CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

لمحة عامة عن الطرق الصوفية التيجانية

AN OVERVIEW OF

TIJANI SUFI ORDER

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Almost all the information in this article has been taken from Tijani Websites http://www.tijani.org, http://www.dar-sirr.com, and Tijani Wikipedia page and information available about the Shaikh on public domain.   

The article is divided into three parts; (i) An Overview of Tijani order, (ii) The Concept of Seal of Sainthood (Khatam al-Awliya), and (iii) Zaidi (Shia) school of thought.

The article has been written with good intention to guide people to the right path of Islam in the light of Quran and Ahadith.  We regret if any of our statement has caused any discomfort to anyone in the world. We hope that people will take the contents in a positive spirit.

               

 

 

PART (I)

 

AN OVERVIEW OF TIJANI ORDER

 

Shaikh Ahmed ibn Mohammed Tijani (1735–1815) is the founder of the Tijaniyya Sufi order.  He was born in Tijana Berber tribe in Aïn Madhi, a small village in Algeria.

It is mentioned in the official Tijani websites that he was a descendant of  Hadhrat Hassan Ibn Ali (ru) through Mawlay Idris (ru), who formed the first Zaidi State in Morocco.  We have discussed briefly about Zaidi school of thought in part (3) of  this article.  

Shaikh Tijani learned Quran and Islamic subjects in his childhood from local teachers and when he was 21 years old, joined al-Qarawiyyine University at Fez, Morocco and learned Islamic subjects. 

It is reported on Tijani websites that Shaikh Tijani took baya in Shadhilite order and left it. Then he took baya in Qadriyya order and left it after sometime.  He also took baya in Nasiriyya order and left it. Later he took baya in Shadhilite-Ghumariyya order and left it. Then he took baya on the hands of Shaikh Ahmed Tawwash (d. 1791) who counseled him to seek seclusion (khalwa) and invocation (dhikr), but Shaikh Tijani refused and left him.  Then he took ba'ya in Khalwatiya order in Cairo, Egypt on his way to Hajj pilgrimage, but left itLater he took baya in Summaniya order in Madina and left it and returned to Morocco. He visited Fez in 1776, from where he returned to Boussemghoun, a Saharan Oasis. 

In 1782 in Boussemghoun,  Shaikh Tijani announced that he had a day light meeting (while he was awake) with Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) authorized him to establish his own order "Tariqa Ahmediya Mohammediya Ibrahimiya Hanifiya-Tijaniyya".  He claimed that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told him the following.

"You owe no favor to any of the Shaikhs of any Order (Tariqa), for I am myself your medium and provider in every truth. Abandon all that you have taken from all other Orders and hold fast to this new Order,  without seclusion (khalwa), or retirement from people (uzla); and you are as you are, without hardship, difficulty, or strive, (meaning you don't have to do anything) and renounce all saints (Awliya Allah)."

Shaikh Tijani stayed in Boussemghoun for 15 years.  In 1796, he went to Fez. In 1797, he claimed that he had attained the Maqam al-Qutbaniya al-Jami'a  al-'Uzma (absolute authority in Sufi way) which he longingly sought.

A month later from the above announcement,  Shaikh Tijani declared that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) appeared to him in the daylight while he was awake and informed him that he (Tijani) has now become Qutb al Maktum (Concealed Pole) and Khatim al Awliya (the Seal of Saint-hood).

Shaikh Tijani told his companions (followers) as follows: 

(i) Allah (swt) gave me in Paradise the rank of Forty Messengers. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

(ii) I was Saint (Imam of humanity) while Adam (as) was between the water and the clay.

(iii) When Allah (swt) will assembles His creatures at the place of standing (on the Judgment Day), a herald will proclaim at the top of his voice, so that everyone will hear him: "O people of the final congregation, this is your Imam (Tijani), from whom you obtained your support!" (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

(iv)  I am the partition between Heaven and Hell. My devotee (one who loves me sincerely) is told, 'Enter to Paradise', and my enemy is told, ‘Enter to Hell.' (Ifada Ahmediya)

(v) The two feet of mine are upon the neck of every Saint (Awliya Allah) from the time of Adam until the blowing of the trumpet". (Rima'h) 

(vi) Shaikh Tijani asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) 'Shaikh Abdul Qader al-Jilani (ru) said, "My stamp cannot be over stamped", the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) responded "O' Ahmed your stamp can overtake any stamp and the other stamps cannot over take yours".  


