CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

 

 SAHIH AL-BUKHARI

 

ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND GUIDE BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 

 

 

 VOLUME (1)

 

 

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

 Sahih al-Bukhari consists of the following 97 chapters.

 (1) Book of Revelation (كتاب بدء الوحى)

 (2) Book of Faith (كتاب الإيمان)

 (3) Book of Knowledge (كتاب العلم)

 (4) Book of Ablution  (كتاب الوضوء)

 (5) Book of Bathing   (كتاب الغسل)

 (6) Book of Mensuration  (كتاب الحيض)

 (7) Book of dry Ablution  (كتاب التيمم)

 (8) Book of Salah  (كتاب الصلاة)

 (9) Book of Times of Salah  (كتاب مواقيت الصلاة)

(10) Book of Azan  (كتاب الأذان)

(11) Book of Friday Salah (كتاب الجمعة)

(12) Book of Salah to allay fear  (كتاب صلاة الخوف)

(13) Book of two Eids  (كتاب العيدين)

(14) Book of Salat al-Witr  (كتاب الوتر)

(15) Book of Salah for rain   (كتاب الاستسقاء)

(16) Book of Salah during Eclipse   (كتاب الكسوف)

(17) Book of Prostration during recitation of Quran   (كتاب سجود القرآن)

(18) Book of abridgement in Salah   (كتاب التقصير)

(19) Book of Salat at-Tahajjud  (كتاب التهجد)

(20) Book of virtue of Salah at Haramain in Makka and Madina   (كتاب فضل الصلاة فى مسجد مكة والمدينة)

(21) Book of actions during Salah   (كتاب العمل فى الصلاة)

(22) Book of forgetfulness during Salah   (كتاب السهو)

(23) Book of Funerals   (كتاب الجنائز)

(24) Book of Zakat  (كتاب الزكاة)

(25) Book of Hajj   (كتاب الحج)

(26) Book of Umra   (كتاب العمرة)

(27) Book of Pilgrims prevented from Hajj & Umra   (كتاب المحصر)

(28) Book of Penalty for Hunting during Hajj   (كتاب جزاء الصيد)

(29) Book of virtues of Madina al-Munawwara   (كتاب فضائل المدينة)

(30) Book of Fasting   (كتاب الصوم)

(31) Book of Salat at-Taraweeh in Ramadhan   (كتاب صلاة التراويح)

(32) Book of the night of al-Qadr  (كتاب فضل ليلة القدر)

(33) Book of Seclusion in a Mosque   (كتاب الاعتكاف)

(34) Book of Trading   (كتاب البيوع)

(35) Book of advance payment for goods   (كتاب السلم)

(36) Book for no excuse   (كتاب الشفعة)

(37) Book of Hiring   (كتاب الإجارة)

(38) Book of debt transfer  (كتاب الحوالات)

(39) Book of Surety (كتاب الكفالة)

(40) Book of Authorization/Agency  (كتاب الوكالة

(41) Book of Agriculture  (كتاب المزارعة)

(42) Book of Water distribution   (كتاب المساقاة)

(43) Book of Bankruptcy  (كتاب فى الاستقراض)

(44) Book of Discounts   (كتاب الخصومات)

(45) Book of lost thing picked by someone   (كتاب فى اللقطة)

(46) Book of Oppression   (كتاب المظالم)

(47) Book of Partnership  (كتاب الشركة)

(48) Book of Mortgage  (كتاب الرهن)

(49) Book of Manumission of slaves   (كتاب العتق)

(50) Book of Agreements   (كتاب المكاتب)

(51) Book of Gifts and its virtues   (كتاب الهبة وفضلها والتحريض عليها)

(52) Book of Witnesses   (كتاب الشهادات)

(53) Book of peacemaking  (كتاب الصلح)

(54) Book of Conditions  (كتاب الشروط)

(55) Book of Wills  (كتاب الوصايا)

(56) Book of Jihad and Expeditions  (كتاب الجهاد والسير)

(57) Book of One fifth of the booty in the cause of Allah   (كتاب فرض الخمس)

(58) Book of Jizya Security Tax and Pledge   (كتاب الجزية والموادعة)

(59) Book of beginning of creation   (كتاب بدء الخلق)

(60) Book of Prophets  (كتاب أحاديث الأنبياء)

(61) Book of virtues of Prophet Mohammad ﷺ and Sahabah  (كتاب المناقب)

(62) Book of Virtues of  Sahabah  (كتاب فضائل أصحاب النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم)

(63) Book of Virtues of Ansaar of Madina  (كتاب مناقب الأنصار)

(64) Book of Prophet's ﷺ military expeditions  (كتاب المغازى)

(65) Book of Prophet's ﷺ Tafseer  (كتاب التفسير)

(66) Book of Virtues of Quran   (كتاب فضائل القرآن)

(67) Book of Marriage  (كتاب النكاح)

(68) Book of Divorce  (كتاب الطلاق)

(69) Book of Supporting the family   (كتاب النفقات)

(70) Book of Food  (كتاب الأطعمة)

(71) Book of Aqeeqa  (كتاب العقيقة)

(72) Book of Hunting and slaughtering   (كتاب الذبائح والصيد)

(73) Book of Eid al-Azha  (كتاب الأضاحي)

(74) Book of Drink   (كتاب الأشربة)

(75) Book of patients   (كتاب المرضى)

(76) Book of Medicine  (كتاب الطب)

(77) Book of Dress  (كتاب اللباس)

(78) Book of Good manners and respect of elders   (كتاب الأدب)

(79) Book of asking permission   (كتاب الاستئذان)

(80) Book of Supplication   (كتاب الدعوات)

(81) Book of tenderness of heart   (كتاب الرقاق)

(82) Book of Destiny   (كتاب القدر)

(83) Book of Oath and vows   (كتاب الأيمان والنذور)

(84) Book of expiation for unfulfilled oaths   (كتاب كفارات الأيمان)

(85) Book of Inheritance   (كتاب الفرائض)

(86) Book of limits and punishment  (كتاب الحدود)

(87) Book of Blood money  (كتاب الديات)

(88) Book of Apostates  (كتاب استتابة المرتدين والمعاندين وقتالهم)

(89) Book of Statements made under duress  (كتاب الإكراه)

(90) Book of making pretext   (كتاب الحيل)

(91) Book of explication of dreams  (كتاب التعبير)

(92) Book of Tribulations before Qiyamah   (كتاب الفتن)

(93) Book of Judgments   (كتاب الأحكام)

(94) Book of Wishes  (كتاب التمنى)

(95) Book of accepting information from a truthful person   (كتاب أخبار الآحاد)

(96) Book of holding on to the commandments of Quran and Sunnah   (كتاب الاعتصام بالكتاب والسنة)

(97) Book of oneness of God  (كتاب التوحيد)



 

The translation of Ahadith and their explanations, in the light of Quran and Sunnah, are provided below.  First, the content of the Hadith is provided in Arabic,  followed by its translation in English and then, wherever necessary,  explanation has been provided to help readers understand Hadith in the proper perspective. 

