BASIC ISLAMIC BELIEFS
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
There are 5 Tenets (pillars/principles) of Islam, (i) Shahadah (Iman - faith), (ii) Salah (Distinctive Submission - a form of Islamic Prayer), (iii) Zakat (Islamic Charity), (iv) Sawm (Islamic Fasting), (v) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah).
It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) - Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - Islam is based on (the following) five (principles) - (i) 'there is no (real) god but Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is Allah's Apostle, (ii) to offer Salah (prayers) dutifully and perfectly, (iii) to pay Zakat (Islamic charity), (iv) to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makka), and (v) to observe fast during the month of Ramadhan. (Bukhari Book 2 Hadith 7 )
It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "the Faith (Iman) is to believe in Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ), His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection." (Bukhari).
In this book we have discussed briefly about the Islamic articles of faith, (i) Belief in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) (ii) Belief in Angels, (iii) Belief in holy books, (iv) Belief in Prophets, (v) Belief in the Day of Judgment, (vi) Belief in Destiny and Fate, and (vii) Believe in Virtue and evil.
We have written a separate book on this topic giving details about the Belief in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Our readers may also read that book for a detailed understanding in this context.
While teaching the fundamentals tenets of Islam, people are generally taught (i) Iman-e-Mujmal (Abstract Declaration of Faith) (ii) Iman-e-Mufassil, (Detailed Declaration of Faith) and (iii) Six Kalimas (Islamic Testimonies). These were compiled by early Islamic Scholars to facilitate easy memorization and learning of Islamic beliefs by students.
Iman-e-Mujmal (Abstract Declaration of Faith)
امَنْتُ بِاللهِ كَمَا هُوَ بِاَسْمَائِه وَصِفَاتِه وَقَبِلْتُ جَمِيْعَ اَحْكَامِه
Aamantu Billahe kama huwa be-Asmaa'ihi wa sifaatihi wa qabiltu jameeya ahkaamehi
I have faith in Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), as He is known by His names and attributes, and I accept all His Commands.
Iman-e-Mufassil (Detailed Declaration of Faith)
امَنْتُ بِاللهِ وَمَلئِكَتِه وَكُتُبِه وَرُسُوْلِه وَالْيَوْمِ الْاخِرِ وَالْقَدْرِ خَيْرِه وَشَرِّه مِنَ اللهِ تَعَالى وَالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَالْمَوْتِ
Aamantu Billahe wa malaaokatehi wa kutubihi wa rusulihi walyaumi al-aakheri wal-qadri khayrihi wa sharrihi min-Allahe Ta’ala wa al-ba’si ba’d al-mawt
I have faith in Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), His Angels, His Books, His Apostles, the Day of Judgment, Fate and that all good and (apparent) Evil is from Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and it is sure that there will be Resurrection after death.
SIX TESTIMONIES (KALIMAS)
(1) Kalima-e-Tayyabah (Testimony of Purification)لا اله الا الله محمد رسول اللهLa Ilaha Illallahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-AllahThere is no God but Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is Allah's Apostle.
(2) Kalima-e-Shahaadah (Testimony by Statement)اشْهَدُ انْ لّآ اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ وَحْدَه لَا شَرِيْكَ لَه وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدً ا عَبْدُه وَ رَسُولُهAsh-hadu al-laa ilaaha Illallahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahu, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammedan abduhoo wa RasooluhI testify that there is no God but Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), the one only, without partner and I testify that Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is His servant and Apostle.(3) Kalima-e-Tamjeed (Testimony of Glorification)سُبْحَان اللهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ وَ لآ اِلهَ اِلّا اللّهُ وَ اللّهُ اَكْبَرُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّة ِ الَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِىّ الْعَظِيْمSubhaanallahi walHamdu lillahi wa laa ilaaha illallahu wallahu akbar; wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billahil Aliy-ilAzeemGlory be to Allah and all praise is for Allah and there is no god but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest. And there is no might or power except with Allah, the Exalted, the Great.(4) Kalima-e-Tawheed (Testimony of Unification / monotheism)لا الهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيْكَ لَهْ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْى وَ يُمِيْتُ وَ هُوَحَىُّ لَّا يَمُوْتُ اَبَدًا اَبَدًا ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ وَهُوَ عَلى كُلِّ شَئ ٍ قَدِيْرٌ
La ilaaha illallahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahu, lahul Mulk wa lahul Hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayyul laa yamootu abadan abadaa; zulJalaali wal-Ikraami; beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulli shaeyin qadeer.
