Hajjāj bin ash-Shā’ir narrated to me, Sulaymān bin Harb narrated to us, Hammād bin Zayd narrated to us, he said, Ayyūb said : ‘Indeed I have a neighbor’ and he mentioned some of his virtues, (and continued) ‘…even if he testified to me about two dates I would not see his testimony as permissible’.وَحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، وَحَجَّاجُ بْنُ الشَّاعِرِ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالَ قَالَ مَعْمَرٌ مَا رَأَيْتُ أَيُّوبَ اغْتَابَ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلاَّ عَبْدَ الْكَرِيمِ - يَعْنِي أَبَا أُمَيَّةَ - فَإِنَّهُ ذَكَرَهُ فَقَالَ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ كَانَ غَيْرَ ثِقَةٍ لَقَدْ سَأَلَنِي عَنْ حَدِيثٍ لِعِكْرِمَةَ ثُمَّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عِكْرِمَةَ .Muhammad bin Rāfi’ and Hajjāj bin ash-Shā’ir narrated to me, they said Abdur Razzāq narrated to us, he said Ma’mar said : ‘I did not see Ayyūb speaking ill of anyone, ever, except for Abdul Karīm- meaning Abū Umayyah’. So he mentioned him and said, may Allah have mercy on him ‘He is not trustworthy - he had asked me about a Ḥadīth of Ikrimah then said ‘I heard from Ikrimah’ (when relating the Ḥadīth).’Al-Faḍl bin Sahl narrated to me, he said Affān bin Muslim narrated to us, Hammām narrated to us, he said, Abū Dāwud al-A’mā came to us and began saying : Al-Barā (bin Āzib, the Companion) narrated to us’; he said: ‘Zayd bin Arqam narrated to us’- and he mentioned that (those chains) to Qatādah. (Qatādah) said ‘He lied; he did not hear from them. He would beg the people asking (about Ḥadīth) at the time of the plague’ (Iraq 67 AH).Hasan bin Alī al-Hulwānī narrated to me, he said Yazīd bin Hārūn narrated to us, Hammām informed us, he said Abū Dāwud al-A’mā entered upon Qatādah and when he stood, they said : ‘Indeed this one alleges he has met eighteen of the warriors of the battle of Badr’. Qatādah said: ‘This one was barely asking (about Ḥadīth) before the plague; he did not attend anything from (seeking Ḥadīth) and he did not speak (to any scholars) regarding it. By Allah, al-Hasan did not narrate to us from a witness of the battle of Badr without an intermediary; and Sa’īd bin al-Musayyib did not narrate to us from a witness of the battle of Badr without an intermediary except from Sa’d bin Mālik’.Uthmān bin Abī Shaybah narrated to us, Jarīr narrated to us, on authority of Raqabah that ‘Abū Ja’far al-Hāshimī al-Madanī was fabricating narrations with words of truth, and they were not from the narrations of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), though he was transmitting them on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Al-Hasan al-Hulwānī narrated to us, he said Nu’aym bin Hammād narrated to us, he said Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm bin Muhammad bin Sufyān said; and Muhammad bin Yahyā narrated to us, he said, Nu’aym bin Hammād narrated to us, Abū Dāwud at-Tayālisī narrated to us, on authority of Shu’bah, on authority of Yūnus bin Ubayd, he said : 'Amr bin Ubayd would lie regarding Ḥadīth’.Amr bin Alī Abū Hafs narrated to me, he said I heard Mu’ādh bin Mu’ādh saying, I said to Awf bin Abī Jamīlah ‘Indeed Amr bin Ubayd narrated to us on authority of al-Hasan that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), said : ‘Whoever carries arms against us then he is not from us’. (Awf bin Abī Jamīlah) said ‘Amr lied, by Allah. Rather he intended it as a way to permit his filthy opinion.’Ubayd Allah bin Umar al-Qawārīrī narrated to us, Hammād bin Zayd narrated to us, he said : ‘A man kept company with Ayyūb and listened (to Ḥadīth) from him, but then Ayyūb did not find him (one day). (When Ayyūb asked, the people) said : ‘Oh Abā Bakr, indeed he keeps company with Amr bin Ubayd (now)’. Hammād said : ‘One day we were with Ayyūb, and we went to the market early in the morning. A man came to meet Ayyūb so he gave Salām to him, asked how he was doing, and then Ayyūb said to him : ‘It reached me that you kept company with that man’. Hammād said: ‘(Ayyūb) designated him, that is to say ‘Amr’.’ (The man) said: ‘Yes, Oh Abā Bakr. Indeed he came to us with strange things [i.e. reports]’. Ayyūb said to him: ‘Indeed we flee…’ or ‘…we fear from these strange things [transmissions]’.Hajjāj bin ash-Shā’ir narrated to me, Sulaymān bin Harb narrated to us, Ibn Zayd, rather Hammād, narrated to us, he said, it was said to Ayyūb, ‘Indeed Amr bin Ubayd transmitted on the authority of al-Hasan that he said : ‘There is no flogging the one who gets drunk from Nabīdh’.’ (Ayyūb) said : ‘He lied, for I heard al-Hasan saying, ‘Flog the one who gets drunk from Nabīdh’.’Hajjāj narrated to me, Sulaymān bin Harb narrated to us, he said, I heard Sallām bin Abī Mutī’ saying, it reached Ayyūb that I would go to Amr so he turned to me and said : ‘Have you seen a man whose Dīn you do not trust; how do you trust him regarding Ḥadīth?’Salamah bin Shabīb narrated to me, al-Humaydī narrated to us, Sufyān narrated to us, he said I heard Abū Mūsā (Isrā’īl bin Mūsā al-Basrī) saying : ‘Amr bin Ubayd narrated to us before what happened’ ( before he became Mu’tazilī).Ubayd Allah bin Mu’ādh al-Anbarī narrated to me, my father narrated to us, he said : ‘I wrote to Shu’bah asking him about Abū Shaybah , a judge of Wāsit, so he wrote to me : ‘Do not write anything from him (of Ḥadīth) and tear up my letter (to you about this)’.Al-Hulwānī narrated to us, he said, I heard Affān (bin Muslim) say : ‘I narrated to Hammād bin Salamah (bin Dīnār al-Basrī), on the authority of Sālih al-Murrī, a Ḥadīth on the authority of Thābit (bin Aslam al-Banānī), then (Hammād) said: ‘(Sālih) lied’. I also narrated to Hammām on authority of Sālih al-Murrī a Ḥadīth then (Hammām) said: ‘(Sālih) lied’.Mahmūd bin Ghaylān narrated to us, Abū Dāwud narrated to us, he said, Shu’bah said to me : ‘Go to Jarīr bin Hāzim and say to him, ‘It is not allowed for you to transmit from al-Hasan bin Umārah for indeed he lies’.’ Abū Dāwud said, I said to Shu’bah : ‘And how do you know that?’ So (Shu’bah) said : ‘He narrated to us on the authority of al-Hakam things that were not found to have any basis’. (Abū Dāwud) said : ‘What things?’ (Shu’bah) said, I said to al-Hakam: ‘Did the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) pray over the martyrs of Uhud?’ (al-Hakam) said: ‘He did not pray over them’. Al-Hasan bin Umārah said, on the authority of al-Hakam, on authority of Miqsam, on authority of Ibn Abbās (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : ‘Indeed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed over them and buried them ’. I (Shu’bah) said to al-Hakam: ‘What do you say about the children born from fornication?’ (Al-Hakam) said: ‘Pray over them ’. I (Shu’bah) said : ‘From whose Ḥadīth is it transmitted?’ (Al-Hakam) said: ‘It is transmitted on the authority of al-Hasan al-Basrī’.’ Al-Hasan bin Umārah said : ‘Al-Hakam narrated to us, on the authority of Yahyā bin al-Jazzār, on authority of Hadhrat Alī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).Al-Hasan al-Hulwānī narrated to us, he said, I heard Yazīd bin Hārūn mention Ziyād bin Maymūn, and he said : ‘I swore that I would not transmit anything from him or Khālid bin Mahdūj’. [Yazīd] said: ‘I met Ziyād bin Maymūn and asked him about a Ḥadīth, so he narrated it to me on authority of Bakr al-Muzanī, then I returned to him and he narrated [the same Ḥadīth] to me on authority of Muwarriq; then I returned to him and he narrated it to me on authority of al-Hasan.’ [Al-Hulwānī said]: ‘He [Yazīd] would charge both of them with lying [i.e. Ziyād bin Maymūn and Khālid bin Mahdūj].’ Al-Hulwānī said: ‘I heard [Ḥadīth] from Abd as-Samad and I mentioned Ziyād bin Maymūn near him and he charged him with lying’.Mahmūd bin Ghaylān narrated to us, he said, I said to Abū Dāwud at-Tayālisī : ‘You transmit a great deal on authority of Abbād bin Mansūr - so how is it that you did not hear the Ḥadīth of ‘the lady perfume seller’ from him which an-Naḍr bin Shumayl transmitted to us?’ (Abū Dāwud) said to me: ‘Be quiet, for Abdur Rahman bin Mahdī and I met Ziyād bin Maymūn and asked him, saying to him, ‘Are these Ahadith you transmit on the authority of Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)?’ (Ziyād) said : ‘Have you seen a man sin and then repent. Does Allah not turn to him?’ (Abū Dāwud) said : ‘We said, ‘Yes’.’ (Ziyād) said : ‘I did not hear from Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) whether a little or a lot; if the people did not know, then you two would not know that I did not meet Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)’. Abū Dāwud said : ‘So it reached us afterwards that he was transmitting (from Anasؓ ), then Abdur Rahman and I went to him and he said : ‘I repented’. Then afterwards he was narrating (again in the same fashion) so we abandoned him ’.Hasan al-Hulwānī narrated to us, he said, I heard Shabābah say : ‘Abdul Quddūs was narrating to us saying, ‘Suwayd bin Aqalah said…’ (when it should be ‘bin Ghafalah’). Shabābah said : ‘And I heard Abdul Quddūs saying, ‘The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prohibited taking a Rawḥ by accident’. (Shabābah) said: ‘So it was said to him, ‘What does this mean?’ (Abd ul-Quddūs) said: ‘It means to make an opening in a wall (thus letting) a breeze enter (by accident)’.’ (He changed the original Ḥadīth, switching ‘Rūḥ’ meaning ‘soul’ to ‘Rawḥ’ or ‘breeze’, and he switched ‘Gharaḍān’ meaning ‘as a target’ to ‘Arḍān’ or ‘accidentally’. All simply by changing a few letters in the words.)Imam Muslim said, I heard Ubayd Allah bin Umar al-Qawārīrī saying, I heard Hammād bin Zayd saying to a man after he sat with Mahdī bin Hilāl for days : ‘What is this salty well (useless or harmful) which has sprung up in your direction?’ He said: ‘Yes, oh Abā Ismā’īl (in agreement)’.
Sahih Muslim, Introduction, Hadith # 078Al-Hasan al-Hulwānī narrated to us, he said, I heard Affān say, I heard Abū Awānah say : ‘A Ḥadīth did not reach me on authority of al-Hasan except I presented it to Abān bin Abī Ayyāsh , then he read it to me ’.Suwayd bin Sa’īd narrated to us, Alī bin Mus’hir narrated to us, he said : ‘Hamzah az-Zayyāt and I heard from Abān bin Abī Ayyāsh something like one thousand Ḥadīth’. Alī said : ‘So I met Hamzah then he informed me that he saw the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in a dream, and he produced for him what he heard from Abān. However he (the Prophet ﷺ) didn’t recognize any, except a small amount (like) five or six (Ahadīth)’.Abdullah bin Abdur Rahman ad-Dārimī narrated to us, Zakariyyā’ bin Adī informed us, he said, Abū Ishāq al-Fazarī said to me : ‘Write from Baqiyyah what he transmits on the authority of those who are well-known, and do not write from him what he transmits on authority of those who are not; do not write from Ismā’īl bin Ayyāsh what he transmits on the authority of those who are well-known or otherwise ’.Ishāq bin Ibrāhīm al-Hanthalī (bin Rāhwayh) narrated to us, he said, I heard one of the companions of Abdullah (bin al-Mubārak) say, Ibn al-Mubārak said : ‘What an excellent man is Baqiyyah, if it were not for the fact that he would provide a nickname for (those who were better-known by) the birth name, and he would provide the birth name for (those who were better-known by) a nickname. For a long time he narrated to us on authority of Abī Sa’īd al-Wuhāthī, then when we investigated (we were surprised that) he was Abdul Quddūs ’.Ahmad bin Yūsuf al-Azdī narrated to me, he said, I heard Abdur Razzāq saying : ‘I did not see Ibn al-Mubārak express so plainly the charge of ‘lying’ except towards Abdul Quddūs; for indeed I heard him saying to him ‘(You are) a liar’.’Abdullah bin Abdur Rahman ad-Dārimī narrated to me, he said : ‘I heard Abū Nu’aym and he mentioned al-Mu’allā bin Urfān, so (Abū Nu’aym) said, (al-Mu’allā) said : ‘Abū Wā’il narrated to us, he said ‘Ibn Mas’ūd attacked us on the day of Siffīn’. So Abū Nu’aym said : ‘Do you think he was raised after death? (Ibn Mas’ūd passed away in 32 or 33 AH, several years before the day in question).Amr bin Alī and Hasan al-Hulwānī narrated to me, both of them on the authority of Affān bin Muslim, he said : ‘We were near Ismā’īl bin Ulayyah, and a man narrated on the authority of another man, so I said : ‘Indeed this is not reliable’. So the man said : ‘Are you backbiting him?’ Ismā’īl said : ‘He is not backbiting him; rather he is judging him unreliable’.Abū Ja’far ad-Dārimī narrated to us, Bishr bin Umar narrated to us, he said : ‘I asked Mālik bin Anas about Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman who transmits on authority of Sa’īd bin al-Musayyib, so he said : ‘He is not trustworthy'. I asked him about Sālih, a freed slave of at-Taw’amah, then he said : ‘He is not trustworthy’. I asked him about Abūl Huwayrith, and he said : ‘He is not trustworthy’. I asked him about Shu’bah on whose authority Ibn Abī Dhi’b transmitted, and he said: ‘He is not trustworthy’. I asked him about Harām bin Uthmān , and he said ‘He is not trustworthy’. I asked Mālik about these five and he said : ‘They are not trustworthy in terms of their Ḥadīth’. I asked him about another man whose name I forget just now, and he said : ‘Did you see him in my book?’ I said: ‘No’. (Then) he said: ‘If he was trustworthy you would see him in my book’.Al-Faḍl bin Sahl narrated to me, he said : ‘Yahyā bin Ma’īn narrated to me, Hajjāj narrated to us, Ibn Abī Dhi’b narrated to us on the authority of Shurahbīl bin Sa’d, and he was imputed (with lying regarding Ḥadīth near the end of his life)’.Muhammad bin Abd Allah bin Quhzādh narrated to me, he said, I heard Abū Ishāq at-Tālqānī saying, I heard Ibn al-Mubārak saying : ‘If I had to choose between entering Paradise and meeting Abdullah bin Muharrar, I would have chosen to meet him, then enter Paradise. Then when I saw him, ( I realized) camel dung would be more preferred to me than him’.Al-Faḍl bin Sahl narrated to me, Walīd bin Sālih narrated to us, he said, Ubaidullah bin Amr said, Zayd (meaning Ibn Abī Unaysah) said : ‘Do not take (Ḥadīth) from my brother ’.Ahmad bin Ibrāhīm ad-Dawraqī narrated to me, he said, Abdus Salām al-Wābisī narrated to me, he said, Abdullah bin Ja’far ar-Raqqī narrated to me, on authority of Ubaydullah bin Amr, he said : ‘Yahyā bin Abī Unaysah was a liar’.Ahmad bin Ibrāhīm narrated to me, he said, Sulaymān bin Harb narrated to me, on the authority of Hammād bin Zayd, he said, Farqad was mentioned near Ayyūb, so he said : ‘Indeed Farqad is not a companion of Ḥadīth’.Abdur Rahman bin Bishr al-Abdī narrated to me, he said, I heard Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Ubayd bin Umayr al-Laythī was mentioned near Yahyā bin Sa’īd al-Qattān, so he weakened him severely. Then it was said to Yahyā : ‘More weak than Ya’qūb bin Atā ’?’ He said : ‘Yes’. Then he said: ‘I did not see anyone transmitting on the authority of Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Ubayd bin Umayr’.Imam Muslim said, similar instances to what we mentioned from the words of Ahl ul-Ilm regarding those transmitters who are imputed in Ḥadīth, and reports about their defects, are great in number, it would lengthen this book to mention its investigation, and what we have (already) mentioned should be sufficient for whoever reflects upon and understands the way of the people (Hadith scholars) in terms of what they said and clarified of all of that.
Indeed (Hadith scholars) concerned themselves with the unveiling of the defects of transmitters of Ḥadīth and narrators of reports; they delivered verdicts in that at the time they were asked when there was a great danger involved considering that the reports are regarding affairs of the Deen; whether (the transmissions) present a permission or proscription, a command or prohibition, encouragement or admonition.
If the transmitter for it is not a source of truthfulness or reliability, then those who know (his condition), who risk transmitting on his authority, and not declaring (his condition) to others who are not aware of his (state), are sinning by doing that, and deceiving the common Muslims, since he should not feel secure, in that some of those who heard these reports will act upon them, or act upon some of them, and perhaps they are lies which have no basis, or a majority of them; this along with the fact that authentic reports from the trustworthy chains and the people who are satisfactory (to the majority of Ahl ul-Ilm) are in too great a number to compel relating from those who are not trustworthy and who are not satisfactory.
I do not think highly of those who would permit from the people what we described of these weak narrations and unknown chains, and who judge by these transmissions after knowing what is in them of those who are imputed and weak unless he, through his conveyance and judgment by them, desires to accumulate (status) through that among the commoners, or that it can be said, ‘How great is the number of Ḥadīth that so-and-so has gathered and compiled!’. Those who held this ideology regarding knowledge and traversed this path have no share in it and that they were designated as being ignorant is more deserving for them than to be attributed to knowledge.
وَقَدْ تَكَلَّمَ بَعْضُ مُنْتَحِلِي الْحَدِيثِ مِنْ أَهْلِ عَصْرِنَا فِي تَصْحِيحِ الأَسَانِيدِ وَتَسْقِيمِهَا بِقَوْلٍ لَوْ ضَرَبْنَا عَنْ حِكَايَتِهِ وَذِكْرِ فَسَادِهِ صَفْحًا لَكَانَ رَأْيًا مَتِينًا وَمَذْهَبًا صَحِيحًا.
إِذِ الإِعْرَاضُ عَنِ الْقَوْلِ الْمُطَّرَحِ أَحْرَى لإِمَاتَتِهِ وَإِخْمَالِ ذِكْرِ قَائِلِهِ وَأَجْدَرُ أَنْ لاَ يَكُونَ ذَلِكَ تَنْبِيهًا لِلْجُهَّالِ عَلَيْهِ غَيْرَ أَنَّا لَمَّا تَخَوَّفْنَا مِنْ شُرُورِ الْعَوَاقِبِ وَاغْتِرَارِ الْجَهَلَةِ بِمُحْدَثَاتِ الأُمُورِ وَإِسْرَاعِهِمْ إِلَى اعْتِقَادِ خَطَإِ الْمُخْطِئِينَ وَالأَقْوَالِ السَّاقِطَةِ عِنْدَ الْعُلَمَاءِ رَأَيْنَا الْكَشْفَ عَنْ فَسَادِ قَوْلِهِ وَرَدَّ مَقَالَتِهِ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَلِيقُ بِهَا مِنَ الرَّدِّ أَجْدَى عَلَى الأَنَامِ وَأَحْمَدَ لِلْعَاقِبَةِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ.
وَزَعَمَ الْقَائِلُ الَّذِي افْتَتَحْنَا الْكَلاَمَ عَلَى الْحِكَايَةِ عَنْ قَوْلِهِ وَالإِخْبَارِ عَنْ سُوءِ رَوِيَّتِهِ أَنَّ كُلَّ إِسْنَادٍ لِحَدِيثٍ فِيهِ فُلاَنٌ عَنْ فُلاَنٍ وَقَدْ أَحَاطَ الْعِلْمُ بِأَنَّهُمَا قَدْ كَانَا فِي عَصْرٍ وَاحِدٍ وَجَائِزٌ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْحَدِيثُ الَّذِي رَوَى الرَّاوِي عَمَّنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ قَدْ سَمِعَهُ مِنْهُ وَشَافَهَهُ بِهِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ لاَ نَعْلَمُ لَهُ مِنْهُ سَمَاعًا وَلَمْ نَجِدْ فِي شيء مِنَ الرِّوَايَاتِ أَنَّهُمَا الْتَقَيَا قَطُّ أَوْ تَشَافَهَا بِحَدِيثٍ- أَنَّ الْحُجَّةَ لاَ تَقُومُ عِنْدَهُ بِكُلِّ خَبَرٍ جَاءَ هَذَا الْمَجِيءَ حَتَّى يَكُونَ عِنْدَهُ الْعِلْمُ- بِأَنَّهُمَا قَدِ اجْتَمَعَا مِنْ دَهْرِهِمَا مَرَّةً فَصَاعِدًا أَوْ تَشَافَهَا بِالْحَدِيثِ بَيْنَهُمَا أَوْ يَرِدَ خَبَرٌ فِيهِ بَيَانُ اجْتِمَاعِهِمَا وَتَلاَقِيهِمَا مَرَّةً مِنْ دَهْرِهِمَا فَمَا فَوْقَهَا. فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ ذَلِكَ وَلَمْ تَأْتِ رِوَايَةٌ صَحِيحَةٌ تُخْبِرُ أَنَّ هَذَا الرَّاوِيَ عَنْ صَاحِبِهِ قَدْ لَقِيَهُ مَرَّةً وَسَمِعَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا- لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي نَقْلِهِ الْخَبَرَ عَمَّنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ ذَلِكَ وَالأَمْرُ كَمَا وَصَفْنَا حُجَّةٌ وَكَانَ الْخَبَرُ عِنْدَهُ مَوْقُوفًا حَتَّى يَرِدَ عَلَيْهِ سَمَاعُهُ مِنْهُ لِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْحَدِيثِ. قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ فِي رِوَايَةٍ مِثْلِ مَا وَرَدَSome pretender to knowledge of Ḥadīth from the people of our time made a statement regarding authentication and weakening of chains; a statement that if we were to disregard relating it and disregard mentioning its evil, truly it would be a strong opinion and sound approach, since turning away from the renounced view and dropping any mention of its speaker are most appropriate for putting it to rest; and better suited so as to not draw the attention of the ignorant to it.