 

 

BOOK # 1 - REVELATIONS

 كتاب بدء الوحى

 

CHAPTER (1)

باب كَيْفَ كَانَ بَدْءُ الْوَحْىِ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم 

How the Divine Revelation started being revealed to Allah's Apostle

وَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ - إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِه

 Indeed, We have revealed to you, (O' Prophet  ﷺ), as We revealed to Prophet Noah (عليه السلام) and the prophets after him. (An-Nisa-163)

 

 

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 001

حَدَّثَنَا الْحُمَيْدِيُّ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ التَّيْمِيُّ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عَلْقَمَةَ بْنَ وَقَّاصٍ اللَّيْثِيَّ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ إِنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ، وَإِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مَا نَوَى، فَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى دُنْيَا يُصِيبُهَا أَوْ إِلَى امْرَأَةٍ يَنْكِحُهَا فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى مَا هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِ ‏"‏‏.‏

Narrated Hadhrat Umar bin al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the pulpit (of a mosque)  'I heard Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying, the reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.  Thus, whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for.'

 

Explanation

Some people get confused and are unable to differentiate between good and bad intentions.  In this context, following points are important.

(i) There is no doubt, the intention is the key to a person's deed.  This fact is accepted by everyone in the world, irrespective of a Muslim or non-Muslim.  Even the Judge of a court does not punish a defendant who accidentally killed a person unintentionally.  Meaning, accidental actions are not treated as done intentionally. 

Good intention should also be lawful

(ii) If you go out of your house or city or  country to earn money to feed your family, it will be treated as good intention. But if you immigrate to make money to live a life of luxury and vice and to use your money in creating disorder, it is not a good intention.

(iii) Can a person earn money unlawfully, with the good intention to spend it on charity?  No, it is not allowed in Islam.

It is in Hadith -  عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ وَلاَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنْ غُلُولٍ  [ Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that : the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: "Salah will not be accepted without purification, nor Charity from Ghulul (Haram).(Tirmidhi). 

(iv) Can a person participate in the worship of idols, along with idol worshipers, in  places of their worship, with the good intention of unity among people of different faiths or Inter-faith harmony?  No it is not allowed in Islam.  Creating peace and harmony among different faiths/sections of society can be achieved more effectively in many ways.  You do not have a create a cocktail of religions for this purpose. 

 

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 002

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ أَنَّ الْحَارِثَ بْنَ هِشَامٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ سَأَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ يَأْتِيكَ الْوَحْىُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَحْيَانًا يَأْتِينِي مِثْلَ صَلْصَلَةِ الْجَرَسِ ـ وَهُوَ أَشَدُّهُ عَلَىَّ ـ فَيُفْصَمُ عَنِّي وَقَدْ وَعَيْتُ عَنْهُ مَا قَالَ، وَأَحْيَانًا يَتَمَثَّلُ لِيَ الْمَلَكُ رَجُلاً فَيُكَلِّمُنِي فَأَعِي مَا يَقُولُ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ رضى الله عنها وَلَقَدْ رَأَيْتُهُ يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ الْوَحْىُ فِي الْيَوْمِ الشَّدِيدِ الْبَرْدِ، فَيَفْصِمُ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّ جَبِينَهُ لَيَتَفَصَّدُ عَرَقًا‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), Al-Harith bin Hisham asked Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم),  'O Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), how does Divine revelation come to you? Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) replied, 'Sometimes it is like the ringing of a bell; this form of revelation is the hardest of all, and then this state passes off, after I have grasped what is revealed.  Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says.'  Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) added: 'Verily I saw revelation coming to him on a very cold day, and at the end, I noticed the sweat dropping from Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forehead.

 

Explanation

The channels of revelations to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) were many, direct and indirect, both. 

It is in Quran -  وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ - إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ [ The Prophet ﷺ does not speak out of desire.  It is the revelation that is coming to him.] (An-Najm - 3-4)

It is in Hadith - Qatadah reported: I said, “Ummul Momineen, tell me about the character of the Apostle of Allah, (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) said, 'Have you not read the Quran?' I said, “Of course!” Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا)  said, 'Verily, the character of the Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was the Quran.'  (Muslim).

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) mentioned two of these channels. What is the meaning of 'ringing of bell' (صَلْصَلَةِ الْجَرَسِ).  It is the state of annihilation (فنائیت). What is this state.  It is the state in which the existence of Almighty overtakes the existence of the servant.  When this state is over, the physical senses come back.  This was one of the ways of revelations to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). During this state, when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had grasped what was communicated to him directly, the state of annihilation would pass.  