Shaikh Tijani made hundreds of claims in front of his followers which are recorded in many of his books. Some of his claims are provided below for information of our readers.   

1.   Allah (swt) gave me in the ‘Sab'a al-Mathani’ what he has given to Messengers / Prophets. (Saba al Mathani is another name for Surah al-Fatiha -  meaning ' the seven often recited verses')  (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 

2.  My spirit (rooh) supports the poles (Aqtab), the sages, the saints (Awliya Allah), from pre existence to eternity (mina al azal,  ila  abad). (Rima'h)

3.  Every shaikh has taken (spiritual and physical support) from me from the time of the Companions of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) until the blowing of the trumpet. (Ifada al-Ahmediya)  

4.  My sword hangs over the sky. Anyone (Wali Allah) sticks his head up, I will cut his head.” (Rafa’a Niqab)

5.  All the saints (Awliya Allah) dissolve when they approach me; whether their importance is great or small! (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)  

6.   Every saint drinks or provides water to drink, taking from my ocean; from the origin of the world until the blowing on the trumpet.” (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 

7.  I have perceived more than 80,000 trillion years in the primordial past (before the creation of this Cosmos). (Jawahir al-Ma'ani)  

8.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has guaranteed the Grand Opening (al-Fath al-Akbar) to my ten companions (Sahabah). 

9. Whoever claims authority of Wilaya (mashyakha) after my death is a liar.   

10. If the greatest poles (Aghwath) came to know what Allah (swt) has prepared for the general people of Tijani order, they would weep, cry and lament profusely: 'Oh Our Lord! You have given us nothing! (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)  

11. If the Greatest Poles (Agwaath) of the Ummah are brought together they would not reach altogether to the hair weight of a group of my (Tijani's) companions (Sahabah).   (Bughyat al-Mustafid)

12. All the saints (Awliya Allah of all ranks) will be incorporated into my Circle (will become my followers), take my Wird and be initiated into my Path (become by Murideen) from the origin of the world until the doomsday. Even Imam Mahdi will receive my Path (will be my Murid) when the end of times arrives. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

13.  A person who enters my circle (becomes follower) and quits in order to enter another one (learns Islam from another Shaikh), he will die as a kafir. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

14. Whoever looks at my face on Fridays and Mondays will enter Paradise without reckoning.” (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

15. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Your companions are my companions. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

16.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Tell your companions: 'Do not offend me (Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  by offending one another.' (Ifada al-Ahmediya) 

17. I am the doorway to the salvation of every sinner who attaches himself to me (becomes Tijani)! (Rima'h)

18. One trillion (1,000,000,000,000) people, including women and Jinns, will reach the most sublime, perfect, direct knowledge (ma'arifa); divine love (ma'habba); witnessing (mushahada); certitude (yaqin); oneness of God (tawhid); courtesies (adaab); sciences (‘ulum) and straightforwardness (istiqama) on the hands of Shaikh Tijany. (Epistle of Bounty and Gratitude)

19. I was assured to have as many as 1.000.000.000.000 ( 1 trillion)  men companions and as many as 1.000.000.000 ( 1 billion ) women companions. (Kitab Rawd al-Mu'hib al-Fani).

20. All my companions will enter paradise without reckoning and without punishment for whatever sins and acts of disobedience they may have committed.   (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)  

21. One day, Shaikh Tijani was standing on a crossroad in Fez and the people encircled him and were looking at him from all 4 direction until after sometime he departed to his residence. His companion Mohammed ibn Abi Nasr al-Alawi, asked him, "Oh Master! what is the reason behind your long standing at that crossroad?" Shaikh Tijani  replied:  Allah (swt) told me, ‘Go out to my slaves in my image. Whoever has seen you, has seen Me'! (Kashf al-Hijab).  

Read 50 more claims of Shaikh Tijani

 

PROPAGATION OF TIJANI DOCTRINE
 
Shaikh Tijani developed his doctrine on loose lines to attract people. He did not ask people to undergo self purification retreats, prayers/fasting, etc., as is done in many Sufi orders.  He ordered his disciples to live in comforts of the world, wear classy clothes, eat choices food.  He claimed that this was ordered to him by the Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).   
 
 Shaikh Tijani's Grave in Fez, Morocco.
Shaikh Tijani forbade his disciples  from visiting the living or dead Awliya Allah. Meaning, his people are banned from visiting any scholars / Shuyooks living or dead.  And he claimed that this was ordered to him by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He claimed that his followers should rely on his personal guarantee of salvation.
 