Other than for what we fear from the evil results and dangers of the ignorant in innovated matters and their hastening towards believing in the mistakes of those who err and the rejected statements according to the scholars, we think the unveiling of the evil of his statement and refutation of its speaker with the amount which is deserved from refutation is more beneficial upon the creation and more praiseworthy ultimately, if Allah wills.
The speaker who we introduced by way of speaking on account of his opinion, and the reports of evil of his thinking, alleged that every chain for Ḥadīth, which has in it ‘so-and-so narrated on the authority of so-and-so', and he has knowledge that they were contemporaries, and the probability that the Ḥadīth which the narrator transmitted from whom he transmitted, had heard it from him, and spoke face to face with him; without our knowing (for certain) that the narrator heard from the one who transmitted to him, and without finding in any of the transmissions that they ever met and spoke face to face for the purpose of Ḥadīth, that the proof is not established according to him in any report which comes in this manner until he has knowledge of both transmitters meeting in their era one or more times and speaking face to face, for the purpose of narration, or he wants a report in which their meeting is clarified, their having met once in their era, or more than that; then if he does not have knowledge of that and there does not come to him an authentic transmission reporting that this transmitter (who relates) on authority of his companion met him once and heard from him something, there will be no proof of his relating the report from whom he transmitted on authority of.
The matter just, as we described, is a proof and the report according to him is unresolved until there arrives (the transmitters) hearing from him something from Ḥadīth, a little or a lot, in a transmission (clarifying the ‘hearing’) equal to what he narrated.وَهَذَا الْقَوْلُ- يَرْحَمُكَ اللَّهُ- فِي الطَّعْنِ فِي الأَسَانِيدِ قَوْلٌ مُخْتَرَعٌ مُسْتَحْدَثٌ غَيْرُ مَسْبُوقٍ صَاحِبُهُ إِلَيْهِ وَلاَ مُسَاعِدَ لَهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْقَوْلَ الشَّائِعَ الْمُتَّفَقَ عَلَيْهِ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ بِالأَخْبَارِ وَالرِّوَايَاتِ قَدِيمًا وَحَدِيثًا أَنَّ كُلَّ رَجُلٍ ثِقَةٍ رَوَى عَنْ مِثْلِهِ حَدِيثًا وَجَائِزٌ مُمْكِنٌ لَهُ لِقَاؤُهُ وَالسَّمَاعُ مِنْهُ لِكَوْنِهِمَا جَمِيعًا كَانَا فِي عَصْرٍ وَاحِدٍ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ فِي خَبَرٍ قَطُّ أَنَّهُمَا اجْتَمَعَا وَلاَ تَشَافَهَا بِكَلاَمٍ فَالرِّوَايَةُ ثَابِتَةٌ وَالْحُجَّةُ بِهَا لاَزِمَةٌ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ هُنَاكَ دَلاَلَةٌ بَيِّنَةٌ أَنَّ هَذَا الرَّاوِيَ لَمْ يَلْقَ مَنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ أَوْ لَمْ يَسْمَعْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَأَمَّا وَالأَمْرُ مُبْهَمٌ عَلَى الإِمْكَانِ الَّذِي فَسَّرْنَا فَالرِّوَايَةُ عَلَى السَّمَاعِ أَبَدًا حَتَّى تَكُونَ الدَّلاَلَةُ الَّتِي بَيَّنَّا.
فَيُقَالُ لِمُخْتَرِعِ هَذَا الْقَوْلِ الَّذِي وَصَفْنَا مَقَالَتَهُ أَوْ لِلذَّابِّ عَنْهُ قَدْ أَعْطَيْتَ فِي جُمْلَةِ قَوْلِكَ أَنَّ خَبَرَ الْوَاحِدِ الثِّقَةِ عَنِ الْوَاحِدِ الثِّقَةِ حُجَّةٌ يَلْزَمُ بِهِ الْعَمَلُ ثُمَّ أَدْخَلْتَ فِيهِ الشَّرْطَ بَعْدُ فَقُلْتَ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُمَا قَدْ كَانَا الْتَقَيَا مَرَّةً فَصَاعِدًا أَوْ سَمِعَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَهَلْ تَجِدُ هَذَا الشَّرْطَ الَّذِي اشْتَرَطْتَهُ عَنْ أَحَدٍ يَلْزَمُ قَوْلُهُ وَإِلاَّ فَهَلُمَّ دَلِيلاً عَلَى مَا زَعَمْتَ.
فَإِنِ ادَّعَى قَوْلَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ عُلَمَاءِ السَّلَفِ بِمَا زَعَمَ مِنْ إِدْخَالِ الشَّرِيطَةِ فِي تَثْبِيتِ الْخَبَرِ طُولِبَ بِهِ وَلَنْ يَجِدَ هُوَ وَلاَ غَيْرُهُ إِلَى إِيجَادِهِ سَبِيلاً وَإِنْ هُوَ ادَّعَى فِيمَا زَعَمَ دَلِيلاً يَحْتَجُّ بِهِ قِيلَ لَهُ وَمَا ذَاكَ الدَّلِيلُ فَإِنْ قَالَ قُلْتُهُ لأَنِّي وَجَدْتُ رُوَاةَ الأَخْبَارِ قَدِيمًا وَحَدِيثًا يَرْوِي أَحَدُهُمْ عَنِ الآخَرِ الْحَدِيثَ وَلَمَّا يُعَايِنْهُ وَلاَ سَمِعَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا قَطُّ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْتُهُمُ اسْتَجَازُوا رِوَايَةَ الْحَدِيثِ بَيْنَهُمْ هَكَذَا عَلَى الإِرْسَالِ مِنْ غَيْرِ سَمَاعٍ- وَالْمُرْسَلُ مِنَ الرِّوَايَاتِ فِي أَصْلِ قَوْلِنَا وَقَوْلِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ بِالأَخْبَارِ لَيْسَ بِحُجَّةٍ- احْتَجْتُ لِمَا وَصَفْتُ مِنَ الْعِلَّةِ إِلَى الْبَحْثِ عَنْ سَمَاعِ رَاوِي كُلِّ خَبَرٍ عَنْ رَاوِيهِ فَإِذَا أَنَا هَجَمْتُ عَلَى سَمَاعِهِ مِنْهُ لأَدْنَى شيء ثَبَتَ عِنْدِي بِذَلِكَ جَمِيعُ مَا يَرْوِي عَنْهُ بَعْدُ فَإِنْ عَزَبَ عَنِّي مَعْرِفَةُ ذَلِكَ أَوْقَفْتُ الْخَبَرَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدِي مَوْضِعَ حُجَّةٍ لإِمْكَانِ الإِرْسَالِ فِيهِ.