 

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 003

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ أَوَّلُ مَا بُدِئَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنَ الْوَحْىِ الرُّؤْيَا الصَّالِحَةُ فِي النَّوْمِ، فَكَانَ لاَ يَرَى رُؤْيَا إِلاَّ جَاءَتْ مِثْلَ فَلَقِ الصُّبْحِ، ثُمَّ حُبِّبَ إِلَيْهِ الْخَلاَءُ، وَكَانَ يَخْلُو بِغَارِ حِرَاءٍ فَيَتَحَنَّثُ فِيهِ ـ وَهُوَ التَّعَبُّدُ ـ اللَّيَالِيَ ذَوَاتِ الْعَدَدِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْزِعَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ، وَيَتَزَوَّدُ لِذَلِكَ، ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ إِلَى خَدِيجَةَ، فَيَتَزَوَّدُ لِمِثْلِهَا، حَتَّى جَاءَهُ الْحَقُّ وَهُوَ فِي غَارِ حِرَاءٍ، فَجَاءَهُ الْمَلَكُ فَقَالَ اقْرَأْ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَأَخَذَنِي فَغَطَّنِي حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنِّي الْجَهْدَ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي فَقَالَ اقْرَأْ‏.‏ قُلْتُ مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ‏.‏ فَأَخَذَنِي فَغَطَّنِي الثَّانِيَةَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنِّي الْجَهْدَ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي فَقَالَ اقْرَأْ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ مَا أَنَا بِقَارِئٍ‏.‏ فَأَخَذَنِي فَغَطَّنِي الثَّالِثَةَ، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَنِي فَقَالَ ‏{‏اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ * خَلَقَ الإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ * اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الأَكْرَمُ‏}‏ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَرَجَعَ بِهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَرْجُفُ فُؤَادُهُ، فَدَخَلَ عَلَى خَدِيجَةَ بِنْتِ خُوَيْلِدٍ رضى الله عنها فَقَالَ ‏"‏ زَمِّلُونِي زَمِّلُونِي ‏"‏‏.‏ فَزَمَّلُوهُ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ عَنْهُ الرَّوْعُ، فَقَالَ لِخَدِيجَةَ وَأَخْبَرَهَا الْخَبَرَ ‏"‏ لَقَدْ خَشِيتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ خَدِيجَةُ كَلاَّ وَاللَّهِ مَا يُخْزِيكَ اللَّهُ أَبَدًا، إِنَّكَ لَتَصِلُ الرَّحِمَ، وَتَحْمِلُ الْكَلَّ، وَتَكْسِبُ الْمَعْدُومَ، وَتَقْرِي الضَّيْفَ، وَتُعِينُ عَلَى نَوَائِبِ الْحَقِّ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقَتْ بِهِ خَدِيجَةُ حَتَّى أَتَتْ بِهِ وَرَقَةَ بْنَ نَوْفَلِ بْنِ أَسَدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعُزَّى ابْنَ عَمِّ خَدِيجَةَ ـ وَكَانَ امْرَأً تَنَصَّرَ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، وَكَانَ يَكْتُبُ الْكِتَابَ الْعِبْرَانِيَّ، فَيَكْتُبُ مِنَ الإِنْجِيلِ بِالْعِبْرَانِيَّةِ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ، وَكَانَ شَيْخًا كَبِيرًا قَدْ عَمِيَ ـ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ خَدِيجَةُ يَا ابْنَ عَمِّ اسْمَعْ مِنَ ابْنِ أَخِيكَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُ وَرَقَةُ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي مَاذَا تَرَى فَأَخْبَرَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَبَرَ مَا رَأَى‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُ وَرَقَةُ هَذَا النَّامُوسُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ عَلَى مُوسَى صلى الله عليه وسلم يَا لَيْتَنِي فِيهَا جَذَعًا، لَيْتَنِي أَكُونُ حَيًّا إِذْ يُخْرِجُكَ قَوْمُكَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَوَمُخْرِجِيَّ هُمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ نَعَمْ، لَمْ يَأْتِ رَجُلٌ قَطُّ بِمِثْلِ مَا جِئْتَ بِهِ إِلاَّ عُودِيَ، وَإِنْ يُدْرِكْنِي يَوْمُكَ أَنْصُرْكَ نَصْرًا مُؤَزَّرًا‏.‏ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنْشَبْ وَرَقَةُ أَنْ تُوُفِّيَ وَفَتَرَ الْوَحْىُ‏.‏  -  

 

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), 'the onset of Divine revelations to Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, and then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him.  He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he would pray continuously for many days till he would go back to see his family.  He would take with him some food for his stay and then come back to Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) to take his food like-wise again till suddenly (one day) the Truth descended upon him while he was in the cave of Hira.  The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) replied, "I do not know how to read. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) added, 'The angel caught me and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, I do not know how to read.  Then he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more.  He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, I do not know how to read. Then he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said,

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ - خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ - اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ - Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (Al-Alaq - 1-3).

(After this) Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) returned (home) with the revelation; his heart beating hard. He went to Ummul Momineen Khadija bint Khuwailid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and said, 'Cover me! Cover me!' He was covered, till his state came back to normal and  he told her everything that happened and said, 'I fear that something may happen to me.'  Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) replied, "Never! By Allah, Allah will always take care of you. You keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones.' Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin Abdul Uzza, who, during Pre-Islamic period, had became  Christian and used Hebrew letters in his writing.  He used to write from the Gospel in Hebrew as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) said to Waraqa, 'Listen to your nephew, O' my cousin!' Waraqa asked, 'O my nephew! What have you seen?' Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) described whatever he had seen.  Waraqa said, 'This is the same one (angel Gabriel) who keeps the secrets,  whom Allah had sent to Moses (عليه السلام). I wish I were young and could live up to the time when your people would turn you out.' Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked, 'Will they drive me out?' Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, 'Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out, then I would support you strongly.' But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine revelation was also paused for a while.

 

Explanation

Some explanation in context of the sequence of events of the first revelation are important.

(i) Some people consider that the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) started in Hira cave when he was 40 years old and before that, he was not a prophet. This is wrong understanding.

Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is established from the beginning of creation. 

The fact of Prophet Mohammad (حقيقتِ محمدي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم

(a) It is in Hadith - Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated, 'they asked, O'Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), when was prophet-hood established for you?  He said, while Adam (عليه السلام) was between the soul and body' (Tirmidhi).

(b) It is in Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, truly I was   in the sight of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), the Seal of Prophets, when Adam (عليه السلام) was still kneaded in his clay. I shall inform you of the meaning of this.  It is the supplication of my father Ibrahim (عليه السلام).

[ رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ - Our Lord, and send among them an Apostle from themselves who will recite to them Your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify them. Indeed, You are the Exalted, Mighty and Wise.] (Al-Baqra - 129) 

And the glad tidings of my brother Isa (عليه السلام) to his people.

[ وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ  -  And when Prophet Isa, the son of Mary (عليه السلام) , said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the Apostle of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of an Apostle to come after me, whose name is Ahmad.]   (Assaf - 6)

And the vision, my mother saw the night I was born. She saw a light that lit the palaces of Syro-Palestine so that she could see them. (Ahmad)

(c) It is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said -  'I was the first of the Prophets to be created and the last one to be sent.' (al-Razi in his Fawa’id (4:207 #1399); al-Tabarani in Musnad al-Shamiyyin (4:34-35 #2662); and Abu Nu`aym in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa (p.42 #3); Qatada by al-Tabari in his Tafsir (sub 33:7) and with the wording 'the first of the people' by Ibn Sa`d in his Tabaqat (1:124). 

(d) It is in Hadith -  Jābir Ibn  Abd Allah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم),  'O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me the first thing Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) created before all things.'  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:  O' Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allah  (سبحانہ و تعا لی) created was the light of your Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light. (And everything else was created from that light).  (Part of the Hadith).

The above Hadith was narrated by Abdul Razzaq (d. 211 AH) in his Musannaf according to Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (1:55) and Zarqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba`a al-Amira Edn, Cairo).

Abdul Razzaq is one of the authentic and reliable narrators.  Bukhari took 120 and  Muslim took 400 Ahadith from him.

Biahaqi narrated the above Hadith with a different wording in "Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, according to Zurqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba'a al-Amira, Cairo). Diyarbakri narrated it in 'Taarikh al-Khamis (1-20).

(e) It is in Quran –   يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا - وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا  [ O’ Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)! Truly,  We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and Warner (for the entire Cosmos); and as one who invites to Allah's - سبحانہ و تعا لی (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).] (Al - Ahzab 45-46).

In the above verse Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is described as 'Lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos). He is also referred as a Witness, a bearer of glad tidings and warner to humanity.  A witness is the one who knows about all the physical and spiritual aspects of this cosmos.

The above Ahadith, and many related Quranic verses confirm that Apostleship of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is established from the beginning of the creation. However, it was made known to people when he was 40 years old.

(ii) The proclamation of Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to the world was divinely carried out in an organized way, as per the exigencies of our physical world.  Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) truthful dreams before the declaration of Prophet-hood in the world, and his love for seclusion in remembering Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) were indicators in this context.

In addition, the worldly confirmation of prophet-hood from a source outside Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) home was done by Waraqa bin Naufal who confirmed and accepted the prophet-hood based on his study of earlier scriptures.  He also predicted people's apathy towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) based on his knowledge of earlier scriptures.

During Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) childhood and adolescence, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) recognized and believed in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

It is in Hadith - When Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) decided to go to Syria along with the Quraish for business, he took the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) along with him. At that time, the age of the  Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was 12 years, 2 months and 10 days. When the caravan reached Basra, there a hermit (Christian Monk) by name Buhaira recognized the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) the moment he saw him, as he had read in the previous heavenly books the attributes of the Last Prophet and the signs of his Prophet-hood.

Buhaira held the blessed hands of the Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and told the Quraish: He is the leader of the heavens and earths. He is the Prophet of the Lord of the Worlds and his greatness is 'Mercy for the whole universe'.

The Quraish asked him : How do you know all this? Buhaira replied: When you were ascending the valley, there was no tree or stone that did not prostrate to Him, at the time of heat, a small cloud covered Him and He has the Seal of Prophet-hood between both His shoulders. With great devotion and respect, Buhaira arranged a feast for the sake of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).

Buhaira told Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ),  take your nephew back to Makkah and sell away your merchandise here itself, as the Jews are his die-hard enemies. There is a danger that they might martyr Him. Hence, Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) returned to Makkah along with the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). (Tirmidhi, Muwahib Ladunniya by Qastallani).  

The above episode shows Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) believed in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  This was the reason he returned back to Makka.  If he did not believe it, he would have ignored Buhaira and  continued his scheduled journey.

 

Explanation of the events described in the above Bukhari Hadith # 3 about the first revelation 

(i) Explanation about the unletteredness of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)  is the teacher of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the teacher of humanity. In this circumstance, how can a human being teach him reading or writing?  This was the reason, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) informed  Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) that  'he does not know how to read'.

It is in Quran -   عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَىٰ - ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَىٰ [The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him.  The Lord of Strength; so he attained completion.] (An-Najm - 5-6) 

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) taught the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) everything, directly and indirectly (via Hadhrat Jibreel - عليه السلام). Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) was not teaching the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), in Hira cave, rather he was a medium to convey Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) affection towards Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) by three affectionate hugs. Surely, these hugs looked powerful to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), as this was a display of divine love. 

(ii) When Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said to Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) that 'I fear something may happen to me' ( لَقَدْ خَشِيتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي), it reflects that he knew that the time has come to physically carry the responsibility of Prophet-hood in the world, and surely it is a great responsibility to shoulder. And when Ummul Momineen Khadija (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) tried to lessen Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) concern by describing his exceptional attributes, she meant that Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) help will always be there, in ensuing years as well.

 

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 004

 

قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ وَأَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَنْصَارِيَّ، قَالَ ـ وَهُوَ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ فَتْرَةِ الْوَحْىِ، فَقَالَ ـ فِي حَدِيثِهِ ‏"‏ بَيْنَا أَنَا أَمْشِي، إِذْ سَمِعْتُ صَوْتًا، مِنَ السَّمَاءِ، فَرَفَعْتُ بَصَرِي فَإِذَا الْمَلَكُ الَّذِي جَاءَنِي بِحِرَاءٍ جَالِسٌ عَلَى كُرْسِيٍّ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ، فَرُعِبْتُ مِنْهُ، فَرَجَعْتُ فَقُلْتُ زَمِّلُونِي‏.‏ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى ‏{‏يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ * قُمْ فَأَنْذِرْ‏}‏ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ‏{‏وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ‏}‏ فَحَمِيَ الْوَحْىُ وَتَتَابَعَ ‏"‏‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ وَأَبُو صَالِحٍ‏.‏ وَتَابَعَهُ هِلاَلُ بْنُ رَدَّادٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ‏.‏ وَقَالَ يُونُسُ وَمَعْمَرٌ ‏"‏ بَوَادِرُهُ ‏"‏‏ 

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari, while talking about the period of pause in revelation, reporting the speech of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) 'While I was walking, all of a sudden I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up and saw the same angel who had visited me at the cave of Hira sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. I got afraid and came back home and said, Wrap me (in blankets). And then Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) revealed the following Verses. 