He also declared that salvation is available to those who saw him on Mondays and Fridays and did not become his enemy
 
Shaikh Tijani also claimed that if someone receives from him the well-known wird (Wazifa) which is essential to the Order, or receives it from someone he has authorized to teach he will enter 'Jannat Ul Illiyyine of prophets and saints', where his children, wives, and descendants (following generations) will accompany him without reckoning and without punishment, provided he remains a devoted and dedicated follower until his death.
 
Shaikh Tijani enumerated (listed) three basic conditions for the people of his (Tijani) Order, as follows:
 
(1) Commitment to the Wird (Wazifa) till death
(2) Commitment to the Order till death
(3) Non visitation of living Shaikhs/Scholars or dead Awliya Allah.  
 
Shaikh Tijani remained in Fez until his death on Thursday 22 September 1815. He was buried in his Zawiya (Khankah) in Fez, Morocco.
 

SHAIKH TIJANI'S CLAIMS 

Shaikh Tijani refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as his Grandfather extensively in his books and in front of people, as reported by his followers.  Whereas everyone, including the Ahle Bait addressed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Look at the Islamic literature, nowhere people have addressed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as Grandfather so extensively as Shaikh Tijani does. There may be instances where the first / second generation Ahle Bait, out of necessity, have referred to their relationship with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) while fighting the wars against the oppressors. Otherwise everyone, including the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) household and Sahabah, referred to him as 'Rasulullah' (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as a mark of respect.  But it is a different story with Shaikh Tijani.  

Everything he does, every claim he makes, Shaikh Tijani takes the name of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and declares that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told him so, in a day light meeting in wakefulness? We fail to understand how come he talks against the Shariah and also claims that these are the instructions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) The irony of the fact is,  innocent people are made to believe these claims by Tijani preachers.   

No Sufi Shaikh in the history of Islam has ever gone against the basic Islamic Shariah. But read many of the claims of Shaikh Tijani which do not  conform to Islamic Shariah.
   

(1) Shaikh Tijani has prohibited his followers from visiting the Living or Dead Shuyookhs / Awliya Allah.

It is proved from Quran and Ahadith that it is Sunnah to visit the graves of Awliya Allah. 

Also, if you stop people from approaching Ulema /shuyooks, how will they learn Islam in different countries?

Restricting people to be away from the rest of the Shuyooks of Ahle Sunnah, living or dead, gives rise to cultism and groupism in Islam. 

 

(2) Shaikh Tijani has tried to impose himself on the entire creation of Allah (swt) as he claims that every living thing is subjected to, and is made dependent upon him, including Awliya Allah, spiritually and physically.  

It is important to know that Aalam e Mithaal has been open to many Awliya Allah.  Also, many Awliya Allah have been rewarded with access to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), in their sleep and in wakefulness. If this was the truth, then every Shaikh who sees these facts should have testified it.  This is an strange claim and some stories have been created in Tijani books to convince people in this regard. 

In sufi teachings, Haqeeqat e Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is a vast subject.  We will not go into details here. However, Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is considered the abstract form of this cosmos. And the cosmos is known to be the detailed version of Haqeeqat e Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). This is an accepted fact among Sufia e Kiram.  Read more... 

But Shaikh Tijani has carved out an abstract form for himself as 'Haqeeqat e Tijani', which is claimed to be another abstract form for the cosmos. He has misinterpreted, misquoted  and invented some theories to convince his followers.  

 

(3) Read the following claims of Shaikh Tijani which do not correspond to basic Islamic Sharia and are disrespectful to Prophets, Sahabah and important dignitaries of Islam
 

(a) Allah (swt) gave me in Paradise the rank of Forty Messengers. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

(Equating your rank with Prophets is considered as kufr by Islamic Jurists. )

 

(b)  I am the partition between Heaven and Hell. My devotee (one who loves me sincerely) is told, 'Enter to Paradise', and my enemy is told, ‘Enter to Hell.' (Ifada Ahmediya).  

(There is no basis for this assertion in Islamic Sharia except that Shaikh Tijani has tried to equate himself with Hadhrat Ali (ru)

It is in Hadith - the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "Ali (ru) is the partition between Heaven and Hell." (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim, 3/127; Kanz Ul Amaal, 5/30; Al-Jami of Suyuti, 1/374; Tirmidhi; Ibn Maghazeli, 80).