فَيُقَالُ لَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْعِلَّةُ فِي تَضْعِيفِكَ الْخَبَرَ وَتَرْكِكَ الاِحْتِجَاجَ بِهِ إِمْكَانَ الإِرْسَالِ فِيهِ لَزِمَكَ أَنْ لاَ تُثْبِتَ إِسْنَادًا مُعَنْعَنًا حَتَّى تَرَى فِيهِ السَّمَاعَ مِنْ أَوَّلِهِ إِلَى آخِرِهِ?
وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْحَدِيثَ الْوَارِدَ عَلَيْنَا بِإِسْنَادِ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ فَبِيَقِينٍ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هِشَامًا قَدْ سَمِعَ مِنْ أَبِيهِ وَأَنَّ أَبَاهُ قَدْ سَمِعَ مِنْ عَائِشَةَ كَمَا نَعْلَمُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ قَدْ سَمِعَتْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَدْ يَجُوزُ إِذَا لَمْ يَقُلْ هِشَامٌ فِي رِوَايَةٍ يَرْوِيهَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ سَمِعْتُ أَوْ أَخْبَرَنِي أَنْ يَكُونَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَبِيهِ فِي تِلْكَ الرِّوَايَةِ إِنْسَانٌ آخَرُ أَخْبَرَهُ بِهَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَلَمْ يَسْمَعْهَا هُوَ مِنْ أَبِيهِ لَمَّا أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَرْوِيَهَا مُرْسَلاً وَلاَ يُسْنِدَهَا إِلَى مَنْ سَمِعَهَا مِنْهُ.
وَكَمَا يُمْكِنُ ذَلِكَ فِي هِشَامٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ فَهُوَ أَيْضًا مُمْكِنٌ فِي أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ.
وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ إِسْنَادٍ لِحَدِيثٍ لَيْسَ فِيهِ ذِكْرُ سَمَاعِ بَعْضِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ.
وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ عُرِفَ فِي الْجُمْلَةِ أَنَّ كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ قَدْ سَمِعَ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ سَمَاعًا كَثِيرًا فَجَائِزٌ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ فِي بَعْضِ الرِّوَايَةِ فَيَسْمَعَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ عَنْهُ بَعْضَ أَحَادِيثِهِ ثُمَّ يُرْسِلَهُ عَنْهُ أَحْيَانًا وَلاَ يُسَمِّيَ مَنْ سَمِعَ مِنْهُ وَيَنْشَطَ أَحْيَانًا فَيُسَمِّيَ الرَّجُلَ الَّذِي حَمَلَ عَنْهُ الْحَدِيثَ وَيَتْرُكَ الإِرْسَالَ.
وَمَا قُلْنَا مِنْ هَذَا مَوْجُودٌ فِي الْحَدِيثِ مُسْتَفِيضٌ مِنْ فِعْلِ ثِقَاتِ الْمُحَدِّثِينَ وَأَئِمَّةِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ.
وَسَنَذْكُرُ مِنْ رِوَايَاتِهِمْ عَلَى الْجِهَةِ الَّتِي ذَكَرْنَا عَدَدًا يُسْتَدَلُّ بِهَا عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنْهَا إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى.
فَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ أَيُّوبَ السَّخْتِيَانِيَّ وَابْنَ الْمُبَارَكِ وَوَكِيعًا وَابْنَ نُمَيْرٍ وَجَمَاعَةً غَيْرَهُمْ رَوَوْا عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ كُنْتُ أُطَيِّبُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِحِلِّهِ وَلِحُرْمِهِ بِأَطْيَبِ مَا أَجِدُ.
فَرَوَى هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةَ بِعَيْنِهَا اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ وَدَاوُدُ الْعَطَّارُ وَحُمَيْدُ بْنُ الأَسْوَدِ وَوُهَيْبُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ وَأَبُو أُسَامَةَ عَنْ هِشَامٍ قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. وَرَوَى هِشَامٌ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا اعْتَكَفَ يُدْنِي إِلَيَّ رَأْسَهُ فَأُرَجِّلُهُ وَأَنَا حَائِضٌ.
فَرَوَاهَا بِعَيْنِهَا مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ عَمْرَةَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. وَرَوَى الزُّهْرِيُّ وَصَالِحُ بْنُ أَبِي حَسَّانَ عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُقَبِّلُ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ.
فَقَالَ يَحْيَى بْنُ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ فِي هَذَا الْخَبَرِ فِي الْقُبْلَةِ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يُقَبِّلُهَا وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ. وَرَوَى ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ أَطْعَمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لُحُومَ الْخَيْلِ وَنَهَانَا عَنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ.
فَرَوَاهُ حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ عَنْ عَمْرٍو عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.
وَهَذَا النَّحْوُ فِي الرِّوَايَاتِ كَثِيرٌ يَكْثُرُ تَعْدَادُهُ وَفِيمَا ذَكَرْنَا مِنْهَا كِفَايَةٌ لِذَوِي الْفَهْمِ.
فَإِذَا كَانَتِ الْعِلَّةُ عِنْدَ مَنْ وَصَفْنَا قَوْلَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ فِي فَسَادِ الْحَدِيثِ وَتَوْهِينِهِ إِذَا لَمْ يُعْلَمْ أَنَّ الرَّاوِيَ قَدْ سَمِعَ مِمَّنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ شَيْئًا إِمْكَانَ الإِرْسَالِ فِيهِ لَزِمَهُ تَرْكُ الاِحْتِجَاجِ فِي قِيَادِ قَوْلِهِ بِرِوَايَةِ مَنْ يُعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ قَدْ سَمِعَ مِمَّنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ إِلاَّ فِي نَفْسِ الْخَبَرِ الَّذِي فِيهِ ذِكْرُ السَّمَاعِ لِمَا بَيَّنَّا مِنْ قَبْلُ عَنِ الأَئِمَّةِ الَّذِينَ نَقَلُوا الأَخْبَارَ أَنَّهُمْ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ تَارَاتٌ يُرْسِلُونَ فِيهَا الْحَدِيثَ إِرْسَالاً وَلاَ يَذْكُرُونَ مَنْ سَمِعُوهُ مِنْهُ وَتَارَاتٌ يَنْشَطُونَ فِيهَا فَيُسْنِدُونَ الْخَبَرَ عَلَى هَيْئَةِ مَا سَمِعُوا فَيُخْبِرُونَ بِالنُّزُولِ فِيهِ إِنْ نَزَلُوا وَبِالصُّعُودِ إِنْ صَعِدُوا كَمَا شَرَحْنَا ذَلِكَ عَنْهُمْ.
