CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

MUAWIYA BIN ABU SUFYAN (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

 

VOLUME (1)

MUAWIYA'S   (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ROLE DURING RASHIDUN CALIPHATE

 

Written   By

 

Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri

 

 

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INTRODUCTION 

  

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and condemned by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

During his rule as Governor of Syria and later as Head of State, over one hundred thousand Sahabah and Taba'in were killed as a result of  wars between him and Khulafa-e-Rashideen.  In 661, after the assassination of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and abdication of Caliphate by Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) declared himself as Caliph in an impressive ceremony conducted by him for this purpose in Damascus.  He was 60 years old then.

It is part of our belief that respect of all Sahabah is of paramount importance.  Abusing/cursing of Sahabah, as done by Shias, is not allowed in Islam.  At the same time it is important to know the facts about Islamic History, particularly the events during 632-80 AD, so that we remain on the right path of Islam.  If you are not aware of these facts, there is a possibility that you will form extreme opinions about Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Bait-e-At Haar, as done by Wahhabi, Deobandis, Muawiyeen and their like minded groups. 

Status and ranks among Sahabah is an established fact from Quran and Sunnah; therefore, we should look for the perfect model of conduct of Sahabah and try to emulate it in our lives.  It is consensus of Ahle Sunnah Ulema that the  model of conduct of Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Bait-e-At Haar, including Imam Hassan and Iman Hussain (رضئ الله تعالى عنهم) should be emulated by all Muslims.
 
The book is aimed at clearing the misunderstanding of people on historical issues. We have described historical facts, as contained in authentic History books/Islamic literature, Quranic verses and Ahadith.  Ahle Sunnah scholars' opinions have been cited wherever required. We have refrained, as far as possible,  from expressing our personal opinion all through this book. 
 
A total of 5 books have been written by Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri in this series, as follows.   

Volume (1) - Mawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) role  

We have discussed about the differences of opinions among people and Ahl Sunnah Ulema about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) role as Governor of Syria Province during the Rashidun Caliphate. 

Volume (2) - Muawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reign

We have discussed about the differences of opinions of people about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Reign as Head of State,  after he deposed Rashidun Caliphs.

Volume (3) - Mawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) associates

We have discussed about the role of certain people who were instrumental in helping Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) in deposing Rashidun Caliphate. 

Volume (4) - Yazid bin Muawiya  

We have discussed  in detail the role of Yazid bin Muawiya in killing Ahle Bait-e-At-har and Sahabah. Yazid bin Muawiya has some admirers as well.  Salafis, Deobandis and their like minded groups admire Yazid, call him Amir-ul-Momineen and write 'Radiallahu unhu' ( رضي الله تعالى عنه ) with his name.

Volume (5) - Muawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) followers

We have discussed about the beliefs of a Sect known as Muawiyeen.  Muawiyeen are the followers of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه). 

 

 

 

 

 

Muawiyeen  claim that Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) was Khalifa-e-Rashid and Ameer-ul-Momineen. They equate him with Khulafa-e-Rashideen. Muawiyeen follow a doctrine known as Muawism, in which they single out Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) for over-praise.  They write books, encomiums, conduct seminars, take out processions raising slogans,  and sing  his praise to an extent of  his worship. They identify themselves as  slaves of the slaves of  Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

  
We hope our readers will benefit from the historical facts contained in these book.
 

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BRIEF HISTORY

 

After Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was chosen as Khalifa in 632 AD.  His caliphate lasted for two years (632-34). 

After his death of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in 634, Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was chosen as Khalifa.  His Caliphate lasted for 10 years (634-44).  In 644 Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was martyred while he was leading the Fajr Salah in Masjid-e-Nabawi.

After the death of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was chosen as Khalifa. Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate lasted for 12 years, between 644-56.

During the first half of Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) Caliphate, there was relative calm in Islamic state. In the later half of his Caliphate he met with increasing opposition. Trouble was brewed by vested interests all over except the province of Syria where Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the Governor.   Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not use iron hand in curbing false rumors spread against him by trouble makers; rather he took a conciliatory approach.  His kindness allowed the trouble makers to fan more dissent and revolt among people. He was eventually martyred in 656 by the rioters who had laid siege of his house demanding his ouster.

After Hadhrat Uthman's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) martyrdom, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was chosen as Khalifa of the Muslim nation. Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) refused to accept Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as Khalifa and became the central figure of dissent in the State.

After Hadhrat Uthman's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) assassination, his blood stained shirt and the severed fingers of his wife which were cut off by the rioters' sword were transported to Syria. The blood stained shirt and the fingers were displayed in front of the people in the central mosque in Damascus.  People were officially incited to take revenge on the assassins.  A mass scale frenzy was created in the entire Islamic State, particularly in Madina, which aimed at harassing and pushing the new Caliph to a corner.  Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) knew, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) alone was not able to catch the assassins of Hadhrat Uthman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). They were spread all over the Islamic State, many of whom were in Egypt and Syria.  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) needed time and support of all.  If Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) helped him in this endeavor it could have been achieved easily. Instead, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) became the leader of a united opposition and orchestrated a smear campaign against the Khalifa, claiming that the Caliph was protecting the assassins.  It was a catch 22 situation for Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). If he attempted to arrest the assassins, he would have ended up in a civil war and Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) would  help his opponents.  If he did not arrest them, then Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) would create a bigger trouble for him with his smear campaign and create divide between Sahabah and incite them to fight with each other. The battle of Camel was the result of this smear campaign.  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) had no escape. He was well aware of these facts.  But he was a born fighter. He was trained under the Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) right from his childhood. He fought till the end and tried to protect the Caliphate from falling into the wrong hands.  He was eventually assassinated in 661 AD.

 

 DIFFERENCES OF OPINION AMONG AHLE SUNNAH ULEMA

 

Some people claim that Mauwiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was not interested in becoming the Caliph; rather he was only demanding Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to punish Hadhrat Uthman's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) assassins.  He was fighting for his right for avenging Hadhrat Uthman's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) assassination.

They quote the following reference from the book "Siyar A'alam An-Nabula" written by Ad-Dahabi.

قال الجعفي: حدثنا يعلى بن عبيد، عن أبيه، قال: جاء أبو مسلم الخولاني وأناس إلى معاوية، وقالوا: أنت تنازع عليا أم أنت مثله ؟ فقال: لا والله، إني لاعلم أنه أفضل مني وأحق بالامر مني، ولكن ألستم تعلمون أن عثمان قتل مظلوما، وأنا ابن عمه، والطالب بدمه، فائتوه، فقولوا له، فليدفع إلي قتلة عثمان، وأسلم له فأتوا عليا، فكلموه، فلم يدفعهم إليه .

[Ya'la bin Ubaid, from his father narrated that Abu Muslim Al-Khawlani and a group of people went to Mauwiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and  asked, "Do you dispute Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )? Are you his equal?" He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) replied, "No, I am not, and I know that he is better than me and deserves this (Caliphate) more than me, but don't you know that Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was killed unjustly, and that I am his cousin, and that I ask for his blood? So go to him (Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), and tell him to bring forth the killers of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), and I will submit to him." So, they went to Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), and spoke to him, but he didn't hand them (the killers)].  (Al-Ju'fi (Yahya bin Sulaiman, from his book "Siffeen")

The above claim of people is not based on facts because they avoid writing full text of what Ad-Dahabi wrote in this context.