 

(c) All my companions will enter paradise without reckoning and without punishment for whatever sins and acts of disobedience they may have committed.   (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 

(This is Christian theory.  There is no basis for this theory in Islam, except to fool people).

 

(d) Allah (swt) gave me in the 'Sab'a al-Mathani' what he has given to Messengers / Prophets. (Saba al Mathani is another name for Surah al-Fatiha -  meaning 'the seven often recited verses')  (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 
 
(Equating your rank with Prophets is considered as kufr by Islamic Jurists).
 
 
(e) Every shaikh has taken (spiritual and physical support) from me from the time of the Companions of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) until the blowing of the trumpet. (Ifada al-Ahmediya) 
 
(This is a disrespect of Sahabah, Tabaeen and their followers).
 
 
(f) My sword hangs over the sky.  Anyone  (Wali Allah) sticks his head up, I will cut his head.” (Rafa’a Niqab) 
 
(This is the height of egoism and self esteem and an extreme form of disrespect and insult for the important Awliya Allah of Islam).
 
 
(g) I have perceived more than 80,000 trillion years in the primordial past (before the creation of this Cosmos). (Jawahir al-Ma'ani
 
(This is a meaningless assertion from sufi point of view)
 
(h) Whoever claims authority of Wilaya (mashyakha) after my death is a liar.
 
(Only Tijanis can believe this piece of fiction - Astaghfirullah)
 
(i) A person who enters my circle (becomes follower) and quits in order to enter another one (learns Islam from another Shaikh), he will die as a kafir. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)
 
(This is a cultist assertion to scare followers)
 
(j) Whoever looks at my face on Fridays and Mondays will enter Paradise without reckoning. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 
 
(There is no basis for such assertions in Islamic Sharia. This is an attempt to fool people)
 
 
(k) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Your companions are my companions'. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)
 
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Tell your companions: 'Do not offend me (Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  by offending one another.' (Ifada al-Ahmediya)
 
(The above claims are disrespect to the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  and his companions).
There are hundreds of such assertions of Shaikh Tijani mentioned in many of the Tijani' books.  Read more...
 

Among all his claims, Shaikh Tijani made the following unusual claim. 

(i) In 1797, he announced that he had attained the Maqam al-Qutbaniya al-Jami'a  al-'Uzma (absolute authority in Sufi way) which he longingly sought. 

(ii) A month later from the above announcement, he declared that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) appeared to him in the daylight while he was awake and informed him that he (Tijani) has now become Qutb al Maktum (Concealed Pole) and Khatim al Awliya (the Seal of Saint-hood).

   

There are some others who also made similar claims. Like Nazim al Haqqani claimed that his Shaikh Abdullah ad-Daghestani is "the Seal of saint-hood" (Khatam al Awliya).   Read more...

We will discuss this issue briefly for better understanding of our readers. 

 

 

PART (II)

 

THE CONCEPT OF SEAL OF SAINTHOOD (KHATAM AL-AWLIYA)

 

The concept of 'Seal of Saint-hood' was first mentioned by Hakīm Tirmidhī (820-910), one of the early authors of Sufism.

 

Hakim Tirmidhi Tomb in Tirmidh,   Surkhandarya State South Uzbekistan   

 

 

It is important to note that he is not Imam Abū Īsā at-Tirmidhī, the famous Hadith Master. Hakim Tirmidhi has written many books, which include "Siraat al Awliya". 

Shaikh Ibn Arabi wrote two commentaries of "Sirat al Awliya".  The contents of these commentaries formed part of the second volume of Shaikh Ibn Arabi's own work 'Futuhat al-Makkiyya'. This shows Hakim Tirmidhi's text may have been a source of inspiration for Shaikh Ibn Arabi when he wrote second volume of Futuhat al Makkiyya. 

In Sirat al-Awliya, Hakim Tirmidhi described two categories of Awliya Allah;  (1) 'Wali Allah', and (2) 'Wali Haqq Allah'.

He explained that 'Wali Haqq Allah' acquires Wilaya by his efforts, walking on the path of Sufia-e-Karam, taking all the troubles in controlling his Nafs from worldly attractions.

However, 'Wali Allah' need not have to go through this path.  He is  exempt from all the tribulations of the path (suluk). He does not have to grapple with Nafs because his Nafs, by divine grace, from the birth, remains unsoiled from worldly trace. 