وَمَا عَلِمْنَا أَحَدًا مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ السَّلَفِ مِمَّنْ يَسْتَعْمِلُ الأَخْبَارَ وَيَتَفَقَّدُ صِحَّةَ الأَسَانِيدِ وَسَقَمَهَا مِثْلَ أَيُّوبَ السَّخْتِيَانِيِّ وَابْنِ عَوْنٍ وَمَالِكِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ وَشُعْبَةَ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ وَيَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ الْقَطَّانِ وَعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مَهْدِيٍّ وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ فَتَّشُوا عَنْ مَوْضِعِ السَّمَاعِ فِي الأَسَانِيدِ كَمَا ادَّعَاهُ الَّذِي وَصَفْنَا قَوْلَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ.
وَإِنَّمَا كَانَ تَفَقُّدُ مَنْ تَفَقَّدَ مِنْهُمْ سَمَاعَ رُوَاةِ الْحَدِيثِ مِمَّنْ رَوَى عَنْهُمْ إِذَا كَانَ الرَّاوِي مِمَّنْ عُرِفَ بِالتَّدْلِيسِ فِي الْحَدِيثِ وَشُهِرَ بِهِ فَحِينَئِذٍ يَبْحَثُونَ عَنْ سَمَاعِهِ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ وَيَتَفَقَّدُونَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ كَيْ تَنْزَاحَ عَنْهُمْ عِلَّةُ التَّدْلِيسِ.
فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى ذَلِكَ مِنْ غَيْرِ مُدَلِّسٍ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ الَّذِي زَعَمَ مَنْ حَكَيْنَا قَوْلَهُ فَمَا سَمِعْنَا ذَلِكَ عَنْ أَحَدٍ مِمَّنْ سَمَّيْنَا وَلَمْ نُسَمِّ مِنَ الأَئِمَّةِ. فَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ يَزِيدَ الأَنْصَارِيَّ وَقَدْ رَأَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ رَوَى عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ وَعَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ وَعَنْ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا حَدِيثًا يُسْنِدُهُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَلَيْسَ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ عَنْهُمَا ذِكْرُ السَّمَاعِ مِنْهُمَا وَلاَ حَفِظْنَا فِي شيء مِنَ الرِّوَايَاتِ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ يَزِيدَ شَافَهَ حُذَيْفَةَ وَأَبَا مَسْعُودٍ بِحَدِيثٍ قَطُّ وَلاَ وَجَدْنَا ذِكْرَ رُؤْيَتِهِ إِيَّاهُمَا فِي رِوَايَةٍ بِعَيْنِهَا.
وَلَمْ نَسْمَعْ عَنْ أَحَدٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِمَّنْ مَضَى وَلاَ مِمَّنْ أَدْرَكْنَا أَنَّهُ طَعَنَ فِي هَذَيْنِ الْخَبَرَيْنِ اللَّذَيْنِ رَوَاهُمَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يَزِيدَ عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ وَأَبِي مَسْعُودٍ بِضَعْفٍ فِيهِمَا بَلْ هُمَا وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُمَا عِنْدَ مَنْ لاَقَيْنَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ بِالْحَدِيثِ مِنْ صِحَاحِ الأَسَانِيدِ وَقَوِيِّهَا يَرَوْنَ اسْتِعْمَالَ مَا نُقِلَ بِهَا وَالاِحْتِجَاجَ بِمَا أَتَتْ مِنْ سُنَنٍ وَآثَارٍ
وَهِيَ فِي زَعْمِ مَنْ حَكَيْنَا قَوْلَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَاهِيَةٌ مُهْمَلَةٌ حَتَّى يُصِيبَ سَمَاعَ الرَّاوِي عَمَّنْ رَوَى وَلَوْ ذَهَبْنَا نُعَدِّدُ الأَخْبَارَ الصِّحَاحَ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِمَّنْ يَهِنُ بِزَعْمِ هَذَا الْقَائِلِ وَنُحْصِيهَا لَعَجَزْنَا عَنْ تَقَصِّي ذِكْرِهَا وَإِحْصَائِهَا كُلِّهَا وَلَكِنَّا أَحْبَبْنَا أَنْ نَنْصِبَ مِنْهَا عَدَدًا يَكُونُ سِمَةً لِمَا سَكَتْنَا عَنْهُ مِنْهَا.
وَهَذَا أَبُو عُثْمَانَ النَّهْدِيُّ وَأَبُو رَافِعٍ الصَّائِغُ وَهُمَا مِمَّنْ أَدْرَكَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةَ وَصَحِبَا أَصْحَابَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنَ الْبَدْرِيِّينَ هَلُمَّ جَرًّا وَنَقَلاَ عَنْهُمُ الأَخْبَارَ حَتَّى نَزَلاَ إِلَى مِثْلِ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَذَوِيهِمَا قَدْ أَسْنَدَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا عَنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا وَلَمْ نَسْمَعْ فِي رِوَايَةٍ بِعَيْنِهَا أَنَّهُمَا عَايَنَا أُبَيًّا أَوْ سَمِعَا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا.
وَأَسْنَدَ أَبُو عَمْرٍو الشَّيْبَانِيُّ وَهُوَ مِمَّنْ أَدْرَكَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةَ وَكَانَ فِي زَمَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَجُلاً وَأَبُو مَعْمَرٍ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَخْبَرَةَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَبَرَيْنِ وَأَسْنَدَ عُبَيْدُ بْنُ عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا وَعُبَيْدُ بْنُ عُمَيْرٍ وُلِدَ فِي زَمَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.
وَأَسْنَدَ قَيْسُ بْنُ أَبِي حَازِمٍ وَقَدْ أَدْرَكَ زَمَنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثَلاَثَةَ أَخْبَارٍ.
وَأَسْنَدَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى وَقَدْ حَفِظَ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَصَحِبَ عَلِيًّا عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا.
وَأَسْنَدَ رِبْعِيُّ بْنُ حِرَاشٍ عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثَيْنِ وَعَنْ أَبِي بَكْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا وَقَدْ سَمِعَ رِبْعِيٌّ مِنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَرَوَى عَنْهُ.
وَأَسْنَدَ نَافِعُ بْنُ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ مُطْعِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي شُرَيْحٍ الْخُزَاعِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا.
وَأَسْنَدَ النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ثَلاَثَةَ أَحَادِيثَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ.
وَأَسْنَدَ عَطَاءُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ اللَّيْثِيُّ عَنْ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا.
وَأَسْنَدَ سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ يَسَارٍ عَنْ رَافِعِ بْنِ خَدِيجٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَدِيثًا.
وَأَسْنَدَ حُمَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْحِمْيَرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَحَادِيثَ.