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ - قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ - وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ - وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ - وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ   -  'O you (the Prophet ﷺ)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people). And glorify your Lord. And purify your clothing. And avoid uncleanliness.] (Al-Muddaththir - 1-5) 

After this,  the revelations started coming strongly, frequently and regularly.

 

Explanation

After the first revelation in Hira cave,  there was a pause in revelations.  It was a long pause.  Ulema differ in the period of this pause.  Some say it was for two years, while others say it was slightly longer or much shorter than two years. The above Hadith refers to this period.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) witnessed Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) sitting on a big chair between the earth and sky. It depicts that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was assured that Allah, the mighty is looking over the affairs of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) constantly. Looking at the depiction of Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) might, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) covered himself in a garment/blanket.  While he did so, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) addressed him affectionately, as follows. 

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ - قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ - وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ - وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ - وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ   -  'O you ( Prophet ﷺ)! wrapped up in garments! Arise and warn (the people). And glorify your Lord. And purify your clothing. And avoid uncleanliness.] (Al-Muddaththir - 1-5) 

  

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 005

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ أَبِي عَائِشَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى ‏{‏لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ‏}‏ قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُعَالِجُ مِنَ التَّنْزِيلِ شِدَّةً، وَكَانَ مِمَّا يُحَرِّكُ شَفَتَيْهِ ـ فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ فَأَنَا أُحَرِّكُهُمَا لَكُمْ كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُحَرِّكُهُمَا‏.‏ وَقَالَ سَعِيدٌ أَنَا أُحَرِّكُهُمَا كَمَا رَأَيْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ يُحَرِّكُهُمَا‏.‏ فَحَرَّكَ شَفَتَيْهِ ـ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى ‏{‏لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ* إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ‏}‏ قَالَ جَمْعُهُ لَهُ فِي صَدْرِكَ، وَتَقْرَأَهُ ‏{‏فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ‏}‏ قَالَ فَاسْتَمِعْ لَهُ وَأَنْصِتْ ‏{‏ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ‏}‏ ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا أَنْ تَقْرَأَهُ‏.‏ فَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ إِذَا أَتَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ اسْتَمَعَ، فَإِذَا انْطَلَقَ جِبْرِيلُ قَرَأَهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَمَا قَرَأَهُ‏.‏

Narrated Sa'id bin Jubair; Ibn Abbas, in the explanation of the statement of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)  [ لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ - Move not your tongue with it, (O Prophet ﷺ), to hasten with recitation of the Quran. Al-Qiyamah - 16] said,  'Allah's Apostle ﷺ used to bear the revelation with great effort and used to move his lips with the revelation.  Ibn Abbas moved his lips,  saying, 'I am moving my lips in front of you, as Allah's Apostle ﷺ used to move his.' 

Sa'id bin Jubair moved his lips saying: 'I am moving my lips, as I saw Ibn Abbas moving his.' 

Ibn 'Abbas added, 'So Allah revealed (the following verse)

لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ - إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَه - Move not your tongue with it, (O Prophet ﷺ), to hasten with recitation of Quran. Indeed, upon Us is its collection (in your heart) and (to make it easier) for you to recite it. - Al-Qiyamah - 16-17]

It means that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) will make him (the Prophet ﷺ) remember by heart the portion of the Qur'an which was revealed at that time and recite it (later).

The statement of Allah [ فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ - And when we have recited it to you, follow its (Quran) recital' - Al-Qiyamah - 18] means 'listen to it calmly.' 

And (this verse) [  ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ - Then it is for Us (Allah ) to make it clear to you' - Al-Qiyamah - 19 ] means, 'then it is (for Allah) to make you recite it (and its meaning will be clear by itself through your tongue).

Afterwards, Allah's Apostle ﷺ used to listen to Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) whenever he came and after his departure used to recite it,  as Jibreel (عليه السلام) had recited.

 

Explanation

To receive, absorb and convey the word of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is the distinction of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in the entire Universe.

It is in Quran -  لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ  [ If We had sent down this Qur'an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and coming apart from fear of Allah.] (Al-Hashr - 21)

It is in Quran - إِنَّا سَنُلْقِي عَلَيْكَ قَوْلًا ثَقِيلًا [ Indeed, We will cast upon you a heavy word.] (Al-Muzzammil - 6) 

In the beginning, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was concerned to remember the verses, so that these can be conveyed to people later. Therefore, he used to repeat them while these were revealed.  To alleviate his concern, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) assured him that he does not have to burden himself for preservation of revealed verses in his heart. After this assurance  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stopped repeating the verses while they were revealed.


 Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 006

 

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَانُ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، وَمَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، نَحْوَهُ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَجْوَدَ النَّاسِ، وَكَانَ أَجْوَدُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي رَمَضَانَ حِينَ يَلْقَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ، وَكَانَ يَلْقَاهُ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ فَيُدَارِسُهُ الْقُرْآنَ، فَلَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَجْوَدُ بِالْخَيْرِ مِنَ الرِّيحِ الْمُرْسَلَةِ‏.

Narrated Ibn Abbas, Allah's Apostle ﷺ was the most generous of all the people, and he used to reach the peak in generosity in the month of Ramadan when Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) met him.  Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) used to meet him every night in Ramadan to recite Quran along with the Prophet ﷺ. Allah's Apostle ﷺ was the most generous, even more generous than the strong uncontrollable wind.

 

Explanation

Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) used to meet the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) every night in Ramadhan to read Quran to Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and in turn the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to read Quran to Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام). Imam Bukhari has repeated the above Hadith with a different chain  in Kitab as-Saum, Hadith no. 7,  in which it is mentioned that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to recite Quran to Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) in Ramadhan.