Allah (swt) draws Wali Allah to Himself in one blow, while Wali Haqq Allah walks step by step towards Him. They both are revered, but the rank of 'Wali Allah' is higher than the rank of Wali Haqq Allah

Hakim Tirmidhi wrote that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) holds the highest rank in creation.  He is also the Messenger of the Divine Law. And his true successors are 40 chosen Awliya, through whom Allah (swt) communicates with people after the death of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). These 40 saints (Abdaal) are guarantors of proper application of Divine law.  They guarantee the existence of the world and Allah (swt) confers upon them His inspirations and performance of wonders (karamat) and rewards them with freedom from sin.   

 

Moḥammad ibn Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn Arabī ( محمد ابن علي ابن محمد ابن عربي ), known as al-Shaykh al-Akbarwas born in Murcia, Andulasia (Spain) on  July 28, 1165. He is famous for his explanation of Tawhid  through the concept of 'Wahdat-ul-Wujood'.

 

Shaikh Ibn Arabi died on November 20, 1240 in Damascus where his mausoleum is located.

 

 

Shaikh Ibn al-Arabî also places Wilaya within a cosmological context in line with Hakim Tirmidhi.  He also speaks of 'the seal of sainthood', a term which Hakîm Tirmidhî  introduced in Sufi literature. 

Awliya Allah are chosen people. They inherit their knowledge, stations, and states from the Prophets. 

It is in Hadith  - “Whoever takes a Wali of Mine an enemy, I will wage war on him; and My slave will not perform any act with which he draws closer to Me, more beloved to Me then when he fulfills what I have ordained on him; and My salve will keep drawing closer to Me by performing the Nawafil (voluntary acts of worship) until I love him, and when I love him, I will be his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hands with which he strikes, and his legs with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him; and if he seeks refuge with Me, I will grant him refuge(Bukhari).  

The emphasis on "Wali of mine" in the above Hadith shows that this human being is the chosen one.

 

Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to be the abstract form of the cosmos is not a human invention.  It is an Islamic understanding, clearly described in Quran. Read our Article on Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Read more...  

Shaikh Ibn Arabi has emphasized that the term 'Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi' (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) refers to primordiality which manifests as 'Insan al Kamil' (the complete human being) in its finality Ultimate manifestation of both these facts are associated with the person (zaat) of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Therefore, the  walāya of the walī can only be a reflection of the walāya of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).   Subhanallah.

For Awliya Allah, to be the heir of one of the prophets means they are virtually the heir of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), because all Prophets are covered under Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

A person is first a saint, then he becomes a Prophet and then becomes an Apostle.  All Apostles, in terms of their sainthood, are equal and stand on the same level, but in actuality they differ from one another because of their situation, time and country of residence.  Similar is the case with the Prophets. 

Ibn Arabi clarifies that the term Seal (Khatam) appears in two connotations (1) The Seal of the Prophets (khātam al-anbiyā’), and (2) The Seal of the Saints (khātam al-awliyā’).
 
As regards to Prophets, the seal of Prophet-hood is, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

It is in Quran - مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا ( Meaning - Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله  وسلم - is not the father of any men among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things).

As per Ibn Arabi, the Seal of Saint hood has three connotations, (1) Hadhrat Isa (as) - the Seal of Universal Sainthood (2) Imam Mahdi (as) who will precede Hadhrat Isa (as) and (3) The Seal of Mohammadan Sainthood. 

As per Shaikh's understanding,  the Seal of Mohammadan Sainthood is a man of noble Arab birth, living in his time. And he declared  in Futuhat al Makkiyyah as follows:

"I am the Seal of the sainthood, no doubt, (the Seal of) the heritage of the Hashimite (Muhammad) and the Messiah".

What Ibn Arabi meant from the above declaration was that 'no one after him would inherit fully from Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) even though Awliya Allah will be born after him but they will inherit from other Prophets.

Subhanallah, when Shaikh Ibn Arabi looked at the bountiful spiritual shower upon him,  he must have considered that it is the ultimate stage and station a Wali Allah could reach. This understanding on his part was reflected in his writings. 

No doubt, Ibn Arabi is  one of the greatest Shuyooks of Islam.  We call him Shaikh al Akbar and we salute him for his services to Islam.   

Allah's (swt) bounties are limitless.  Therefore, there is limitlessness in the categories, stages and stations of Awliya Allah. We respect them all, irrespective of their status and station.

There is a question here. Will there be a last Wali Allah in the world, like the last Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?   