Ad-Dahabi wrote in the same book "Siyar A'alam Al-Nabula" after the above statement as follows :


قلت : قتل بين الفريقين نحو من ستين ألفا . وقيل : سبعون ألفا . وقتل عمار مع علي ، وتبين للناس قول رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- : تقتله الفئة الباغية

(In my opinion about 60,000 thousand people died and Ammar Yaasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was killed fighting on the side of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and this demonstrates what the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : you will be killed by the rebels)!

The Hadith referred by Ad-Dahabi in his above statement is as follows.

(i) It is in Hadith Bukhari - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari)

 
(ii) It is in Hadith - Qais (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that he said to 'Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : What is your opinion about that which you have done in case (of your siding with Hadrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ in the conflict with Muawiya رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)? Is it your personal opinion or something you got from Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? 'Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told everyone about everything. (However, about Munafiqoon, the Apostle - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم told only to Hudhaifa - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Hudhaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) told me that Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had especially told him that among his Companion, there are twelve hypocrites, out of whom eight would not get into Paradise, until a camel would be able to pass through the needle hole.  (This was the reason he sided with Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  (Muslim)
 
(iii) Imam Abu Bakr al-Razi al-Jassas (d 992) wrote in his book "Ahkaam al-Quran" as follows.

تقتلك الفئة الباغية وهذا خبر مقبول من طريق التواتر حتى إن معاوية لم يقدر على جحده لما قال له عبد الله بن عمر ، فقال: إنما قتله من جاء به فطرحه بين أسنتنا

['Ammar  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) you will be killed by the rebellious group' This Hadith is a continuous Narration  (Hadith-e-Mutawatir) so much so that even Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) could not deny it when Abdullah Ibn Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) mentioned it to him. Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) replied : He was killed by those who brought him to our swords."]

(iv) Following Hadith is reported twice in Musnad Imam Ahmed with a sound chain :  Hazm narrated : When ‘Ammar bin Yassir ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was killed (in Siffeen), ‘Amr bin Hazm ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) came to ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and said: "Ammar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) has been killed and the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said: “The rebellious group will kill him”. ‘Amr bin al-‘Aas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) got up in panic and went to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said: ‘What happened to you?’ He said: ‘Ammar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) has been killed.  Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said: ‘Ammar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) has been killed so why are you like this?’ ‘Amr bin al-'As ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said: ‘I heard the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) say: “The rebellious group will kill him.” Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said : “You fall in your own urine, have we killed him? He was killed by Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his companions who brought him and threw him between our spears” – or he said, “between our swords.”  (Musnad Ahmed # 17813)

When this news reached Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), he said that on this logic, Hadhrat Ameer Hamza ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was killed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) because he took him to the kuffar in the battle of Uhud!
 
(v) Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said - "I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against the rebel Group (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (Ibn Abdul Barr  in  Al-Istiab )
 
(vi) It is in Hadith - حَدَّثَنَا أبي ، قال : حَدَّثَنا جَرِير ، عَنِ الأَعْمَش ، عن مُنْذِرٍ الثَّوْرِيّ ، عن سَعْد بن حُذَيْفَة ، قال : قال عَمَّار : والله ما أَسْلَموا ولَكِنَّهُم اسْتَسْلَمُوا وأسرُّوا الْكُفْر حَتَّى وجدوا عليه أَعْوَانًا فأَظْهَروه  [ Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (on the eve of the Battle of Siffeen) said : 'By Allah they did not convert to Islam but they surrendered and veiled disbelief until they found support so they unveiled it'. ] (Tarikh Ibn Abi Khaythama, Vol 2, Page 991). 
 
(vii) Imam Shafi'i said - " I derived the rulings about Rebels from the battles of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) with Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) (Ibn Hajr Makki in Tatheer al-Janan, page 30)
 
(viii) Imam Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Sana'ani said - "The Hadith of Ammar Yasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is a proof that rebel party is Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and those in his party;  and the Party of truth is Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions and there is Ijma of ahl al-sunna on this position". (Sharah Subul as-Salam upon bulugh al-maram of Imam Ibn Hajar Makki  V3, P 358).

(ix) Imam abdul Rauf al-Manawi said - "It (Rebels) is the party of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) (Fath al-Qadeer)

(x) Imam Mohammed Shaybani the student of Imam Abu Hanifa wrote - "If Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) had not fought with Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) while He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )  was a Dhalim, Unjust and Rebel,  who transgressed,  then we would not have known the rulings for fighting with Rebels. (Hanafi Tabqat, al-Jawahirn al-Mudiya) 

(xi) Hanafi Fiqh book 'Al-Hidaya' mentions under Chapter titled "Adab al-Qadhi" as follows: "To be appointed as Judge by an unjust ruler is allowed, like from a just ruler, because Sahaba became judges under Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) whilst the truth was with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )."

There are a number of other similar references, like Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas al Hanafi, Imam Shawkani, Imam al-Jurjani, etc. 

(xii) Imam al-Manawi (1545 - 1621), known for his works on 'Early History of Islam' and 'History of Sufism' wrote in his book  Fayd al-Qadeer  with reference to Imam Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani's (1007-1078) Aqeeda:

وقال الإمام عبد القاهر الجرجاني في كتاب الإمامة: أجمع فقهاء الحجاز والعراق من فريقي الحديث والرأي ، منهم مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة والأوزاعي والجمهور الأعظم من المتكلمين والمسلمين ، أن علياً مصيب في قتاله لأهل صفين كما هو مصيب في أهل الجمل ، وأن الذين قاتلوه بغاة ظالمون له ، لكن لا يكفَّرون ببغيهم

[There is Ijma of Jurists of Hijaz (Makka and Madina) and Iraq (Kufa and Basra), among them Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Awzai and majority of theologians and Muslims that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was on Haq in his fight against the people of Siffeen and those who fought him were Oppressive Mutineers (Zaalim Baghis) but were not kafir for their rebellion.)

(xiii) The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows: 

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."

 

IMPORTANT EVENTS 

 

(i) Battle of Siffin

The battle of Siffin was fought between Khalifa-e-Rashid, Ameer ul Momineen Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces had almost won the battle, but at the decisive moments of defeat, Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces, on the advice of Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who was commanding the forces of  Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), took the copies of Quran in their hands and pleaded to spare their lives.  And their lives were spared by Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces.

It is reported that during the battle of siffeen, one day Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) attacked Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) by throwing a spear. Amr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) fell down on the ground. Then  he stood, (bent down) removed his Pajama and showed his ass to Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  Looking at this pathetic sight (which meant he was begging for his life), Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) showed mercy and turned away and Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ran away.  People who were with Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) informed him that he was Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who showed his ass.  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied he showed me his ass therefore (I spared his life and) turned away.   When Amr bin Al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) went to Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and informed him about it, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, be thankful to your ass and to God. (Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Volume 7, page 293).

When Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) army took copies of Quran in their hands and pleaded to spare their lives, Hadhrat Ali's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) forces stopped fighting.   But Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not surrender.   An arbitration was organized between the Caliph and the Governor. History tells us that Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who are Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) representative in the arbitration, deceived the representative of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), tricked him and unilaterally declared Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as the winner of Arbitration.   In view of the open deception, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rejected the outcome of the arbitration.  