There is no god but Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی). He is one and has no partner. To Him belongs the Kingdom and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death, He is the exalted and most high. In His hand is all good and He has power over everything.
(5) Kalima-e-Astaghfar (Testimony of Penitence)
اسْتَغْفِرُ اللّهَ رَبِّىْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذَنْبٍ اَذْنَبْتُه عَمَدًا اَوْ خَطَاً سِرًّا اَوْ عَلَانِيَةً وَاَتُوْبُ اِلَيْهِ مِنْ الذَّنْبِ الَّذِىْ اَعْلَمُ وَ مِنْ الذَّنْبِ الَّذِىْ لا اَعْلَمُ اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الغُيُبِ وَ سَتَّارُ الْعُيُوْبِ و َغَفَّارُ الذُّنُوْبِ وَ لا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ اِلَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِىِّ العَظِيْم
Astaghferullaha rabbi min kulli zambin aznabtuhoo amadan aw khata-an sirran aw alaniyatan wa atoobu ilayhe min-azzambi-llazzee aalamu wa min-azzambi-llazzee laa aalamu innaka allaam-ulghuyoobi wa sattaar-uluyoobi wa ghaffaar-uzzunoobi wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah-ilAliy-ilAzeem.
I seek forgiveness from my Lord, who is my Creator and Sustainer, from every sin I committed, knowingly or unknowingly, secretly or openly. I also seek His forgiveness for all sins which I am aware of or am not aware of. Certainly You (O' Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی ), are the Knowledgeable of the hidden and the Concealer of mistakes and the Forgiver of sins. And there is no power and no strength except with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great.
(6) Kalima-e-Rud-e-Kuffr (Testimony of Rejecting Disbelief)
اَللّهُمَ اِنّىْ اَعُوْدُ بِكَ مِنْ انْ اُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيئًا َّ وَاَنَا اَعْلَمُ بِه وَ اسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا اَعْلَمُ بِه تُبْتُ عَنْهُ وَ تَبَرَّاْتُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَ الشّرْكِ وَ الْكِذْبِ وَ الْغِيْبَةِ وَ الْبِدْعَةِ وَ النَّمِيْمَةِ وَ الْفَوَاحِشِ وَ الْبُهْتَانِ وَ الْمَعَاصِىْ كُلِّهَا وَ اَسْلَمْتُ وَ اَقُوْلُ لآ اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ مُحَمَّدُ رَّسُوْلُ اللّهِ
Allahumma Innee aoozubeka min an ushreka beka shay-an wa ana aalamu behi wa astaghferuka lemaa laa aalamu behi tubtu anhu wa tabarra’tu minal-Kufri wash-shirki wal-Kizbi wal-geebati wal-bid'ati wan-nameemati wal-fawaheshi wal-buhtaani wal-ma'aasee kullihaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah
O' Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی ! Certainly I seek your protection from that I associate partner with You anything and I know it. And I seek your forgiveness for that I do not know it. I repent from it and I made myself free from disbelief and polytheism and the falsehood and the back-biting and the innovation and the tell-tales and the bad deeds and the blame and the disobedience, all of them. And I submit and I say there is no god but Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی and Mohammad صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم is the Apostle of Allah.
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) created Angels from "Nur" (light). They are responsible for various tasks in the Cosmos.The World of Angels
The world of Angles is also known as ‘the world of souls' (Aalam-e-Arwah) and ‘the world of command’ (Aalam-e-Amr).The World of Angels is pure from ‘form’, ‘space’, ‘period’, 'traces of appearance', 'age', 'shape' and ‘weight’.The angels have seven basic attributes; Life, Knowledge, Will, Power, Hearing, Seeing, and Speech.
Unlike our creation in the world of manifestation/ physical world (Aalam-e-Shahadah) where we acquire skills and proficiency gradually, (we are born, we grow gradually and reach to the zenith of knowledge and expertise later in our old age), the creation of angels is instantaneous. The moment an angel is born, he becomes proficient in everything that was required of him.