The answer is yes. Before the end times, even after the advent of Imam Mahdi, there will be Awliya Allah and as as per Shaikh Ibn Arabi, the last Wali will be born in China. After his death, there wont be any Wali in the world and Judgment day will be established. This is a simple explanation to the "Seal of Saint-hood (Khatim al Awliya).

Does the "seal of Saint-hood" refers to the highest ranking Wali Allah in the World? 

The answer is not necessary. Because, a person is first Wali Allah, then he becomes a Prophet and then becomes Rasul. In this category, the highest form of Wilaya and Nubuwwa, both are associated with Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Also the greatness of Wilaya of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (ru) and Hadhrat Ali (ru) are accepted facts.  Also Ghousul Azam Shaikh Abdul Qader Jeelani's (ru) superiority in the field of Wilaya is accepted among all Sufi Salasil.

Shaikh Ibn Arabi's writing were misunderstood by people. On the basis of their misunderstanding, they developed some more strange theories.

 

SHAIKH TIJANI'S STATEMENTS

What is observed from Shaikh Tijani's  assertions is,  he was an impatient man. He took baya in so many orders, but did not make use of their teachings and training.  He did not train himself as per the rigorous requirement of Sufi path.  He was in a hurry to reach to the top without walking step by step under the direction of a Shaikh-e- Kamil.  This made him leave so many Tariqas. 

Finally, he made a plan.  He started his own Silsila and called it Tariqa Ahmediya Mohammediya Ibrahimiya Hanifiya Tijaniyya and claimed that he was instructed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

Apparently, Shaikh Tijani misunderstood the works of Hakim Tirmidhi and he took the description of 'Wali Allah' and 'Wali Haqq Allah' in a literal/textual sense and convinced his followers that he was Wali Allah by birth, therefore he need not have to go through the difficulties of Sufi path. 

Shaikh Tijani should have known the example of our Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), how difficult times he underwent during his Makkan life.  He should have known the example of Imam Hassan (ru) and Imam Hussain (ru) and other Ahle Bait and what they have gone through in their lives.  He should have known the life history of Shaikh Abd al Qadir Jeelani (ru) how he spent 25 years of his life in hardships. These are examples of all who were saints from their birth. History shows that those who were Wali Allah from birth had undergone more hardship than others.  Nothing is achieved easy.  You need to work hard and go through the rigors of the path and become an example to others. 

Look at what Shaikh Tijani told to his followers when he started his new order.   He claimed that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told him the following.

"You owe no favor to any of the Shaikhs of any Order (Tariqa), for I am myself your medium and provider in every truth. Abandon all that you have taken from all other Orders and hold fast to this new Order,  without seclusion (khalwa), or retirement from people (uzla); and you are as you are, without hardship, difficulty, or strive, (meaning you don't have to do anything) and renounce all saints (Awliya Allah)."

The above statement shows his misunderstanding of Hakim Tirmidhi's writings. And he attributed his misunderstanding to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (Astaghfirullah). 

He appointed himself on Maqam al-Qutbaniya al-Jami'a  al-'Uzma (absolute authority in Sufi way) which he longingly sought and was in a hurry to get it.  And within a month from the above self-appointment, he declared that he had become  Qutb al Maktum (Concealed Pole) or Khatim al Awliya (the Seal of Saint-hood).

If Shaikh Tijani had stayed with a Silsila and worked hard, he could have definitely achieved something in his life. But, he was the man in a hurry.

When you gauge his  statements and his style in his books, the above facts become abundantly clear. 

 

 

 

PART (III)

 

ZAIDI  SCHOOL OF THOUGHT 

 

Zaidi or Zaidiyya ( الزيد ية ) is a Shi'a school of thought named after Hadhrat Zaid ibn Alī (ru), the grandson of Hadhrat Imam Hussain (ru) (Zayd ibn Ali, ibn Hussain Zain al abidin, ibn Hussain, ibn Ali - radhiallahu unhum ajma'een).  Followers of the Zaidi school of thought are known as Zaidi Shi'a.
 
In matters of jurisprudence,  Zaidis follow Hadhrat Zaid ibn Ali (ru) teachings documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (مجموع الفِقه).
 
Zaidi school of thought has a unique approach within Shia jurisprudence, which has many similarities with Hanafi school of thought of Sunni Islam.  
  
DIFFERENCES OF OPINIONS
 
In context of Imamate, Zaidis believe that Hadhrat Zaid ibn Ali (ru) was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad's tyrannical and corrupt Caliphate. As against this, the twelver Shias believe that his brother Imam Mohammad al-Baqir (ru) was the true successor for the Imamate.