Later Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) got busy in controlling the uprisings of the Kharijites, and it is reported that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) took advantage of this situation and gradually took control of other Provinces, one by one, by force. Eventually Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was martyred by an assassin in Kufa in 661. Who hired this killer to assassinate the Khalifa is not known.  However, a story was spread  that three people, Ibn Muljam, al-Baruk Ibn Abdullah and Amr Ibn Bakr al-Tamimi together decided, each one will kill Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), Amr Ibn al-Aas and Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالى عنه).  Ibn Muljam succeeded and the other two did not succeed.  

(ii) Abdication of Caliphate of Hadhrat Hassan  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

After Hadhrat Ali, (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was nominated as Caliph by the people. However, it is reported that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) continued his military campaign and occupied most of the Islamic State. Many of the Military Generals in Caliph Amir-ul-Momineen Hadhrat Hassan's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) army defected to Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) side.  Some historians claim that the defections were engineered by Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) eventually negotiated a Peace Treaty with Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in order to save the lives of Muslims being killed in ongoing wars.  As per the Peace Treaty, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was to : (a) follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah in ruling the Islamic nation, (b) allow a Parliament (shura) as regards to Caliphate after his death,  (c) refrain from public cursing and insult of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) which was done in Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) controlled provinces, and (e) provide security to Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his followers. Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted all conditions attached to the peace treaty. 

However, history is witness that none of the above conditions were fulfilled. Rather stories were spread that Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) took millions of Dirhams in exchange for abdication of rule.   Read the following historical facts.

(a) Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was brutally murdered in 50 H by a deadly poison which tore his liver into pieces.  It is reported that when he vomited, the pieces of liver came out of his throat.  He died after suffering for about 40 days in view of this poison.  According to 'Tarikh al-Khulafa' by Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti, he was poisoned by Ja’da bint al-Ash’ath Ibn Qais, who was lured for this purpose.

(b) Some Ahle Sunnah scholars have mentioned that the killing of Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was a Government sponsored conspiracy.  (Ref : Tadhkara al-Khawass, Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, p 191-94;  Ibn Abd al-Barr in his 'Seerah'; al-Shudhi;  Amir al-Sha’bi; Abu Nu’aym, etc.).

Ibn Abdul Barr wrote in al-Istiab that Hadhrat Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was poisoned via his wife.   Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) sent poison to Hassan's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) wife Jada and upon administering the poison, she was rewarded. Tariq Ibn Asakir records that Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) prepared the deadly mixture which was administered to Hadhrat Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). 

(c) It is reported that cursing of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was officially sponsored and it continued for decades.

(d) Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) declared his son Yazid Ibn Muawiya as the new ruler of Islamic nation.

(e) Ibn Katheer, in his book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihaya, stated that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) threatened Hadhrat Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to pledge allegiance on the hands of his son Yazid bin Muawiya.

Ibn Katheer wrote in his book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihaya as follows:

"In the year 56 AH Muawiyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) called on the people including those within the outlying territories to pledge allegiance to his son, Yazeed, to be his heir to the Caliphate after him. Marwan also wanted Yazid to be the Caliph so that he could run things behind the scenes. Almost all the subjects offered their allegiance, with the exception of (i) Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr, (ii) Abdullah bin Umar, (iii) Hadhrat Hussain bin Ali, (iv) Abdullah bin Zubair and (v) Abdullah bin Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم اجمعين). For this purpose, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to Madina and summoned each one of the five and threatened them"


AHLE SUNNAH MAJORITY OPINION ABOUT MUAWIYA ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ

 

Majority of the Ahle Sunnah Ulema consider there is no room to praise and glorify Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) because there is not even one single authentic Hadith in his praise.  

(i) Imam Ibn Rahwahy  (Hadith teacher of Imam Bukhari) wrote :  لا يصح عن النبي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم في فضل معاوية شئ [ there is not a single Sahih Hadith in praise of Muawiya ]. 

(ii) It is reported that when Imam Nasai was 87 years old, he went to Damascus, Syria and he read his book Khasais-e-Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), which is the collection of Ahadith in praise of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) in Umayyad Mosque. On hearing these Ahadith, the followers of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) known as Muawiyeen demanded him to read Ahadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) instead of the Ahadith in praise of Hadhrat Ali  (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) .  On this the Imam informed them that there is not even one single authentic Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  On hearing this Muawiyeen mobbed and leached him to death.  He died soon after he was brutally assaulted by the Muawiyeen mob in Umayyad Mosque.  

(iii) Jalaluddeen Suyuti wrote : "Imam al- Hakim states that he never came across a single Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that was Sahih" (La'ali al-Masnu`aa  fi ahadith al-Maudu`aa" Volume 1 page 424) . 

(iv)  It is recorded in famous book Jami al-Usul that many Hadith scholars have concluded that there exists not even one single Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that is Sahih. (Sharh Mishkat Vol. 4 page 716 )

(v) Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani stated in Fathul Bari :  "Imam Bukhari on the topic of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote a Chapter "Bab ai Dhikr Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)" because no Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is proven.

(vi) Ibn Jauzi stated in the opinion of Imam Ishaq  Ibn  Rahwayh (161–238 AH - the teacher of Imam Bukhari) that no Hadith is Sahih in the praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and that's why Imam Bukhari wrote a Chapter titled "Baab ai Dhikr Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)" rather than "Baab ai Fadail Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)"  (Fathul Bari Vol. 7 page 104)

(vii) Allama al 'Aini in "Ummdat al Qari fi Sharh Sahih al Bukhari commented : "No reports in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  are proven. If many are present, the reply is that no Hadith exists with a Sahih isnaad as stated by Isaac bin Rahwayh and Imam Nasai, and that's why Imam Bukhari wrote Chapter Baab ai Dhikr Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) rather than bab ai Fadail Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)."  (Sharh Sahih al Bukhari P 994, Volume 7 ).

(viii) Imam Shafi'i stated : "The testimony of four companions will not be accepted and those four are Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Mughira (Ibn Shuba) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Ziyad (bin Abih) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)".

The view of Imam Shafi'i is also attributed to him by his student Rabi in 'Tareekh Abul Fidah' Volume 1, Chapter 'The Events of 45 Hijri'.  Imam Shafii's ruling is also available in Kitab Mukhthasar fi Ahbar al Bashar Vol. 1 page 100.

(ix) Muhammad bin Ali bin Shawkani stated : "Ibn Hibban commented that all Ahadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) are concocted". (Fawa'id al Mujmu`a fi bay`an al-hadith al-maudu`a page 147).

(x) Allamah Ibn al-Jawzi al-Qurashi stated : "Imam al-Hakim narrated from Abul Abbas who heard from his father (Hafiz Ya’qub bin Yusuf ayah Al Asham, a companion of Ibn Rahwahy), who heard from Ishaq bin Ibrahim al-Hanzali that 'no Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is Sahih'. (al- Mawdu`at Volume 2 page 24)

(xi) Shaykh Ismail bin Muhammad in "Kashful Khafa" stated :  'There exist no Hadith in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that is Sahih" (Kashful Khafa Vol. 2 page 420)"

(xii) Ibn Taymiyya, wrote : "One party of people fabricated traditions about the merits of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and they narrated Ahadith from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in that matter, all of which are lies." (Ibn Taymiyya - Minhaj al Sunnah, Vol 4 Page 400).