The Unity of Allah (ذاتِ الہي) is eternal antiquity (Sarmadi). There is no one before Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). He is existing eternally and will remain so for ever.
The creation of Angels is ‘timeless antiquity’ (Dahri). We cannot prescribe a time frame for their creation. It is not like ours, which is ‘periodic antiquity’ (Zamani). We can prescribe a time frame of our creation. Like, the grand father is born first, followed by the son and then the grand son.
It is in Quran - إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [And when Allah wants to decree His behest, He only says ‘Be’, and there it is (the thing comes into existence).] (Aal-e-Imraan – 47).
It is in Quran – وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ [And our command is but an instantaneous single word like the twinkling of an eye.] (Al-Qamar – 50).
It is in Quran - وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ ۖ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا [ Say (O’Prophet ﷺ) the soul is of the command of my Sustainer’. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little." (Isra– 85).
Angels are of two types: (i) Who are busy is special prayers to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), (ii) Angels who are responsible for various works in the Cosmos.
There are 4 Honorable Resolute Angels; as follows.
(i) Hazrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) is Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Personal Assistant and nucleus of knowledge in the Cosmos. His creation is unique from other Angels. He has been responsible to bring revelations to all Prophets from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). He is the chief architect of major works in the Cosmos.
(ii) Hazrat Micha’el (عليه السلام) is the nucleus of Subsistence in the Cosmos. Among other things, his major responsibility is rainfall on planet Earth. Often he acts as a deputy of Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) in many issues. Together, they are a great team working in the Cosmos.
(iii) Hazrat Israfeel (عليه السلام) is the nucleus of Life in the Cosmos. His major responsibilities include arrangements of the Day of Resurrection.
(iv) Hazrat Izra’el (عليه السلام) is the nucleus of Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Wrath (Qahar) in the Cosmos. His primary responsibility is to cease the souls of human beings when they die.
There are innumerable subordinate angels who work under the above 4 Resolute Angels. Various assignments of Angels have been mentioned in Quran.It is in Quran – مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ [Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His Apostles, and Jibreelؑ and Michaelؑ ! Then, look! Allah (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers'. (Al-Baqara – 98).It is in Quran - قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ [Say (O’ Prophet ﷺ), Who is an enemy to Jibreelؑ ! For he it is who has revealed (Quran) to your heart by Allah's assent, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers. ] (Al-Baqara – 97).It is in Quran – إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ - مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلَّا لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ [(Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (shoulder, to note his or her actions). Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).] (Qaaf – 17-18).It is in Quran – بَلَىٰ ۚ إِن تَصْبِرُوا وَتَتَّقُوا وَيَأْتُوكُم مِّن فَوْرِهِمْ هَـٰذَا يُمْدِدْكُمْ رَبُّكُم بِخَمْسَةِ آلَافٍ مِّنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مُسَوِّمِينَ [ Yes, if you hold on to patience and piety, and the enemy comes rushing at you; your Lord will help you with five thousand angels having marks (of distinction).] (Aal-e-Imraan – 125).It is in Quran – لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ - تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ - سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ [ The night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months. Therein descend the angels and the Rooh (Jibreelؑ) on Allah's behest with all Decrees. Peace! (All that night, there is Peace and Goodness from Allah to the believers) until the appearance of dawn.] (Al-Qadar – 3-5).
Angels are responsible for works in Heaven, Hell and for various works related to Cosmic Administration. Angles are appointed for providing comforts or torment to human beings after their death. There are various Ahadith giving details of Angels' assignments.