Zaidis claim that there was sufficient description given by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) that all Sahabah should have recognized Hadhrat Ali (ru) as the first rightful Caliph. They consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognize Hadhrat Ali (ru) as the legitimate first Caliph. 

They deny legitimacy of Caliphate to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (ru),  Hadhrat Umar (ru) and Hadhrat Uthman (ru). However, they avoid denouncing them,  like other Shia groups do.

Zaidis denounce Muwayia (ru) for his role in the conflict with Hadhrat Ali (ru). They openly speak against all those who fought against Hadhrat Ali (ru) during his Caliphate. They condemn  Hadhrat Talha (ru) and Hadhrat Zubair ibn al-Awam (ru), for their role in the battle of Camel. They also criticize Ummul Momineen Aisha (ra) for her role in the conflict with Hadhrat Ali (ru).  Read more about the Battle of Camel on this link. 

People say that the above Zaidi beliefs have seeped into some  Ahle Sunnah extreme Sufi Groups, like Tijanis. The reason may be the early Muslim rulers in Morocco adhered to Zaidism as their official religion which left a deep influence on the local population. Like the Saudi Arabian ruling dynasty for the past 100 years adhered to Salafi school of thought as their official religion which has left deep influence on Sunni Islam in and around the Arab world. Read more about Salafi Groups in the World on this link.  

It is reported that, there are two types of people among Tijanis as follows:
(1) Who distinguish themselves away from Shia, describe shias as Rafidha, but adhere to above Zaidiyya beliefs in regard to Ahle Bait and Sahabah, consider it part of Sunni Islam and openly talk about it.
(2) There are others who adhere to the above Zaidi beliefs also consider it part of Sunni Islam, but do not talk about it openly
Tijanis are otherwise part of mainstream Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a, they also call themselves Ahle Sunnah, and follow one of the 4 sunni schools of thought. 
As far as majority of Ahle Sunnah are concerned, they consider it forbidden to talk bad, or criticize the roles of Sahabah. They keep their mouths shut in issues related to the differences of opinions among Sahabah and leave it to Allah (swt) and His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 
(i) It is stated in Fatawa Hindiya (Alamgiri), Khulasa al fiqhiyah and other books that, if someone prefers Ali (ru) over Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu unhum) - is an innovator (mubtadi).  
(ii) If someone denies the validity of the Imamates of Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu unhum) or the validity of the Imamate of one of the two, then the Jurists (fuqaha) declared him kafir, while the theologians (mutakallimun) declared him an innovator. (Fatawa al Haramain). 

 

 

 
  

SHAIKH TIJANI'S CLAIMS

Shaikh Tijani refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as his Grandfather extensively in his books and in front of people, as reported by his followers.  Whereas everyone, including the Ahle Bait addressed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Look at the Islamic literature, nowhere people have addressed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as Grandfather so extensively as Shaikh Tijani does. There may be instances where the first / second generation Ahle Bait, out of necessity, have referred to their relationship with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) while fighting the wars against the oppressors. Otherwise everyone, including the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) household and Sahabah, referred to him as 'Rasulullah' (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as a mark of respect.  But it is a different story with Shaikh Tijani.  

Everything he does, every claim he makes, Shaikh Tijani takes the name of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and declares that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told him so, in a day light meeting in wakefulness? We fail to understand how come he talks against the Shariah and also claims that these are the instructions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) The irony of the fact is,  innocent people are made to believe these claims by Tijani preachers.   

No Sufi Shaikh in the history of Islam has ever gone against the basic Islamic Shariah. But read many of the claims of Shaikh Tijani which do not  conform to Islamic Shariah.
   

(1) Shaikh Tijani has prohibited his followers from visiting the Living or Dead Shuyookhs / Awliya Allah.

It is proved from Quran and Ahadith that it is Sunnah to visit the graves of Awliya Allah. 

Also, if you stop people from approaching Ulema /shuyooks, how will they learn Islam in different countries?

Restricting people to be away from the rest of the Shuyooks of Ahle Sunnah, living or dead, gives rise to cultism and groupism in Islam. 

 

(2) Shaikh Tijani has tried to impose himself on the entire creation of Allah (swt) as he claims that every living thing is subjected to, and is made dependent upon him, including Awliya Allah, spiritually and physically.  