(xiii) Muhammad Tahir Siddiqui Fatni (d. 986), the famous student of Ibn Hajr Makki al-Haythami wrote - لا يصح مرفوعا في فضل معاوية شئ [ There is not any Sahih Marfu Hadith about Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) merits.]  (Tadhkirat al-Mouduat, page 100).

 

 

 AHADITH PRAISING MUAWIYA (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) REGARDED AS FABRICATED BY AHLE SUNNAH ULEMA  

 

Following Ahadith have been regarded as 'unauthentic' and 'fabricated' by Ahle Sunnah Ulema.

(i) Hadith - Narrated Abdullah Ibn Omar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) will receive retribution (ajir) every time someone reads Ayat al-Kursi because he wrote it.

Shear fabrication by Ibn Jawzi in his Mawdoo’aat 2/251. Ayat al-Kursi was revealed in Madina many years before Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) accepted Islam.  It was written down by Zid bin Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

 
(ii) Hadith - Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said "O'Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), this is the pen given to you by your Lord".
 
Ibn al-Jawzi (Mawdoo'aat 2-50), Ad-Dahabi (Siyar 3-129) and Shawkaani (Al-Fawaid al-Majmoo'a 403) described the above Hadith as pure fabrication.
   

(iii) Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Those that are trustworthy are three, me, Jibreel ( علیھ السلا م ) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

The Hadith is a fabrication as described by Nasa’i, Ibn Hibban in Al-Majrooheen 1/160, Ibn Adi in Al-Kamil 1/315, Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi in Tareekh Baghdad 8/12, Ibn Jawzi in Mawdoo’aat 2/253, Ad-Dhahabi in Al-Siyar and Mizan Al-I’itidal 3/130, Ibn Katheer in Al-Bidaya 8/123, and Ibn Hajar in Al-Lisan 1/568.

 

(iv) Hadith - Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Ali bin Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that Jibreel ( علیھ السلا م ) came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and told him to let Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) write because he is trustworthy. 

A fabrication according to Ibn Jawzi in his Mawdoo’aat 2/252+254, and weak as declared by Ibn Adi in Al-Kamil 2/99; Ad-Dhahabi in Al-Mizan 3/630; Al-Zayla’ee in Takhreej Al-Kashaf 1/445;  Ibn Katheer in Al-Bidaya 8/123; Al-Haythami in Majma’a Al-Zawa’id 9/360; Al-Suyuti in Al-La’ali’I Al-Manoo’a 1/419; and Al-Shawkaani in Al-Fawai’d # 404.

 

(v) Hadith - Narrated by Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) gave Mu’awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) an arrow and said to him, “Take this arrow until we meet in heaven.”

Fabricated by Ibn Jawzi in Al-Mawdoo’at 2/258; Ibn Adi in Al-Kamil 8/375; Ad-Dhahabi in Al-Siyar and Al-Mizan 3/130- 3/332; Ibn Hajar in Al-Lisan 6/297 + 8/377; Al-Shawkaani in Al-Fawa’id  405; and Al-Ma’alami in Al-Anwar Al-Kashifa  209.

 

(vi) Hadith -  Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ الله تعالی عنها) narrated that Hind bint 'Utba came and said, "O Allah's Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) (Before I embraced Islam) there was no family on the surface of the earth I wished to see in degradation more than I did for your family, but today there is no family on the surface of the earth I wish to see honored more than I do for yours."  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "I thought similarly, by Him in whose Hand my soul is!". (Bukhari)

Correct understanding of the above Hadith

During the battle of Uhad, even though the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was wounded, he  prayed for his enemies to realize the truth and enter Islam.  Similarly, after Makka was conquered, the  Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) declared, "today is the day of mercy, all of you are free".

In view of the above facts, it is difficult to comprehend that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )   would have ever wished Abu Sufyan familiy  to be degraded more than any family in the world when they did not accept Islam. It is most likely that he prayed for them to join Islamic fold. And when eventually accepted Islam after the fall of Makka, he pardoned them for all their past  deeds.

When Abu Sufyan and his family accepted Islam, there were important Sahabah alive like Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Uthman and others ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) whose families were more honorable and had precedence over the family of Abu Sufyan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). Therefore, it is not likely that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) wished  Abu Sufyan's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) family to be most honored than the families of Khulafa-e-Rashideen. 

Therefore, the correct understanding of the above Hadith is, when the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said "I thought similarly", it means that - "I also thought that  you would have wished bad about my family before coming to Islam and once you have become Muslim, you wished that the my family is honored in this world".   

It is important that we learn Islam in the company of a true Shaikh of Ihsan so that we do not get misled.

 

(vii) Hadith - Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika : Somebody said to Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), "Can you speak to the Chief of the believers Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) , as he does not pray except one Rak'a as Witr?" Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) replied, "He is a faqih. (Bukhari - Vol  5, Book 57,  # 109)

There is another version of the above Hadith in Bukhari (# 108), in  which Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said "Leave him (Muawiya -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), for he was in the company of Allah's Apostle."

It is important to note that Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) did not say that what Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is doing is right or it is in Hadith.  He meant that since Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has seen the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) he should know what is the correct Sunnah in this regard. 

In Tahawi, there are two versions of the above Hadith.  In one version, Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) says "where has the donkey taken that from".  In another version Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) says "He is correct". 

Imam al-Tahawi in his concluding remarks about the narrative of Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) says : "The comment of Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) is correct  is based on fear; or  Ibn Abbas's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) statement that 'he is correct' might have been related to some other issue as he lived in his times."


In another narration, Hadhrat Abdulla bin Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said - "I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against the rebel Group (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (Ibn Abdul Barr  in  Al-Istiab )
 
There is a Hadith in Musnad Ahmed  - Abdullah bin Buraida (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : ‘I went to Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with my father, then he (Mu’awiya) made us sit on a mattress then he brought food to us and we ate, then he brought drink to us, Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) drank and then he offered that to my father, thus (my father) said : ‘I never drank it since the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) made it Haram’….” (Ahmad, Vol 5, Page 347, Hadith # 22991)

[References - Abi Bakar al-Hathami  recorded this Hadith Majma al Zawaid, Vol 5, page 554, Hadith # 8022 and stated رواه أحمد ورجاله رجال الصحيح (Ahmad narrated it and the narrators are Sahih). A Salafi scholar Shaikh Muqbil al-Wadi’e also decalred it ‘Hasan’ (Musnad al-Sahih, page 185)].

Shah Abdulaziz, Muhadith-e-Dehalwi recorded the following in his book Tuhfa Ithna Ashariya. 

Abada bin Samit was in Syria when he saw Muawiya’s convoy comprised of a queue of camels having alcohol on their back. Abada asked : “What are these?”. People answered: “These are alcohol that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has sent for the purpose of selling”.  Abada came with a knife and he cut the ropes on the camels till all the alcohol spilled out” [Tuhfa Ithna Ashriya (Persian) Page 638]

[References - The above incident is also available in Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Volume 26 page 197 and in Siyar Alam al Nubla, Vol 2, page 10.   Salafis have removed the name Muawiya رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) from the new edition of these books and replaced it with word "Fulan" (such and such). But the statement remained even in the new editions saying that 'alcohol belonged to the ruler of Syria was spilled'.  It is a known fact that the ruler of Syria at that time was Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) only.]

 

(viii) Hadith - Narrated Abdur Rahman bin Abi Umaira: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) made a supplication for Muawiya - 'O Allah! make Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) guiding, and the one who guides, and from him, let the people guided'. ( Sunan Tirmidhi).    