In the last year of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) life, the recitation of Quran was done  twice. The Quran was later compiled in the same order as it was read in the last Ramadhan before the death of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

Generosity of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Indeed, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was generous like a wind that brings clouds of rain with which every thing benefits on earth. 

It is in Quran -  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ [ And We have not sent you, (O' Prophet ﷺ), except as a mercy to the worlds. ] (Al-Anbiya - 107).

 

Sahih al-Bukhari Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 007

 

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ الْحَكَمُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ بْنَ حَرْبٍ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ فِي رَكْبٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ ـ وَكَانُوا تُجَّارًا بِالشَّأْمِ ـ فِي الْمُدَّةِ الَّتِي كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَادَّ فِيهَا أَبَا سُفْيَانَ وَكُفَّارَ قُرَيْشٍ، فَأَتَوْهُ وَهُمْ بِإِيلِيَاءَ فَدَعَاهُمْ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ، وَحَوْلَهُ عُظَمَاءُ الرُّومِ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُمْ وَدَعَا بِتَرْجُمَانِهِ فَقَالَ أَيُّكُمْ أَقْرَبُ نَسَبًا بِهَذَا الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا أَقْرَبُهُمْ نَسَبًا‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَدْنُوهُ مِنِّي، وَقَرِّبُوا أَصْحَابَهُ، فَاجْعَلُوهُمْ عِنْدَ ظَهْرِهِ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِتَرْجُمَانِهِ قُلْ لَهُمْ إِنِّي سَائِلٌ هَذَا عَنْ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ، فَإِنْ كَذَبَنِي فَكَذِّبُوهُ‏.‏ فَوَاللَّهِ لَوْلاَ الْحَيَاءُ مِنْ أَنْ يَأْثِرُوا عَلَىَّ كَذِبًا لَكَذَبْتُ عَنْهُ، ثُمَّ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَا سَأَلَنِي عَنْهُ أَنْ قَالَ كَيْفَ نَسَبُهُ فِيكُمْ قُلْتُ هُوَ فِينَا ذُو نَسَبٍ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ مِنْكُمْ أَحَدٌ قَطُّ قَبْلَهُ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَشْرَافُ النَّاسِ يَتَّبِعُونَهُ أَمْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ فَقُلْتُ بَلْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ‏.‏ قَالَ أَيَزِيدُونَ أَمْ يَنْقُصُونَ قُلْتُ بَلْ يَزِيدُونَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ يَرْتَدُّ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ سَخْطَةً لِدِينِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ فِيهِ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ كُنْتُمْ تَتَّهِمُونَهُ بِالْكَذِبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُولَ مَا قَالَ قُلْتُ لاَ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ يَغْدِرُ قُلْتُ لاَ، وَنَحْنُ مِنْهُ فِي مُدَّةٍ لاَ نَدْرِي مَا هُوَ فَاعِلٌ فِيهَا‏.‏ قَالَ وَلَمْ تُمْكِنِّي كَلِمَةٌ أُدْخِلُ فِيهَا شَيْئًا غَيْرُ هَذِهِ الْكَلِمَةِ‏.‏ قَالَ فَهَلْ قَاتَلْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ قِتَالُكُمْ إِيَّاهُ قُلْتُ الْحَرْبُ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُ سِجَالٌ، يَنَالُ مِنَّا وَنَنَالُ مِنْهُ‏.‏ قَالَ مَاذَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ قُلْتُ يَقُولُ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ، وَلاَ تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَاتْرُكُوا مَا يَقُولُ آبَاؤُكُمْ، وَيَأْمُرُنَا بِالصَّلاَةِ وَالصِّدْقِ وَالْعَفَافِ وَالصِّلَةِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لِلتَّرْجُمَانِ قُلْ لَهُ سَأَلْتُكَ عَنْ نَسَبِهِ، فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُ فِيكُمْ ذُو نَسَبٍ، فَكَذَلِكَ الرُّسُلُ تُبْعَثُ فِي نَسَبِ قَوْمِهَا، وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ قَالَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لاَ، فَقُلْتُ لَوْ كَانَ أَحَدٌ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ قَبْلَهُ لَقُلْتُ رَجُلٌ يَأْتَسِي بِقَوْلٍ قِيلَ قَبْلَهُ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لاَ، قُلْتُ فَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ آبَائِهِ مِنْ مَلِكٍ قُلْتُ رَجُلٌ يَطْلُبُ مُلْكَ أَبِيهِ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ كُنْتُمْ تَتَّهِمُونَهُ بِالْكَذِبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُولَ مَا قَالَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لاَ، فَقَدْ أَعْرِفُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَذَرَ الْكَذِبَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكْذِبَ عَلَى اللَّهِ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَشْرَافُ النَّاسِ اتَّبَعُوهُ أَمْ ضُعَفَاؤُهُمْ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّ ضُعَفَاءَهُمُ اتَّبَعُوهُ، وَهُمْ أَتْبَاعُ الرُّسُلِ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَيَزِيدُونَ أَمْ يَنْقُصُونَ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُمْ يَزِيدُونَ، وَكَذَلِكَ أَمْرُ الإِيمَانِ حَتَّى يَتِمَّ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ أَيَرْتَدُّ أَحَدٌ سَخْطَةً لِدِينِهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ فِيهِ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لاَ، وَكَذَلِكَ الإِيمَانُ حِينَ تُخَالِطُ بَشَاشَتُهُ الْقُلُوبَ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ يَغْدِرُ فَذَكَرْتَ أَنْ لاَ، وَكَذَلِكَ الرُّسُلُ لاَ تَغْدِرُ، وَسَأَلْتُكَ بِمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ، فَذَكَرْتَ أَنَّهُ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ، وَلاَ تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، وَيَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْ عِبَادَةِ الأَوْثَانِ، وَيَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالصَّلاَةِ وَالصِّدْقِ وَالْعَفَافِ‏.‏ فَإِنْ كَانَ مَا تَقُولُ حَقًّا فَسَيَمْلِكُ مَوْضِعَ قَدَمَىَّ هَاتَيْنِ، وَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ خَارِجٌ، لَمْ أَكُنْ أَظُنُّ أَنَّهُ مِنْكُمْ، فَلَوْ أَنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنِّي أَخْلُصُ إِلَيْهِ لَتَجَشَّمْتُ لِقَاءَهُ، وَلَوْ كُنْتُ عِنْدَهُ لَغَسَلْتُ عَنْ قَدَمِهِ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِكِتَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الَّذِي بَعَثَ بِهِ دِحْيَةُ إِلَى عَظِيمِ بُصْرَى، فَدَفَعَهُ إِلَى هِرَقْلَ فَقَرَأَهُ فَإِذَا فِيهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏.‏ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى هِرَقْلَ عَظِيمِ الرُّومِ‏.‏ سَلاَمٌ عَلَى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدَى، أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنِّي أَدْعُوكَ بِدِعَايَةِ الإِسْلاَمِ، أَسْلِمْ تَسْلَمْ، يُؤْتِكَ اللَّهُ أَجْرَكَ مَرَّتَيْنِ، فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ إِثْمَ الأَرِيسِيِّينَ وَ‏{‏يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَنْ لاَ نَعْبُدَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ وَلاَ نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ‏}‏ قَالَ أَبُو سُفْيَانَ فَلَمَّا قَالَ مَا قَالَ، وَفَرَغَ مِنْ قِرَاءَةِ الْكِتَابِ كَثُرَ عِنْدَهُ الصَّخَبُ، وَارْتَفَعَتِ الأَصْوَاتُ وَأُخْرِجْنَا، فَقُلْتُ لأَصْحَابِي حِينَ أُخْرِجْنَا لَقَدْ أَمِرَ أَمْرُ ابْنِ أَبِي كَبْشَةَ، إِنَّهُ يَخَافُهُ مَلِكُ بَنِي الأَصْفَرِ‏.‏ فَمَا زِلْتُ مُوقِنًا أَنَّهُ سَيَظْهَرُ حَتَّى أَدْخَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىَّ الإِسْلاَمَ‏.‏