فَكُلُّ هَؤُلاَءِ التَّابِعِينَ الَّذِينَ نَصَبْنَا رِوَايَتَهُمْ عَنِ الصَّحَابَةِ الَّذِينَ سَمَّيْنَاهُمْ لَمْ يُحْفَظْ عَنْهُمْ سَمَاعٌ عَلِمْنَاهُ مِنْهُمْ فِي رِوَايَةٍ بِعَيْنِهَا وَلاَ أَنَّهُمْ لَقُوهُمْ فِي نَفْسِ خَبَرٍ بِعَيْنِهِ. وَهِيَ أَسَانِيدُ عِنْدَ ذَوِي الْمَعْرِفَةِ بِالأَخْبَارِ وَالرِّوَايَاتِ مِنْ صِحَاحِ الأَسَانِيدِ لاَ نَعْلَمُهُمْ وَهَّنُوا مِنْهَا شَيْئًا قَطُّ وَلاَ الْتَمَسُوا فِيهَا سَمَاعَ بَعْضِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ. إِذِ السَّمَاعُ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ مُمْكِنٌ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ غَيْرُ مُسْتَنْكَرٍ لِكَوْنِهِمْ جَمِيعًا كَانُوا فِي الْعَصْرِ الَّذِي اتَّفَقُوا فِيهِ.
وَكَانَ هَذَا الْقَوْلُ الَّذِي أَحْدَثَهُ الْقَائِلُ الَّذِي حَكَيْنَاهُ فِي تَوْهِينِ الْحَدِيثِ بِالْعِلَّةِ الَّتِي وَصَفَ أَقَلَّ مِنْ أَنْ يُعَرَّجَ عَلَيْهِ وَيُثَارَ ذِكْرُهُ. إِذْ كَانَ قَوْلاً مُحْدَثًا وَكَلاَمًا خَلْفًا لَمْ يَقُلْهُ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ سَلَفَ وَيَسْتَنْكِرُهُ مَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ خَلَفَ فَلاَ حَاجَةَ بِنَا فِي رَدِّهِ بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا شَرَحْنَا. إِذْ كَانَ قَدْرُ الْمَقَالَةِ وَقَائِلِهَا الْقَدْرَ الَّذِي وَصَفْنَاهُ. وَاللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ عَلَى دَفْعِ مَا خَالَفَ مَذْهَبَ الْعُلَمَاءِ وَعَلَيْهِ التُّكْلاَنُ..This statement, may Allah have mercy on you, of accusation regarding the (Mu’an’an) chains is an invented one, produced without precedent, and there is no one who supports him from Ahl ul-Ilm in that. The widespread opinion, which is agreed upon between Ahl ul-Ilm, with reports and transmissions early and recent, is that each trustworthy narrator who transmits a Ḥadīth from his equal, with the feasible probability for (the transmitter) to meet (who he transmits from) and hear from him due to their being together in the same era, even if there never came a report that they met or spoke face to face, then the transmission is affirmed, and (using it as a) proof is appropriate, unless there is clear evidence that this transmitter did not meet who he transmits from or that he did not hear anything from him.
Then as for when the matter is ambiguous regarding the possibility which we explained previously, then the transmission is always (accepted) as coming by way of ‘hearing’ until there is evidence (otherwise) which we pointed out. Thus it is said to the inventor of this opinion whose speaker is, as we have described, or to his defender, you have provided in the sum total of your statement that the report of the single trustworthy narrator on the authority of the single trustworthy narrator is a proof which is required to act upon, then you introduced into it the condition afterwards, and you said ‘until we know that (the transmitter) had met once or more and heard something from (the one he transmits from)’. So have you found this condition which you stipulated from anyone (from Ahl ul-Ilm) who also required it? And if not then bring me evidence of what you allege. Thus if he claims there is a statement from one of the scholars of the Salaf for what he alleged in introducing the condition in affirming reports, (then) confirm it. Neither he, nor others, will ever find a way to produce it, even though he claims about what he alleges there is evidence to rely on. Then it is said ‘What is that evidence?’
If he said : ‘I said it since I found transmitters of reports, early and recent, transmitting Ḥadīth from each other, and (the transmitter) did not ever see or hear anything from (from the one he transmits from). Thus when I saw them permitting the transmission of Ḥadīth between them like this, Irsāl, without hearing (between transmitters), while the Mursal from the transmissions, in the foundation of our view and that of Ahl ul-Ilm in reports, is that it is not a proof; on account of what I described from the weakness, I rely on researching the hearing of the transmitter in each report on the authority of (who he transmits from). Thus when I unexpectedly come upon his hearing from (the one he transmits from) due to the low amount of a thing (transmissions on his authority), all of what he transmits on his authority becomes fixed to me thereafter. And if knowledge of (his actually hearing from whom he transmits from) is too distant from me, I withhold from the report and according to me it does not have a position of proof due to the possibility of Irsāl in it.’
Thus it is said to him : Then if the reason for your weakening the (Mu’an’an) report and your abandoning relying on it is due to the possibility of Irsāl in it, it obligates you not to affirm a chain of Mu’an’an until you see it has hearing (Simā’) from its first (transmitter) to its last.
With us it is possible that the Ḥadīth (you described) which has come to us on the authority of Hishām bin Urwah, on authority of his father, on authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) we know with certainty that Hishām heard from his father and that his father heard from Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), just as we know that Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) heard from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), it is possible that when Hishām does not say in the transmission that he transmits on the authority of his father the words ‘I heard’ or ‘He informed me’, that there could be between him and his father another person who informed (Hishām) of it on the authority of his father in this transmission, and he did not hear it from his father when he preferred transmitting it Mursal, and it is not attributed to who he really heard it from.
Just as that is possible from Hishām, on the authority of his father, then it is also possible for his father on the authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), and like that all chains for Ḥadīth in which the ‘hearing’ (of each transmitter) from the other is not mentioned. And if it was known in some transmissions that every single one of them did hear from his companion a great deal, then it is still possible for each one of them to drop in some of the transmissions, such that he hears from someone else some of his Ahadīth, then expedites on the authority (of his most famous companion) occasionally, while not designating who he (actually) heard from. And at times he is afraid and designates who he (actually) related the Ḥadīth from, and abandons Irsāl. What we mention from this, is found in Ḥadīth from the actions of trustworthy Muhaddithīn and A’immah of Ahl ul-Ilm; and we will mention several of their transmissions upon the pathway which we mentioned, demonstrating through them, the great amount of (the above), if Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wills.From that, are the following.
That Ayyūb as-Sakhtiyānī, Ibn al-Mubārak, Wakī’, Ibn Numayr, and a group of others transmitted on the authority of Hishām bin Urwah on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا). She said: ‘I applied scent to the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) at the time of entering and leaving Ihrām, with the most pleasant (scent) I found’.
Thus Layth bin Sa’d, Dāwud al-Attār, Humayd bin al-Aswad, Wuhayb bin Khālid, and Abū Usāmah transmitted this tradition on authority of none other than Hishām, he said, Uthmān bin Urwah informed me, on authority of Urwah, on authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Hishām transmitted, on authority of his father, on authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), she said : ‘The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), when he was in ‘Itikaf, lowered his head towards me, then I combed (his hair) and I was menstruating’. Then Mālik bin Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted the exact narration, on the authority of az-Zuhrī, on authority of Urwah, on authority of Amrah , on authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Az-Zuhrī and Sālih bin Abī Hassān transmitted on authority of Abī Salamah, on authority of Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : ‘The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) would kiss while fasting’.