There is  another Hadith in Tirmidhi related to the same Dua. This Hadith is also mentioned in Tariq al-Kabir by Bukhari and in Musnad Ahmad.  

Many Hadith scholars, including Imam Tirmidhi, have commented that the isnaad of the Hadith are defective. Some of these observations are provided below.

(a) Imam Tirmidhi's categorization of Ahadith in his Sunan are as follows: 

a) Hasan Sahih
b) Sahih Hasan
c) Sahih
d) Sahih Gharib
e) Gharib Sahih
f)  Hasan Gharib
g) Gharib  

Imam Tirmidhi has placed the above Hadith  in "Hasan Gharib" category, which is the lowest grade.  When the Imam declares a Hadith as Hasan Gharib, he means that its chain is not authentic and more likely it is fabricated.

(b) Imam Hafiz Ibn Abdul Barr stated that the narrator of this Hadith 'Ibn Abi Umaira' is not a Sahabi but he is reporting directly from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  This makes the Hadith doubtful as its Isnaad are defective.  ( لا تصح صحبته ولا يثبت إسناد حديثه   )

(c) Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani stated that: إسناده ليس بصحيح  the chain of this Hadith is defective (not sahih).

(d) Mulla Ali Qari  not only criticized the chain  but also stated the following -  الظاهر المتبادر من الإطلاق أنه معاوية بن أبي سفيان ، وإلا فمعاوية بن الحكم ، ومعاوية بن جاهمة أيضا من الصحابة [ The Hadith only says Muawiya  and it is not clear which Muawiya is meant.  Is it Muawiya Ibn Hakam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) or Muawiya Ibn Jahima (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) or Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ? ]


(e) Maulvi Abdul Haqq Muhaddith-e-Dehlavi in "Sharh Mishkat" - Vol 4 page 716 (published in 1873) after citing both Guidance Ahadith of Tirmidhi in praise of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) commented: "Abul Hasan Quinani in "Thunziyaa as-Shari'a al-Murfoo'a",  Volume 2, Chapter 8 page 7 stated : "Imam al-Hakim cites from a chain used by Sibt Ibn Jauzi who cites Isaan bin Ruhiyaa that 'there exists nothing in praise of Muawiya that is Sahih".
 
BRIEF HISTORY - It is reported that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) continued to live in Makka along with his family after they were defeated and lost power in Makka.  It is reported in Ahadith that Abu Sufyan's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) family members were dejected as people in Makka  neither looked upon them with respect nor showed any interest to associate or even sit  in their company.  In such a scenario, it is not known if Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had the opportunity to travel to Madina and sit in the Company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Khulafa e Rashideen. Makka was conquered by Muslims on 20th Ramadhan 630.  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) died on 12 Rabi al-Awwal, 632.  Meaning,  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) lived for one year and 5 months after the fall of Makka. Even during this short period, there are sketchy references that do not confirm that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to Madina. 
 
Some people claim that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) worked for a few months in the company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as  "Kaatib" (writer/clerk).  Salafis, Deobandis, Muawiyeen and like minded groups boost that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Secretary responsible for writing Quranic revelations. This looks a lie and misrepresentation of facts because most of the Quran was already revealed and recorded before Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) embraced Islam and met Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Madina a few months before his death. 

People's presumption that Mauwiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) may have been used by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for writing something  is based on a Hadith in Muslim ( Book 31, Hadith 6095) in which Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) requested Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for three things, one of which was to use Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as Kaatib.  This meeting is claimed to have taken place in 631, a few months before the death of the Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

 

(ix) Hadith in Muslim - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Muslims neither looked to Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (with respect) nor did they sit in his company; he (Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  said to Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم): (O' Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), confer upon me three things. He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  replied in the affirmative.

He (Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (further) said -  قال عندي أحسن العرب وأجمله أم حبيبة بنت أبي سفيان أزوجكها  [ I have with me the most beautiful and the best woman in Arabia, Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ); marry her; whereupon he (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  said : Yes.

And he (Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) again said: Accept Mu'awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to serve as your scribe (Clerk). He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: Yes.

He (Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) again said: Make me the commander (in the Muslim army) so that I should fight against the unbelievers as I fought against the Muslims. He (the Prophet - - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: 'Yes'.

Abu Zumnail (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: If he (Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had not asked for these three things from Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he would have never conferred them upon him, for it was (his habit) to accede to everybody's (earnest) request. (Muslim, Book 31, Hadhith # 6095)


READ THE FOLLOWING FACTS  

It is obvious that the time of the meeting of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  and requesting for three things could be any day during 631 as Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) embraced Islam in Ramadhan 630 and remained in Makka.  After the fall of Makka, Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was upset because he did not enjoy the respect of people of Makka, as he used to as their King, when he ruled Makka. 

It is described in the Hadith that, Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) offered to marry his daughter Umm Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in this meeting.  Read the wordings of this Hadith.

قال عندي أحسن العرب وأجمله أم حبيبة بنت أبي سفيان أزوجكها  [Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ said - I have with me the most beautiful and the best woman in Arabia, Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ; marry her. ]

Watch the wordings - Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is saying "I have with me the most beautiful and best woman in Arabia, my daughter, O'Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), marry her."  

The statement does not seem to be based on facts  because Umme Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was already married to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in 623 (8 years earlier) and was already living with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Madina.  And Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had already met with her in Madina in 629 when she prevented him from sitting on the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Mattress declaring him as an unclean Pagan.

 

BRIEF HISTORY -  Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abu Sufyan) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was not the daughter of Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the mother of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  She was the daughter of Safiyyah bint Abi al-'Aas, another wife of Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Safiyyah bint Abi al-'Aas was the daughter of Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah. And Hind bin Utbah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) was the daughter of Utbah ibn Rabi'ah.   Meaning, Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) were born to different mothers.

Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) embraced Islam in 614 AD and Makka fell in 630 AH. She became Muslim 16 years before the fall of Makka.   It is not known if her mother had also accepted Islam along with her.

Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abu Sufyan) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and her first husband Ubaidullah Ibn Jahash embraced Islam in 614 AD. She migrated to Abissiniya along with her first husband in 616 (7 BH) to avoid persecution by Makkan Pagans led by her father. In Abissiniya, her husband embraced Christianity and she had to divorce him.  She was left helpless, all alone in a far off country.  When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) knew about her plight, he wrote a letter to Al-Najjashi, the ruler of Abissiniya, and proposed to marry Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا). She got married to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in a simple ceremony in Abissiniya in 623 (1 H). Ummul Momineen Umm Habiba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) joined Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Madina 5 years later, traveling by boat from Abissiniya in early 629. 

Thus, the narration of the Hadith is not based on historical facts. In view of this, the claim that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) may have worked as Katib (clerk) for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), also gets clouded in uncertainty. 

On the basis of these facts, an absolute majority of Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that not even a single Hadith in Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) praise is authentic.

However, some scholars did mention that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) worked as Katib (clerk) for Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) during his brief stay in Madina. Dhahabi wrote in Siarul a'lam al-Nabula (vol 3, page 321) that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) used to write down some letters for Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) for the dealings with people. Similar opinions were given by Ibn Hajr in his commentary of Sahih Bukhari and others.  