وَكَانَ ابْنُ النَّاظُورِ صَاحِبُ إِيلِيَاءَ وَهِرَقْلَ سُقُفًّا عَلَى نَصَارَى الشَّأْمِ، يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّ هِرَقْلَ حِينَ قَدِمَ إِيلِيَاءَ أَصْبَحَ يَوْمًا خَبِيثَ النَّفْسِ، فَقَالَ بَعْضُ بَطَارِقَتِهِ قَدِ اسْتَنْكَرْنَا هَيْئَتَكَ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ النَّاظُورِ وَكَانَ هِرَقْلُ حَزَّاءً يَنْظُرُ فِي النُّجُومِ، فَقَالَ لَهُمْ حِينَ سَأَلُوهُ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ اللَّيْلَةَ حِينَ نَظَرْتُ فِي النُّجُومِ مَلِكَ الْخِتَانِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ، فَمَنْ يَخْتَتِنُ مِنْ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ قَالُوا لَيْسَ يَخْتَتِنُ إِلاَّ الْيَهُودُ فَلاَ يُهِمَّنَّكَ شَأْنُهُمْ وَاكْتُبْ إِلَى مَدَايِنِ مُلْكِكَ، فَيَقْتُلُوا مَنْ فِيهِمْ مِنَ الْيَهُودِ‏.‏ فَبَيْنَمَا هُمْ عَلَى أَمْرِهِمْ أُتِيَ هِرَقْلُ بِرَجُلٍ أَرْسَلَ بِهِ مَلِكُ غَسَّانَ، يُخْبِرُ عَنْ خَبَرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمَّا اسْتَخْبَرَهُ هِرَقْلُ قَالَ اذْهَبُوا فَانْظُرُوا أَمُخْتَتِنٌ هُوَ أَمْ لاَ‏.‏ فَنَظَرُوا إِلَيْهِ، فَحَدَّثُوهُ أَنَّهُ مُخْتَتِنٌ، وَسَأَلَهُ عَنِ الْعَرَبِ فَقَالَ هُمْ يَخْتَتِنُونَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ هِرَقْلُ هَذَا مَلِكُ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ‏.‏ ثُمَّ كَتَبَ هِرَقْلُ إِلَى صَاحِبٍ لَهُ بِرُومِيَةَ، وَكَانَ نَظِيرَهُ فِي الْعِلْمِ، وَسَارَ هِرَقْلُ إِلَى حِمْصَ، فَلَمْ يَرِمْ حِمْصَ حَتَّى أَتَاهُ كِتَابٌ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ يُوَافِقُ رَأْىَ هِرَقْلَ عَلَى خُرُوجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ، فَأَذِنَ هِرَقْلُ لِعُظَمَاءِ الرُّومِ فِي دَسْكَرَةٍ لَهُ بِحِمْصَ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِأَبْوَابِهَا فَغُلِّقَتْ، ثُمَّ اطَّلَعَ فَقَالَ يَا مَعْشَرَ الرُّومِ، هَلْ لَكُمْ فِي الْفَلاَحِ وَالرُّشْدِ وَأَنْ يَثْبُتَ مُلْكُكُمْ فَتُبَايِعُوا هَذَا النَّبِيَّ، فَحَاصُوا حَيْصَةَ حُمُرِ الْوَحْشِ إِلَى الأَبْوَابِ، فَوَجَدُوهَا قَدْ غُلِّقَتْ، فَلَمَّا رَأَى هِرَقْلُ نَفْرَتَهُمْ، وَأَيِسَ مِنَ الإِيمَانِ قَالَ رُدُّوهُمْ عَلَىَّ‏.‏ وَقَالَ إِنِّي قُلْتُ مَقَالَتِي آنِفًا أَخْتَبِرُ بِهَا شِدَّتَكُمْ عَلَى دِينِكُمْ، فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ‏.‏ فَسَجَدُوا لَهُ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ، فَكَانَ ذَلِكَ آخِرَ شَأْنِ هِرَقْلَ‏.‏ رَوَاهُ صَالِحُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ وَيُونُسُ وَمَعْمَرٌ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ‏.‏ 

 

Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas: Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed me that Heraclius had sent a messenger to him while he had been accompanying a caravan from Quraish. They were merchants doing business in Sham (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordan), at the time when Allah's Apostle ﷺ had truce with Abu Sufyan and Quraish infidels. So Abu Sufyan and his companions went to Heraclius at Ilya (Jerusalem). Heraclius called them in the court and he had all the senior Roman dignitaries around him. He called for his translator who, translating Heraclius's question said to them, 'Who among you is closely related to that man who claims to be a Prophet?' Abu Sufyan replied, 'I am the nearest relative to him (in the group).

