to Ummul Moineen Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ).  She said to him: ‘Oh Mu’awiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )! You killed Hujr bin al-Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his companions! By Allah! I heard (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  saying) that some people will be killed at Adra (Syria) and Allah and the people of heaven will get angry over that. (Kanz ul Ummal, Vol 13, Hadith # 37511) 

Baihaqi dedicated a full chapter in his book ‘Dalail’ titled باب ما روى في إخباره بقتل نفر من المسلمين ظلما بعذراء من أرض الشام فكان كما أخبر صلى الله عليه وسلم [Chapter about what he has narrated of some Muslims getting unjustly killed in a land in Syria, namely Adra, and it was true as He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) had told].

It was reported in worldwide media that on May 2, 2013, Salafi/Wahhabi terrorists, supported by Saudi Royal family, destroyed  pious grave of Hujr bin Adi ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  They took out his body along with them. What they did with his body is not known.
 

 

(x) It is in Hadith - Ibn Sa'd Umair bin Is-haq narrated "Marawan was our ruler (appointed as Governor of Madina by Muawiya رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). He used to accuse and abuse Hadhrat Ali  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) every Friday from the Member of the Mosque (Masjid-e-Nabawi).  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to listen to this slang but he never replied.  One day, Marwan sent a person to Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with a message that the example of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was like Mule.  When a mule is asked as to who was his father, it says my mother was a Mare (Female Horse). After listening to this abuse, Hadhrat Hassan  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) told the person to go and inform Marwan that "I will not abuse him in retaliation because it may help him to lessen the evil from his record of deeds.  Hadhrat Hassan  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) further said, Allah will decide between him and Marwan on the day of Judgment.  "If Marwan is truthful, let Allah provide him recompense (thawaab).  And if he is a liar, then Allah will give him the severest of the punishments.  (Jalaluddin Suyuti recorded this Hadith in Tariq al-Khulafa).   

There are authentic Ahadith emphasizing the importance of respect of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and other members of Ahle Bait.

(i) It is in Hadith - Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : "Loving Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is the sign of belief, and hating Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is the sign of hypocrisy." [Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmed, Bukhari (Tarikh al-Kabir), Abu Nu'aym, etc.]

(ii) It is in Hadith -  Abu Hurraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated : The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said : For whosoever I am Mawla then Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is his Mawla. O' Allah befriend those who befriend Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and be enemy of those who are enemy to Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). [Ahmed (4/370), Ibn Hibban (2205), Ibn Abi Asim (1367, 1368) Haythami (9/104) Tirmidhi (2/298)]

(iii) It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) narrated: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) looked toward Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), Sayyida Fatima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Husain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and said: "I am in the state of war with those who will fight you, and in the state of peace with those who are peaceful to you." (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Hakim, al-Haytami, Tabarani, Dhahabi, Mishkat, Ibn Hibban, etc.)

 
(10) Some people mention that Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ life style matched the lifestyles of monarchs of Iran and Rome.  The Public Treasury (Bait ul Maal) was converted into king's personal wealth. Freedom of speech was withdrawn. Freedom of Judiciary was nominal. Tribal prejudices were encouraged and old pagan structure of Governance was revived where the King supported the tribal lords and in turn tribal lords supported the King.  Many Sharia rules were broken and pre-Islamic Pagan practices were re-introduced.  They cite the following opinions of Ahle Sunnah Ulema about these practices.  
(i) ZIYAD BIN ABIH  ( زياد بن أبيه
 
During Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate, Ziyad bin Abih was sent to suppress a Persian rebellion in 659 in Estakhr, Iran.  Ziyad succeeded in this mission and stayed in Estakhr, as its Governor.  In 661, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was assassinated and Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) became the Caliph.  Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was deposed by Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) under a peace treaty in 661. 
 
In 662, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) sent Mughira, his governor at Kufa, to Istakhr to recall Ziyad to Damascus. Ziyad obeyed the orders.
 
It is reported that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Ziyad knew that Abih was not the father of Ziyad. They both knew that Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the biological father of Ziyad.  This fact was also known to some people in Makka.  
 
In 664, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) officially declared Ziyad to be the son of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).   His name was  changed in official records from Ziyad bin Abih,  to Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan. He was also made beneficiary of Abu Sufyan's inheritance as his son.  After declaring Ziyad as his brother, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rewarded Ziyad lavishly and made him Governor of Basra Province. 
 
Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad was the son of Ziyad bin Abih (later declared as Ziyad bin Abu Sufyan).  Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad was made Governor of Kufa by Yazid bin Muawiya in 680. Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad brutally massacred Hadhrat Imam Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his family members in Karbala in 680. On his orders, Imam Hussain's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) pious body was mutilated by horses after severing the head. The mutilated bodies of the Martyrs of Karabala were left, in open desert, by Ibn Ziyad's Yazidi forces  under the sun. Allahu Akbar.   

Scholars say that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not care much about Islamic Sharia. Legitimate and illegitimate Children were treated on par with each other.  The Head of State, by a decree made it a law and became himself the first example. The law of Pagans was reintroduced by the King in his State. This law opened the floodgates of adultery for the rulers and the rich which were closed by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

(a) Imam Suyuti wrote : When Ziyad was attributed, as Mu’awiya attributed him to his father Abu Sufyan while he (Ziyad) was known as Ziyad bin Abih because his mother had given birth to him on Ubaid’s bed, and this was the first Sharia law that was changed in Islamic State by Muawiya(Al-Debaj ala Muslim, Volume 1 page 84)

(b) Abi Al-'Aliyah narrated: Abu Zarr ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said to Yazid bin Abu Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ): 'I heard the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) say: “The first one to change my Sunnah will be a man from Banu Umayyah.” (Al-Awa'il by Ibn Abi Aasim.  Salafi scholar al-Bani declared it Hassan in his Silsila Saheeha # 1749). 

(c) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal wrote: ‘The first law of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) that was rejected is the case of Ziyad’ (Masa'el ahmed bin Hanbal, Page 89).

(d) Hasan Farhan al-Maliki, a well known Saudi Salafi cleric wrote:

"During the reign of Mu’awiya, a group testified that Abu Sufyan confessed Ziyad to be his son, so according to that Mu’awiya attributed him (to Abu Sufyan) and contradicted the Sahih Hadith which is, 'the boy belongs to the bed (where he was born), and for the adulterer is the stone'.  What Muawiya did was for worldly benefits. Those who condemn Muawiya’s deed had declared it. And the scholars agreed on the illegality of his attribution to Abu Sufyan".  (Naho Inqad al-Tarikh’ page 31)

 

(ii) During his rule, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) issued a decree banning Gold and silver  from distribution among people from the War booty.  It was treated as personal wealth of the Khalifa. (Dahabi, Hakim, Abi Shaibah and others).

 

(iii) Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) tried to destroy the image of Ahle Bait e At Haar.  In order to brainwash Muslims, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) started a  full scale media campaign against Ahle Bait e At haar, particularly Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to destroy their image in the eyes of the people. Details can be read at # 8, above. 

 

(iv) Salat al Eid was changed

(a) Imam Shafii stated that Abdullah bin Yazid al-Khutmi said: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and all Khulafa e Rashideen used to start by praying before the Sermon on Eid till Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came and made the sermon before the Prayer (Al-Uam, Vol. 1, Page 329 by Imam Shafii).

(b) Qatadah narrated from Saeed bin al-Mysiyib that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the first person to recite Adhan and Iqamah during Eid al Fitr and Eid al-Adha (Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya, Vol. 8, page 139).

(c) Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Fathul Bari, Vol 2, Page 529 stated that "There is a difference of opinion over who introduced the Adhan in Eid Salah?  Ibn Sheba has a tradition with a Sahih Isnad attributing this to Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), while Imam Shafii stated that Ibn Ziyad introduced this in Basra.  But the vast bulk of traditions testify that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہintroduced this in the same way that he introduced the Khutbah of Eid before Salah.

 

(v) Daily Salah was changed

(a) Imam Badruddin al-Aini recorded in Umadatul Qari, (Sharah Sahih Bukhari) volume 8, page 58 that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) not only made changes to the Eid prayers, but he also had the audacity to make changes in the daily prayers by reducing the takbeer.

(b) At-Tabari said - Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was asked about the first one who abandoned Takbir during raising the head and prostration, he replied Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  Suyuti also recorded a similar narration.

(c) Ad Dahabi recorded in Tanqih al-Tahqiq, vol 1 page 113 as follows:  "Mujahid said, Adhan and Iqamah both were double, but when Umayyads ruled, they made the Iqamah single. "

 

 

SECTION - C

 

AHLE SUNNAH AQEEDAH 

 

We,  the Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a, respect all 124,000 Sahabah, including Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). We honor them all.  However, it is important that we understand historical facts in their proper perspective. We cannot falter in this respect.  If we falter, respect for Ahle Baite at-Haar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) will vanish from our hearts, and  we will form some extreme opinions about them and will go astray. 