 

(x) Hadith - Abu Darda ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )  said : I have not seen anyone who prayed like Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )  after his (death) other than Muawiyah. (Al-Haythami)

The prayers and Islamic living of Khulafa-e-Rashideen; Abu Bakr, Umar, Othman and Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) is exceptional and their high rank among Sahaba is an accepted fact among Muslims.  No one can emulate the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) in prayers better than them.  They enjoy highest rank among Sahabah in all aspects, including their prayers. This is the Iman of every Muslim from the time of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) till today.

Ibn Taymiyya, the famous Salafi scholar, wrote : "One party of people fabricated traditions about the merits of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and they narrated Ahadith from the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) in that matter and attributed it to many Sahabah as their narrators; all of these are lies" (Ibn Taymiyya - Minhaj al Sunnah, Vol 4, page 400). 

 

 AHADITH NOT IN PRAISE OF  MUAWIYA (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

 

Whether Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) worked as Kaatib (writer) for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) or not, is a subject of debate between our Ulema.  But one thing looks certain. He did see the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and may have spent sometime in Madina. 

 

(i) Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) cursed Muawiya  ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه )  

It  is reported in Sahih Muslim, (Chapter - People who were cursed by Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) that once the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), but he did not respond to Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) call as he was eating, and continued to enjoy his food. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called him again, but he ignored the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and continued eating. On this, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) showed displeasure and cursed him. 

Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported: I was playing with children that Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) happened to pass by (us). I hid myself behind the door. He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came and patted my shoulders and said : Go and call Mu'awiya. I returned and said : He is busy in taking food. He again asked me to go and call Mu'awiya to him. I went (and came back) and said that he was busy in taking food, whereupon he said: May Allah not fill his belly! 

References - (1) Muslim, Chapter 23 - titled "people who were cursed by Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم , Hadith # 6298. (2)  Ahmed (3) Baihaqi (4) Hakim

Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was 30 years old when this incident happened. 

Imam Nasai  said - When he was in Damascus, people asked him to write about the virtues of  "Mu'awiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). He replied, what should I write about him? I know his only virtue is   Rasulullah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) cursed him - May Allah never satiate his stomach.  On this the followers of Muawiya beaten Imam Nasai to death. (Tarikh Ibn Khalikaan, V 1, P 35; Tadhkiratul Huffaz, 2/194).   

Ibn kathir stated : when Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) became Governor of Syria, he used to eat seven times a day. The bowl which was brought to him for eating was full of meat and onions. He would eat from the bowl seven times a day along with a lot of sweets and fruits. Despite this he would still say : "By God! my belly is not full, but I am tired and food is a form of blessing with which all Kings are granted." (Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Volume 8 page 138)

Ibn Kathir also wrote :

وقال مغيرة عن الشعبي: أول من خطب جالسا معاوية حين كثر شحمه وعظم بطنه .وكذا روى عن مغيرة عن إبراهيم أنه قال: أول من خطب جالسا يوم الجمعة معاوية .وقال أبو المليح عن ميمون: أول من جلس على المنبر معاوية واستأذن الناس في الجلوس

[And Mughira reported from Sh’ubi: "Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the first person who started giving sermon while sitting. And this happened at that time when Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) acquired thick layers of fat and his stomach grew large. Mughira also reported Ibrahim : "The first individual that delivered the Friday sermon whilst seated was Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)". And Abu Malih also reported the same from Memoon that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the first who sat on the Minbar (Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Volume 8 page 119) ]


The above is not an isolated incident that happened during Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) short stay in Madina before Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) death. It is reported that there are many authentic Ahadith in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) showed displeasure about Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

 

(ii) Muawiya's  (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) rebellion was foretold by the Apostle of Allah  ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )
 

(a) Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prophecied Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his followers as 'Rebels who will invite people to Hell". (Ammar bin Yassir Hadith in Bukhari, Muslim, and Ahmad).  This Hadith is mentioned in the beginning of the book.  

(b) Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was well aware that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) will impose himself as Caliph on Muslims by deposing the rightly guided Caliphs. 

(1) It is in Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) commanded, "the one who disputes with the (rightly guided) Caliph and imposes his authority by force over the  authority of a (rightly guided) Caliph  should be beheaded (killed)". (Sahih Muslim, Book 20, # 4546)

(2) It was narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Amr As-Sulami (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that : He heard Al-Irbad bin Sariyah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) say : "The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) delivered a moving speech to us which made our eyes flow with tears and made our hearts melt. We said : 'O Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), this is a speech of farewell. What did you enjoin upon us?' He said : 'I am leaving you upon a (path of) brightness whose night is like its day.  No one will deviate from it after I am gone but one who is doomed. Whoever among you lives will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to what you know of my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and cling stubbornly to it.  (Ibn Maja, Book of Sunnah,  Hadith # 42) 

(3) It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated; the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. And whoever obeys the Amir I appoint, obeys me,  whoever disobeys him, disobeys me. (Bukhari, Book 89, Hadith # 251) 

(4) It is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Hurairah ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) I heard the truthful and trusted by Allah (ie., the Prophet -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  ) saying, "The destruction of my followers will be through the hands of young men from Quraish.  [Bukhari, Kitab al-Fitan, Hadith # 7058].   

(5) The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) cursed Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) on another occasion.

It is in Hadith -   ابن فضيل حدثنا يزيد بن أبي زياد عن سليمان بن عمرو بن الأحوص عن ابي برزة كنا مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فسمع صوت غناء فقال انظروا ما هذا فصعدت فنظرت فإذا معاوية وعمرو بن العاص يتغنيان فجئت فأخبرته فقال اللهم أركسهما في الفتنة ركسا ودعهما في النار   [Abi Burza said : ‘We were with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then he heard someone singing (objectionable songs), so the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:  ‘Go and see what is going on there'. Thus, I climbed and looked, I saw Muawiya and Amr bin al-Aas singing, then I returned and told (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: 'May Allah throw them in fitna and push them towards hell'.) [ (1) Mizan al-I’tidal, Vol 3 Page 311;  (2) Siyar alam al Nubla, Vol 3,  Page 132 ]

(6) Imam Shafi'i stated : "The testimony of four companions will not be accepted and those four are Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  Amr Ibn al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Mughira (Ibn Shuba) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Ziyad (bin Abih) (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)".

The view of Imam Shafi'i is also attributed to him by his student Rabi in 'Tareekh Abul Fidah' Volume 1, Chapter 'The Events of 45 Hijri'.  Imam Shafii's ruling is also available in Kitab Mukhthasar fi Ahbar al Bashar Vol. 1 page 100.

(7) Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) prayed Allah to punish Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his followers. 

It is in Hadith - Abdur Rahman Ibn Mughfal said ; "I prayed with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) dawn prayer, then Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) performed Qunoot and said : O'Allah, punish Muawiya and his followers .... (Part of the Hadith) (Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol 2, P 108, # 7050;  Kanzul Ummal, Vol 8, P 134, # 219809) 

 (iii) Hadith reported by Imam Ahmad.   عن معاوية عن يونس بن سيف عن الحارث بن زياد عن أبي رهم عن العرباض بن سارية - رضي الله عنه - قال سمعت رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وهو يدعونا إلى السحور في شهر رمضان : ( هلموا إلى الغذاء المبارك ) ، ثم سمعته يقول : اللهم علم معاوية الكتاب والحساب وقه العذاب [Al-Aarbadh bin Sariyah narrated - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : O' Allah! teach Muawiya the Book and Math, and protect him from the Azab]. (Ahmad).  
 