Heraclius said, 'Bring him (Abu Sufyan) close to me and make his companions stand behind him.'  Abu Sufyan added, Heraclius told his translator to tell my companions that he wanted to put some questions to me regarding that man (the Prophet ﷺ) and that if I told a lie they (my companions) should contradict me.' Abu Sufyan added, 'By Allah! Had I not been afraid of my companions labeling me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about the Prophet ﷺ. The first question he asked me about him was:

'What is his family status among you?'

I replied, 'He belongs to a good (noble) family among us.'

Heraclius further asked, 'Has anybody among you ever claimed the same (to be a Prophet) before him?'

I replied, 'No.'

He said, 'Was anybody among his ancestors a king?'

I replied, 'No.'

Heraclius asked, 'Do the nobles or the poor follow him?'

I replied, 'It is the poor who follow him.'

He said, 'Are his followers increasing decreasing?'

I replied, 'They are increasing.'

He then asked, 'Does anybody among those who embrace his religion become displeased and renounce the religion afterwards?'

I replied, 'No.'

Heraclius said, 'Have you ever accused him of telling lies before his claim ( ofProphet-hood)?'

I replied, 'No. '

Heraclius said, 'Does he break his promises?'

I replied, 'No. We are at truce with him but we do not know what he will do in it.' I could not find opportunity to say anything against him except that.

Heraclius asked, 'Have you ever had a war with him?'

I replied, 'Yes.'

Then he said, 'What was the outcome of the battles?'

I replied, 'Sometimes he was victorious and sometimes we.'

Heraclius said, 'What does he order you to do?'

I said, 'He tells us to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship anything along with Him, and to renounce all that our ancestors had said. He orders us to pray, to speak the truth, to be chaste and to keep good relations with our Kith and kin.'

Heraclius asked the translator to convey to me the following, I asked you about his family and your reply was that he belonged to a very noble family. In fact all the Apostles come from noble families among their respective peoples. I questioned you whether anybody else among you claimed such a thing, your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man was following the previous man's statement. Then I asked you whether anyone of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom.

I further asked whether he was ever accused of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. So I wondered how a person who does not tell a lie about others could ever tell a lie about Allah.  I, then asked you whether the rich people followed him or the poor. You replied that it was the poor who followed him. And in fact all the Apostle have been followed by this very class of people. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing, and in fact this is the way of true faith, till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion. Your reply was in the negative, and in fact this is (the sign of) true faith, when its delight enters the hearts and mixes with them completely. I asked you whether he had ever betrayed. You replied in the negative and likewise the Apostles never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do. You replied that he ordered you to worship Allah and Allah alone and not to worship any thing along with Him and forbade you to worship idols and ordered you to pray, to speak the truth and to be chaste. If what you have said is true, he will very soon occupy this place underneath my feet and I knew it (from the scriptures) that he was going to appear but I did not know that he would be from you, and if I could reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him and if I were with him, I would certainly wash his feet.' Heraclius then asked for the letter addressed by Allah's Apostle ﷺ which was delivered by Dihya to the Governor of Busra, who forwarded it to Heraclius to read. The contents of the letter were as follows:

"In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allah and His Apostle,  to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allah's Statement:)

'O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah).' (Aal-e-Imran - 64).

Abu Sufyan then added, "When Heraclius had finished his speech and had read the letter, there was a great commotion in the Royal Court. So we were removed from the court. I told my companions that the question of Ibn-Abi-Kabsha) (Prophet  Muhammad ) has become so prominent that even the King of Bani Al-Asfar (Byzantine) is afraid of him. Then I became sure that he (the Prophet ) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islam. 

The sub narrator adds, "Ibn An-Natur was the Governor of llya' (Jerusalem) and Heraclius was the head of the Christians of Sham. Ibn An-Natur narrates that once while Heraclius was visiting ilya' (Jerusalem), he got up in the morning with a sad mood. Some of his priests asked him why he was in that mood? Heraclius was a fore-teller and an astrologer. He replied, 'At night when I looked at the stars, I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared (become the conqueror). Who are they who practice circumcision?' The people replied, 'Except the Jews nobody practices circumcision, so you should not be afraid of them (Jews).

'Just Issue orders to kill every Jew present in the country.'

While they were discussing it, a messenger sent by the king of Ghassan to convey the news of Allah's Apostle ﷺ to Heraclius was brought in. Having heard the news, he (Heraclius) ordered the people to go and see whether the messenger of Ghassan was circumcised. The people, after seeing him, told Heraclius that he was circumcised. Heraclius then asked him about the Arabs. The messenger replied, 'Arabs also practice circumcision.'

(After hearing that) Heraclius remarked that sovereignty of the 'Arabs had appeared. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Heraclius then left for Homs. (a town in Syria and stayed there till he received the reply of his letter from his friend who agreed with him in his opinion about the emergence of the Prophet and the fact that he was a Prophet. On that Heraclius invited all the heads of the Byzantines to assemble in his palace at Homs. When they assembled, he ordered that all the doors of his palace be closed. Then he came out and said, 'O Byzantines! If success is your desire and if you seek right guidance and want your empire to remain then give a pledge of allegiance to this Prophet. ( embrace Islam).'

(On hearing the views of Heraclius) the people ran towards the gates of the palace like onagers but found the doors closed. Heraclius realized their hatred towards Islam and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islam, he ordered that they should be brought back in audience.

(When they returned) he said, 'What already said was just to test the strength of your conviction and I have seen it.' The people prostrated before him and became pleased with him, and this was the end of Heraclius's story (about his faith).

 

 

 

RELATED READING

 

(i) Books of Ahadith

(ii) Translation and guides of books of Ahadith

(iii) Imam Bukhari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

 

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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