It is important to know that Aalam e Mithaal has been open to many Awliya Allah.  Also, many Awliya Allah have been rewarded with access to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), in their sleep and in wakefulness. If this was the truth, then every Shaikh who sees these facts should have testified it.  This is an strange claim and some stories have been created in Tijani books to convince people in this regard. 

In sufi teachings, Haqeeqat e Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is a vast subject.  We will not go into details here. However, Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is considered the abstract form of this cosmos. And the cosmos is known to be the detailed version of Haqeeqat e Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). This is an accepted fact among Sufia e Kiram.  Read more... 

But Shaikh Tijani has carved out an abstract form for himself as 'Haqeeqat e Tijani', which is claimed to be another abstract form for the cosmos. He has misinterpreted, misquoted  and invented some theories to convince his followers.  

 

(3) Read the following claims of Shaikh Tijani which do not correspond to basic Islamic Sharia and are disrespectful to Prophets, Sahabah and important dignitaries of Islam
 

(a) Allah (swt) gave me in Paradise the rank of Forty Messengers. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)

(Equating your rank with Prophets is considered as kufr by Islamic Jurists. )

 

(b)  I am the partition between Heaven and Hell. My devotee (one who loves me sincerely) is told, 'Enter to Paradise', and my enemy is told, ‘Enter to Hell.' (Ifada Ahmediya).  

(There is no basis for this assertion in Islamic Sharia except that Shaikh Tijani has tried to equate himself with Hadhrat Ali (ru)

It is in Hadith - the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "Ali (ru) is the partition between Heaven and Hell." (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim, 3/127; Kanz Ul Amaal, 5/30; Al-Jami of Suyuti, 1/374; Tirmidhi; Ibn Maghazeli, 80).

 

(c) All my companions will enter paradise without reckoning and without punishment for whatever sins and acts of disobedience they may have committed.   (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 

(This is Christian theory.  There is no basis for this theory in Islam, except to fool people).

 

(d)Allah (swt) gave me in the 'Sab'a al-Mathani' what he has given to Messengers / Prophets. (Saba al Mathani is another name for Surah al-Fatiha -  meaning 'the seven often recited verses')  (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 
 
(Equating your rank with Prophets is considered as kufr by Islamic Jurists).
 
 
(e) Every shaikh has taken (spiritual and physical support) from me from the time of the Companions of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) until the blowing of the trumpet. (Ifada al-Ahmediya) 
 
(This is a disrespect of Sahabah, Tabaeen and their followers).
 
 
(f) My sword hangs over the sky.  Anyone  (Wali Allah) sticks his head up, I will cut his head.” (Rafa’a Niqab) 
 
(This is the height of egoism and self esteem and an extreme form of disrespect and insult for the important Awliya Allah of Islam).
 
 
(g) I have perceived more than 80,000 trillion years in the primordial past (before the creation of this Cosmos). (Jawahir al-Ma'ani
 
(This is a meaningless assertion from sufi point of view)
 
(h) Whoever claims authority of Wilaya (mashyakha) after my death is a liar.
 
(Only Tijanis can believe this piece of fiction - Astaghfirullah)
 
(i) A person who enters my circle (becomes follower) and quits in order to enter another one (learns Islam from another Shaikh), he will die as a kafir. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)
 
(This is a cultist assertion to scare followers)
 
(j) Whoever looks at my face on Fridays and Mondays will enter Paradise without reckoning. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem) 
 
(There is no basis for such assertions in Islamic Sharia. This is an attempt to fool people)
 
 
(k) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Your companions are my companions'. (Kunnash of Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem)
 
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told me: 'Tell your companions: 'Do not offend me (Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  by offending one another.' (Ifada al-Ahmediya)
 
(The above claims are disrespect to the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  and his companions).
There are hundreds of such assertions of Shaikh Tijani mentioned in many of the Tijani' books.  Read more...
 

Among all his claims, Shaikh Tijani made the following unusual claim. 

(i) In 1797, he announced that he had attained the Maqam al-Qutbaniya al-Jami'a  al-'Uzma (absolute authority in Sufi way) which he longingly sought. 

(ii) A month later from the above announcement, he declared that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) appeared to him in the daylight while he was awake and informed him that he (Tijani) has now become Qutb al Maktum (Concealed Pole) and Khatim al Awliya (the Seal of Saint-hood).

   

There are others who also made similar claims. Like Nazim al Haqqani claimed that his Shaikh Abdullah ad-Daghestani is "the Seal of saint-hood" (Khatam al Awliya).   Read more...

We will discuss this issue briefly for better understanding of our readers. 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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