Thus Yahyā bin Abī Kathīr said about this report regarding ‘kissing’, Abū Salamah bin Abdur Rahman informed me that Umar bin Abd al-Azīz informed him that Urwah informed him that Ummul Momineen Ā’ishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) informed him that : ‘The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) would kiss her while fasting’.
Ibn Uyaynah and others transmitted on the authority of Amr bin Dīnār, on authority of Jābir, he said ‘The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (allowed us) to eat horse meat and prohibited us from donkey meat’. And Hammād bin Zayd transmitted it, on authority of Amr, on the authority of Muhammad bin Alī, on authority of Jābir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).And this manner of transmitting narrations is abundant, its enumeration being much, and what we mentioned is sufficient for those who possess understanding. Thus when the reason (for weakening these types of transmissions), according to the one whose opinion we described before, in terms of the invalidation of Ḥadīth, and weakening them when it is not known that the transmitter heard anything through the one he transmits from, is that Irsāl is possible in them. His opinion leads to his being obligated to abandon relying on transmissions of those who are known to have heard through who they transmit from unless there is mention of ‘hearing’ in the report itself. In view of what we clarified earlier, the Aimma, who related reports that, at times, they would expedite the Ḥadīth as Irsāl, and not mention who they heard it from, and at times, they would be so inclined, so they would provide the chain for the report in the form that they heard it. Thus they will report (a narration) through ‘descent’ (from a peer or someone below them in age or status), if it was descended. And with ‘elevation’ (with less narrators between them and the Prophet ) if it was elevated, just as we explained about them. We are not aware of anyone from the A’immah of the Salaf who, when he sought to act upon reports, and investigate the soundness or weakness of the chains of transmission, like (those of) Ayyūb as-Sakhtiyānī, Ibn Awn, Mālik bin Anas, Shu’bah bin al-Hajjāj, Yahyā bin Sa’īd al-Qattān, Abd ar-Rahman bin Mahdī, and those after them, from the people of Ḥadīth, he examined the situation regarding (the manner of) ‘hearing’ in the chains, like what is claimed in the opinion of the one, we described earlier.
Those who investigated among (the scholars of Ḥadīth) would only investigate the ‘hearing’ of the transmitters of Ḥadīth they transmitted from, when the transmitter was among those who were known for Tadlīs in Ḥadīth and famous for it. Thus when they investigated (a transmitter’s manner of) ‘hearing’ in his transmissions, and they would research that about him, in order to distance themselves from the defect of Tadlīs. Thus to research that about the non-Mudallis, from the perspective of the one who alleged what he did in the opinion we related, then we have not heard of that from anyone we designated and do not designate from the A’immah.
Thus, from that, is Abdullah bin Yazīd al-Ansārī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who saw the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), transmitted a Ḥadīth on the authority of Hudhayfah and Abī Mas’ūd al-Ansārī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) attributing it to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and there is no mention of ‘hearing’ in his transmission from either of them . Also, we have not preserved in any of the transmissions that Abdullah bin Yazīd (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ever met Hudhayfah or Abū Mas’ūd (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) face to face for Ḥadīth. We have not found mention in an actual transmission, his seeing either of them, and we have not heard from any of Ahl ul-Ilm who have passed, or who we have met, who charged with weakness, these two reports, which Abdullah bin Yazīd (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted on the authority of Hudhayfah and Abū Mas’ūd (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما). Rather according to those, we met from Ahl ul-Ilm in Ḥadīth, those two (reports) and whatever is similar to them, are among the authentic and strong chains. They held the view of acting by what was related by them, and relied upon what came from the Sunan and Āthār (in that manner). And it is weak and abandoned in the allegation of the one whose view we related before, until ‘hearing’ of the transmitter is obtained from whoever transmits (them). And even if we took to enumerating the authentic reports according to Ahl ul-Ilm whereof they are weak, in the allegation of this speaker, and we counted them, truly we would not be able to fully examine its mention and enumerate all of them; rather we prefer to place several as a symbol for what we remain silent upon.
Abū Uthmān an-Nahdī and Abū Rāfi’ as-Sā’igh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما), both were from among those who witnessed the age of Jahiliyyah (the time before Islam in the Arabian Peninsula) and were among the Companions of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) who witnessed the battle of Badr, and so on and so forth. They both related reports on the authority of Sahabah until they (related Ḥadīth from younger Sahabah) the likes of Abū Hurayrah and Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما). Each of these two transmitted a single Ḥadīth on authority of Ubayy bin K’ab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and we did not hear in an actual transmission that they had seen Ubayy (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) with their own eyes, or heard anything from him.
Abū Amr ash-Shaybānī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) witnessed al-Jahiliyyah and was an adult during the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and Abū Ma’mar Abdullah bin Sakhbarah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), each transmitted two reports on the authority of Abū Mas’ūd al-Ansārī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Ubayd bin Umayr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted a Ḥadīth on authority of Ummul Momineen Umm Salamah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and Ubayd bin Umayr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was born in the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Qays bin Abī Hāzim (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted three reports on the authority of Abū Mas’ūd al-Ansārī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and he witnessed the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).Abdur Rahman bin Abī Laylā (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted a Ḥadīth on the authority of Anas bin Mālik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and he heard from Hadhrat Umar bin al-Khattāb (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and accompanied Hadhrat Alī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
Rib’ī bin Hirāsh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted two Ahadith on the authority of Imrān bin Husayn (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and a Ḥadīth on authority of Abū Bakrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Rib’ī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard from Hadhrat Alī bin Abu Tālib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and transmitted on his authority.
Nāfi’ bin Jubayr bin Mut’im (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted a Ḥadīth on the authority of Abī Shurayh al-Khuzā’ī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
An-Nu’mān bin Abī Ayyāsh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted three Ahādīth on the authority of Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Atā’ bin Yazīd al-Laythī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted a Ḥadīth on the authority of Tamīm ad-Dārī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Sulaymān bin Yasār (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted a Ḥadīth on authority of Rāfi’ bin Khadīj (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Humayd bin Abd ar-Rahman al-Himyarī (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) transmitted narrations on the authority of Abū Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), on the authority of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).Thus all of these Tabi’īn we named, whose transmissions are on the authority of Companions, are not recorded in separate transmissions to have heard directly from them, to our knowledge, and are not recorded to have met them in the course of the actual report. They are sound chains of transmission according to those who possess knowledge of reports and transmissions; we do not know of them ever weakening anything of them or asking about whether they heard from each other, since the ‘hearing’ of each one of them from his companion is possible, without anyone rejecting (that), due to them all being together in the same time period.
This opinion that the speaker invented, which we related, regarding weakening the Ḥadīth, for the reason which he described, is too inferior to be relied upon or (too inferior) for its mention to be stirred up since it was an invented opinion and a backward discussion which no one from Ahl ul-Ilm stated before and those who came after them denounced it. Thus there is no need for us to refute it with more than what we have already explained since the standing of the speech and its speaker is that, which we described, and Allah is the one with whom aid is sought in repelling what differs from the school of the scholars and in Him alone we place complete trust.