There are three things in the above Hadith in a sequence; "the book" (  الكتاب  ) meaning, Quran and  "Azab"العذاب  ) meaning Azab al Akhira.  What is the meaning of "Math" (  الحساب  ) in the above Hadith? Read the following facts. 
(a) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) to teach him Quran and also prayed for his protection from Azab? This kind of combination of prayer was not done for any individual Sahabi in a single Dua.   Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) taught Quran to all Sahabah, including Khulafa-e-Rashideen and they learned it well in his company. The status of Khulafa e Rashideen and other senior Sahabah is bigger than Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  because he  accepted Islam after the conquest of Makka by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 
(b) There seems a connection between the Hadith and the views of our Ulema? An absolute majority of Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  was an unjust rebel and his mistakes were deliberate. However, some Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that  Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) mistakes were Ijtehadi. We respect both these opinions. One thing is certain that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) knew that Muawiya's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) calculations (علم الحساب) in occupying the Caliphate by force were wrong. In another Hadith ( Sahih Bukhari - Ammar Yaasir Hadith) the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) declared Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his followers as 'rebels who invite people to Hell'. This may have been the reason that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) to teach him Maths (علم الحساب) as well as Quran ( علم الكتاب) and also prayed Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) to forgive him from Azab al Akhira.  Our understanding is based on the following facts  

(1) It is reported by Abdullah, son of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal as follows: "I asked my father about  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).  He (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal) answered : "Know that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had a lot of enemies who tried hard to find a fault in him, but they found it not. As such, they joined a man, (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who verily fought him, battled him, and they praised him (Muawiyah - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) extravagantly setting a trap for themselves for him.

[References - (i) History of Caliphs by Jalaluddin Suyuti page 202, (ii) Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 9, section 4, p 197, (iii) Al-Toyuriyyat, by al-Salafi, from Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Hanbal.   

(2) It is in Hadith - حَدَّثَنَا أبي ، قال : حَدَّثَنا جَرِير ، عَنِ الأَعْمَش ، عن مُنْذِرٍ الثَّوْرِيّ ، عن سَعْد بن حُذَيْفَة ، قال : قال عَمَّار : والله ما أَسْلَموا ولَكِنَّهُم اسْتَسْلَمُوا وأسرُّوا الْكُفْر حَتَّى وجدوا عليه أَعْوَانًا فأَظْهَروه  [ Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (on the eve of the Battle of Siffeen) said : 'By Allah they did not convert to Islam but they surrendered and veiled disbelief until they found support so they unveiled it'. ] (Tarikh Ibn Abi Khaythama, Vol 2, Page 991)

 

 

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AHLUS SUNNAH AQEEDAH 


We,  the Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a, respect all 124,000 Sahabah, including Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).  We honor them all. However, it is important that we understand historical facts in their proper perspective.  We cannot falter in this respect.  If we falter, respect of Ahle Baite at-Haar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم اجمعين) will vanish from our hearts, and we will form some extreme opinions about them and will go astray.

What are Sahih Iman priorities in this context? 

The answer is, you can glorify Khulafa-e-Rashideen or Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ).  As a matter of fact, whatever glorification you do about Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Khulafa-e-Rashideen, it will amount to be a drop in the ocean of their greatness.  No one can praise Khulafa-e-Rashideen appropriately.  They are oceans of piety and greatest among human beings and Sahabah, next only to prophets.

What Khulafa e Rashideen did and what members of Ahle Bait did was "Haq".  They were right in their actions.  This is our Iman. 

Imam al-Manawi wrote -  أجمع فقهاء الحجاز والعراق من فريقي الحديث والرأي ، منهم مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة والأوزاعي والجمهور الأعظم من المتكلمين والمسلمين ، أن علياً مصيب في قتاله لأهل صفين كما هو مصيب في أهل الجمل ، وأن الذين قاتلوه بغاة ظالمون له    [There is Ijma of Fuqaha (Jurists) of Hijaz (Makka and Madina) and Iraq (Kufa and Basra), among them Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Awzai and majority of theologians and Muslims that,  Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was on Haq in his fight against the people of Siffeen and those who fought him were Oppressive Mutineers (Zaalim Baghis).]

(Reference - Imam al-Manawi (1545 - 1621), wrote in his book  Fayd al - Qadeer with reference to Imam Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani's (1007-1078) Aqeeda.)

Imam Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Sana'ani said - "The Hadith of Ammar Yasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is a proof that rebel party is Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and those in his party;  and the Party of truth is Hadhrat Ali  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions and there is Ijma of Ahle Sunnah on this position. (Sharah Subul as-Salam upon Bulugh al-Maraam of Ibn Hajar Makki, V3, Page 358).

An absolute majority of Ulema say that the actions of Muawiya  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) Awere deliberate and there is no authentic account in Islamic literature to prove that he repented for them.  However, some Ahle Sunnah Ulema say that Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) mistakes were Ijtehadi.

We respect opinions of all our Ulema. We also respect their differences of opinions. As far as we are concerned, we prefer to keep quite in Muawiya's ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) case.

 

AUTHENTIC HISTORY ACCOUNTS

All our Ulema have  consensus that  authentic Islamic history accounts confirm that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) openly accepted Hadhrat Ali  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )to be better than him in all respects and deserved to be the Khalifa than himself.

The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows:

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."  

Muslim scholars cite the following historical facts.

Before Hadhrat Ali's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) caliphate, there were many Sahabah who acted differently in similar circumstances.  Like, Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) never blamed the Khalifa of any wrong doing.  He never questioned the Caliph on certain decisions even if they were made against his wishes/recommendations.  He did not stage a rebellion or even objected when Hadhrat Umarرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) removed him from the post of Commander of Muslim forces without giving any reason.  He never argued that he was made commander of Muslim forces by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and continued in the same capacity during Hadhrat Abu Bakr'sرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) time and Hadhrat Umarرضئ الله تعالی عنه )  had no right to fire him from this position; like Muawiyaرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umarرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to remove him from that position.  For Hadhrat Khaled bin Walid رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), the job of commander of Chief of Muslim forces was dear, still he did not rebel and lived as an example of piety and bravery.  He was never eager to become Khalifa even though he was popular among Muslims.  As a matter of fact he was a hero and role model for Muslims in view of his bravery and tactical successes on the battle field.  He never demanded that he be made Governor of the areas conquered by him.  He was a big source of solidifying and strengthening the Islamic nation and remained a loyal/trusted Commander of Islamic State till his last breath.  

When Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was chosen as Khalifa, there was near anarchy in the Islamic State.  In order to bring back normalcy, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) asked all Governors to formally resign from their positions. Later they could have been reshuffled or re-appointed again.  Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) refused to resign and staged a rebellion and claimed that he was appointed as Governor by Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had no right to ask him to resign. Muawiya's rebellion caused hundreds of thousands of deaths of Sahabah, Taba'een and Muslims. Ad-Dahabi wrote : About 60 to 70 thousand people died in the battle of Siffeen alone in which Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) fought against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). This demonstrates what Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said about Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  ( Ammar bin Yasser Hadith in Bukhari and Muslim)

It is in Hadith - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari  447, Muslim 7320)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, 'I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against Muawiya's) rebel group. (Ibn Abdul Barr in al-Istiab)
 
It is narrrated in Hadith Bukhari that Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) declared in front of a large gathering of Sahabah, Tabaeen and Muslims that he was more rightful to be the Khalifa  than Hadhrat Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  Read the following Hadith Bukhari. 
 