What are Sahih Iman priorities in this context? 

The answer is, you can glorify Khulafa-e-Rashideen or Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).  As a matter of fact, whatever glorification you do about Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Khulafa-e-Rashideen, it will amount to be a drop in the ocean of their greatness. No one can praise Khulafa-e-Rashideen appropriately. They are oceans of piety and greatest among human beings and Sahabah, next only to prophets.

What Khulafa e Rashideen did and what members of Ahle Bait did was "Haq".  They were right in their actions.  This is our Iman. 

Imam al-Manawi wrote:   أجمع فقهاء الحجاز والعراق من فريقي الحديث والرأي ، منهم مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة والأوزاعي والجمهور الأعظم من المتكلمين والمسلمين ، أن علياً مصيب في قتاله لأهل صفين كما هو مصيب في أهل الجمل ، وأن الذين قاتلوه بغاة ظالمون له    [There is Ijma of Fuqaha (Jurists) of Hijaz (Makka and Madina) and Iraq (Kufa and Basra), among them Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Awzai and majority of theologians and Muslims that,  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was on Haq in his fight against the people of Siffeen and those who fought him were Oppressive Mutineers (Zaalim Baghis).]

[Reference - Imam al-Manawi (1545 - 1621), wrote in his book  Fayd al - Qadeer with reference to Imam Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani's (1007-1078) Aqeeda.]

Imam Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Sana'ani said - "The Hadith of Ammar Yasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is a proof that rebel party is Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and those in his party;  and the Party of truth is Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions and there is Ijma of ahl al-sunna on this position". (Sharah Subul as-Salam upon bulugh al-maram of Imam Ibn Hajar Makki  V3, P 358)

However, some Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that Muawiya's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) mistakes were Ijtehadi.  

We respect opinions of all our Ulema.   We also respect their differences of opinions. 

As far as we are concerned, we prefer to keep quite in Muawiya's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) case.

 

AUTHENTIC HISTORY ACCOUNTS

All our Ulema have  consensus that  authentic Islamic history accounts confirm that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) openly accepted Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to be better than him in all respects and deserved to be the Khalifa more than himself. 

The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows:

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."  

Muslim scholars cite the following historical facts.

Before Hadhrat Ali's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) caliphate, there were many Sahabah  who acted differently in similar circumstances.  Like, Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) never blamed the Khalifa of any wrong doing.  He never questioned the Caliph on certain decisions even if they were made against his wishes / recommendations.   He did not stage a rebellion or even objected when Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) removed him from the post of Commander of Muslim forces without giving any reason. He never argued that he was made commander of Muslim forces by Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and continued in the same capacity in Hadhrat Abu Bakr's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) time and Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to fire him from this position; like Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to remove him from that position.  For Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), the job of commander of Chief of Muslim forces was so dear,  still he did not rebel and  lived as an example of piety and bravery.  He was never eager to become Khalifa even though he was popular among Muslims.  As a matter of fact he was a hero and role model for Muslims in view of his bravery and tactical successes on the battle field.  He never demanded that he be made Governor of the areas conquered by him. He was a big source of solidifying and strengthening the Islamic nation and remained a loyal/trusted Commander of Islamic State till his last breath.   

When Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was chosen as Khalifa, there was near anarchy in the Islamic State.  In order to bring back normalcy, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) asked all Governors to formally resign from their positions. Later they could have been reshuffled or re-appointed again.  Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) refused to resign and staged a rebellion and claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to ask him to resign. Muawiya's rebellion caused hundreds of thousands of deaths of Sahabah, Taba'een and Muslims. Ad-Dahabi wrote : About 60 to 70 thousand people died in the battle of Siffeen in which Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) fought against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). This demonstrates what Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said about Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  ( Ammar bin Yasser Hadith in Bukhari and Muslim)

It is in Hadith - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari  447, Muslim 7320)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said - "I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against (Muawiya's - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rebel Group.   (Ibn Abdul Barr  in  Al-Istiab ) 
 
It is narrrated in Hadith Bukhari that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) declared in front of a large gathering of Sahabah, Tabaeen and Muslims that he was more rightful to be the Khalifa  than Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  Read the following Hadith Bukhari. 
 
حَدَّثَنِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ وَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ طَاوُسٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى حَفْصَةَ وَنَسْوَاتُهَا تَنْطُفُ، قُلْتُ قَدْ كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ النَّاسِ مَا تَرَيْنَ، فَلَمْ يُجْعَلْ لِي مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَىْءٌ‏.‏ فَقَالَتِ الْحَقْ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ، وَأَخْشَى أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي احْتِبَاسِكَ عَنْهُمْ فُرْقَةٌ‏.‏ فَلَمْ تَدَعْهُ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ، فَلَمَّا تَفَرَّقَ النَّاسُ خَطَبَ مُعَاوِيَةُ قَالَ مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمَ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ فَلْيُطْلِعْ لَنَا قَرْنَهُ، فَلَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنْهُ وَمِنْ أَبِيهِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ فَهَلاَّ أَجَبْتَهُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَحَلَلْتُ حُبْوَتِي وَهَمَمْتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ مِنْكَ مَنْ قَاتَلَكَ وَأَبَاكَ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ‏.‏ فَخَشِيتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ كَلِمَةً تُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْجَمْعِ، وَتَسْفِكُ الدَّمَ، وَيُحْمَلُ عَنِّي غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ، فَذَكَرْتُ مَا أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ فِي الْجِنَانِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبٌ حُفِظْتَ وَعُصِمْتَ‏.‏ قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ وَنَوْسَاتُهَا‏.

Narrated `Ikrima bin Khalid ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) : Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I went to (Ummul Momineen) Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) while water was dribbling from her twined braids. I said, 'The condition of the people is as you see, and no authority has been given to me.' Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) said, (to me), 'Go to them, and as they (the people) are waiting for you, and I am afraid your absence from them will cause division among them.' "So Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) did not leave Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) till we went to them. When the people differed, Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) addressed the people saying, "'If anybody wants to say anything in this matter of the Caliphate, he should show up and not conceal himself, for we are more rightful to be the Caliph than he (Ibn Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his father ( Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )." On that, Habib bin Masalama ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said (to Ibn Umar -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه), "Why don't you reply to him (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )?" `Abdullah bin `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I untied my garment that was going round my back and legs while I was sitting and was about to say, He who fought against you (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and against your father (Abu Sufyan - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for the sake of Islam, is more rightful to be a Caliph", but I was afraid that my statement might cause differences among the people and cause bloodshed, and my statement might be interpreted not as I intended. (So I kept quiet) remembering what Allah has prepared in the Gardens of Paradise (for those who prefer Hereafter over this worldly life)." Habib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "You did what kept you safe and secure".   (Bukhari 4108, Book 64, Chapter 29  Battle of Khandaq )

 
Distinction in the status among Sahabah is mandatory in Islam.  If you do not keep this distinction in mind, you have strayed, you have lost the right path of Islam.
 
Some people cite the following Hadith to equate the status of all Sahabah.

It is in Hadith -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said :"My Companions are like stars, whoever among them you use for guidance, you will be rightly guided.

The above Hadith is Weak (Dha'eef).  Baihaqi in his book al-Makhdal, and Ibn Hajar in al-Kafi al-Shaf'fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Kashshaf (4:94) have stated that the above Hadith is narrated through many weak chains as follows:

(i) Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Musnad  Ibn Humayd 2-28.

(ii) Jabir Ibn Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Daraqutni - Fada'il-e-Sahabah - 4-1778.  

(iii) Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Musnad al-Shihab - Qudai 2-275.   

(iv) Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Baihaqi in Al-Madkhal 1-145.

(v) Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Baihaqi in al-Madkhal 1-147.

(vi) Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Ibn Hajr through Al-Bazzar in his book Takhlis al-Habr 2-191.   

However, many authentic Ahadith and Quranic verses confirm the merits of Sahabah. Therefore Hadith scholars agree that at least the contents of the above Hadith are sound.  In this context, the following issues are important. 

Ahle Sunnah Ulema are united (have consensus) that the Sahaba belong to the highest probity (udul) among people; in addition, their precision (dabt) can only be interpreted in the cases of conflicting narrations/reports of equal strength. 

Ibn Rajab wrote that the opinions of Abu Bakr ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) have precedence over other Sahabah. 

Similarly the actions, opinions and the model of conduct of Hadhrat Ali (