حَدَّثَنِي إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَخْبَرَنَا هِشَامٌ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ وَأَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ طَاوُسٍ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى حَفْصَةَ وَنَسْوَاتُهَا تَنْطُفُ، قُلْتُ قَدْ كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ النَّاسِ مَا تَرَيْنَ، فَلَمْ يُجْعَلْ لِي مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَىْءٌ‏.‏ فَقَالَتِ الْحَقْ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَنْتَظِرُونَكَ، وَأَخْشَى أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي احْتِبَاسِكَ عَنْهُمْ فُرْقَةٌ‏.‏ فَلَمْ تَدَعْهُ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ، فَلَمَّا تَفَرَّقَ النَّاسُ خَطَبَ مُعَاوِيَةُ قَالَ مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمَ فِي هَذَا الأَمْرِ فَلْيُطْلِعْ لَنَا قَرْنَهُ، فَلَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنْهُ وَمِنْ أَبِيهِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ فَهَلاَّ أَجَبْتَهُ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَحَلَلْتُ حُبْوَتِي وَهَمَمْتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الأَمْرِ مِنْكَ مَنْ قَاتَلَكَ وَأَبَاكَ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ‏.‏ فَخَشِيتُ أَنْ أَقُولَ كَلِمَةً تُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْجَمْعِ، وَتَسْفِكُ الدَّمَ، وَيُحْمَلُ عَنِّي غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ، فَذَكَرْتُ مَا أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ فِي الْجِنَانِ‏.‏ قَالَ حَبِيبٌ حُفِظْتَ وَعُصِمْتَ‏.‏ قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ وَنَوْسَاتُهَا‏.

Narrated `Ikrima bin Khalid ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) : Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I went to (Ummul Momineen) Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) while water was dribbling from her twined braids. I said, 'The condition of the people is as you see, and no authority has been given to me.' Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) said, (to me), 'Go to them, and as they (the people) are waiting for you, and I am afraid your absence from them will cause division among them.' "So Hafsa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) did not leave Ibn `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) till we went to them. When the people differed, Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) addressed the people saying, "'If anybody wants to say anything in this matter of the Caliphate, he should show up and not conceal himself, for we are more rightful to be the Caliph than he (Ibn Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and his father ( Umar - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )." On that, Habib bin Masalama ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said (to Ibn Umar -  رضئ الله تعالی عنه), "Why don't you reply to him (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه )?" `Abdullah bin `Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "I untied my garment that was going round my back and legs while I was sitting and was about to say, He who fought against you (Muawiya - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and against your father (Abu Sufyan - رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for the sake of Islam, is more rightful to be a Caliph", but I was afraid that my statement might cause differences among the people and cause bloodshed, and my statement might be interpreted not as I intended. (So I kept quiet) remembering what Allah has prepared in the Gardens of Paradise (for those who prefer Hereafter over this worldly life)." Habib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) said, "You did what kept you safe and secure".   (Bukhari 4108, Book 64, Chapter 29  Battle of Khandaq )

 
Distinction in the status among Sahabah is mandatory in Islam.  If you do not keep this distinction in mind, you have strayed, you have lost the right path of Islam.
 
Some people cite the following Hadith to equate all Sahabah.  

It is in Hadith -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said :"My Companions are like stars, whoever among them you use for guidance, you will be rightly guided.

The above Hadith is Weak (Dha'eef).  Baihaqi in his book al-Makhdal, and Ibn Hajar in al-Kafi al-Shaf'fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Kashshaf (4:94) have stated that the above Hadith is narrated through many weak chains as follows

(References - (i) Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Musnad  Ibn Humayd 2-28.  (ii) Jabir Ibn Abdullahرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) Daraqutni - Fada'il-e-Sahabah - 4-1778, (iii) Abu Hurairah رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in Musnad al-Shihab - Qudai 2-275.  (iv) Umarرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) - Baihaqi in al-Madkhal 1-145.  (v) Ibn Abbasرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) - Baihaqi in al-Madkhal 1-147. (vi) Anasرضئ الله تعالی عنه ) - Ibn Hajar through al-Bazzar in his book Takhlis at-Takhlis al-Habr 2-191.)

However, many authentic Ahadith and Quranic verses confirm the merits of Sahabah. Therefore Hadith scholars agree that at least the contents of the above Hadith are sound.  In this context, the following issues are important.

Ahle Sunnah Ulema are united (have consensus) that the Sahaba belong to the highest probity (udul) among people; in addition, their precision (dabt) can only be interpreted in the cases of conflicting narrations/reports of equal strength. 

Ibn Rajab wrote that the opinions of Abu Bakr ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) have precedence over other Sahabah.  

Similarly the actions, opinions and the model of conduct of Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Hadhrat Hassan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Husain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has precedence over the actions, opinions and the model of conduct of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Amr bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Mughira Ibn Shubah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Marwan and Yazid bin Muawiya.

Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین ) were rightly guided Caliphs (Khulafa-e-Rashideen). No one from Ahle Sunnah calls Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), as 'rightly guided Caliph' (Khalifa-e-Rashid).  As a matter of fact, the rightly guided caliphate was ended by Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and he was the founding King of a dynastic rule in Muslim history.  

Generalized praise of Sahabah is a good deed.  Hadith books are full of generalized praise of Sahabah and in some cases references of praise of individual Sahabah.  Where there were differences of opinions among Sahabah, particularly between Khulafa-e-Rashideen and an individual Sahabi which resulted in killing of hundreds of thousands of Sahabah, Taba'een and Muslims, it is a good idea that while we praise the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, we keep quiet about the Sahabi who deposed rightly guided Khulafa. It is also our Iman that if we had lived during that time in Hijaz, we would have fought Siffeen alongside Khalifa-e-Rashid, Amir-ul-Momineen Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).      

Muawiyeen sect, who follow Muawiya and claim that they are the slaves of of the slaves of Muawiya refer to  certain accomplishments of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) after he deposed Rashidun Caliphate.  Like he build a strong Navy and broke the hold of Byzantine Empire in the eastern Mediterranean. He modernized the army and expanded Umayyed empire in all directions. And, certain administrative reforms were also undertaken during Muawiya's ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) monarchy. 

It is our Iman that if Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was allowed to continue as Khalifa,   he would have done a better job than Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  All Sahabah and entire Islamic Ummah are unanimous that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a great administrator and Jurist (Faqih). He was the adviser of all three Khulafa-e-Rashideen before him under whom the Islamic state was solidified and expanded extensively.

Islam's continuance in its original form even today is greatly because of the sacrifices of Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), his sons and other members of Ahle Bait.  They sacrificed their lives to keep the purity of Islam from worldly politics.  We the Muslims of the world are greatly indebted to the Ahle Bait-e-Rasool (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)They showed us the right path and set an example of piety and bravery. 

 

 

RELATED BOOKS

 

Volume (2) - Muawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reign

Volume (3) - Mawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) associates

Volume (4) - Yazid bin Muawiya

Volume (5) - Muawiya's  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) followers


 

 


 

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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