Belief in books sent down on prophets is also an integral part of Islamic faith.It is in Quran - قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ [Say (O'Prophet ﷺ) We believe in Allah and that which has been sent down on us (Quran), and sent down on Abraham (Ibrahim - عليه السلام) and Ishmael (Isma'eel - عليه السلام) , Isaac (Is-haq - عليه السلام) and Jacob (Ya'qub - عليه السلام) , and the Tribes, and in that which was given to Moses (Musa - عليه السلام) and Jesus (Isa - عليه السلام) , and (among) the prophets of their Lord; we make no division between any of them. ] (Al-Baqara - 136)Thus, we believe in Quran and all the scriptures mentioned in Quran.(a) The Gospel (الإنجيل) revealed to Prophet Isa (عليه السلام).(b) The Torah (التوراة) revealed to Prophet Musa (عليه السلام).(c) The Psalms (الزبور) revealed to Prophet Dawud (عليه السلام).(d) The Scrolls (صحف) revealed to Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and other prophets.It is a fact that all the above scriptures have not survived neither in their original languages they were revealed to their respective prophet, nor in their content. Some translations are available which are not as per their original text. Also these translated versions have been changed successively over centuries. This is the reason that no two translated editions of Bible match with each other.Quran contains 114 chapters covering many subjects. It was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) over a period of 23 years. Quran is the only Divine Book that has been preserved in its original form. Not even a vowel sign of a word has been changed in it over a period of 1,440 years. It is indeed guidance to the entire mankind till the Day of Resurrection.
Prophets are human beings appointed by Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) to communicate His commandments to people. All prophets are honest, guiltless and above suspicion of any kind. Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) protects and covers them into His mercy away from even the possibility of sins throughout their lives. Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی ) has praised them at many places in Quran.
Highest respect for prophets is mandatory in Islam. They are the highest ranking human beings in Allah’s (سبحانہ و تعا لی) court. Equating prophets with ordinary sinful human beings takes Iman away from you. You should never compare common people with Prophets.It is in Quran - اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ ۗ [Allah knows it well who is capable for Apostleship.] (An-A’am – 124).Religion is received through the Prophets and it is a gift of Allah to the humanity to lead a peaceful life free from wickedness and immorality. Religion consists of commandments of Almighty.
To claim receiving revelations of God is exclusive with the Prophets. Rather, the Prophet cannot move on his own, he cannot talk a word on his own.
It is in Quran – وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ - إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ ‘(Prophet Mohammad -صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) does not say anything with his self desire, except that this is the revelation which is coming to him (from Allah –سبحانه و تعالى)’. (An-Najm – 2).
Islam distinguishes between an Apostle of Allah (Rasool) and a Prophet (Nabi). Both are divinely inspired recipients of Allah's revelations. However, the Apostle receives a divine message or revelation for a community in a book form. Every Rasool is a Prophet, however, not every Prophet is a Rasool. We believe in the Prophet-hood of a person about whom we have definite means of knowledge.
Following prophets have been mentioned in the holy Quran.(1) Adam (عليه السلام)(2) Nuh – عليه السلام (Noah)(3) Idris - عليه السلام (Enoch)(4)(8) Isma’il – عليه السلام (Ishmael)(9) Is'haq – عليه السلام (Isaac)(10) Yaqub – عليه السلام (Jacob)(12) Ayyub – عليه السلام (Job)(13) Shu'ayb – عليه السلام (Jethro)(14) Musa – عليه السلام (Moses)(19) Al-Yasa – عليه السلام (Elisha)(24) Yahya – عليه السلام (John the Baptist)(25) Isa – عليه السلام (Jesus)(26) Mohammad Rasoolullah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)
The above Prophets were sent by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) in the world for the guidance of various nations at different times throughout the history of mankind.
It is in Hadith - Abu Umamah al-Bahili narrated that Abu Dharr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) how many Prophets were there?" The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) replied "One hundred twenty four thousand, from which three hundred fifteen were Apostles. (Musnad Ahmed)It is in Quran – وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِّن قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُم مَّن قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن لَّمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ [And certainly We sent Apostles before you (O'Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), there are some of them that We have mentioned to you and there are others whom We have not mentioned to you] (Ghafir - 78).
It is in Quran - كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ [Mankind were one community, and Allah sent (to them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as cautioners, and revealed therewith, the Scripture with the truth, that it might judge between mankind concerning that, wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come to them, through hatred of one another. And Allah by His Will guided those who believe in the truth of that, concerning which they differed. Allah guides whom He will to the straight path.] (Al-Baqara – 213).
It is in Quran - إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا [(O’ Prophet Mohammad – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) We (Allah –سبحانه و تعالى) have revealed (sent commandments) to you, as We revealed to Noah (عليه السلام), and the Prophets after him, and We revealed to Abraham (عليه السلام), Ishmael (عليه السلام), Isaac (عليه السلام), Jacob (عليه السلام) and the offspring of Jacob (عليه السلام), and Jesus (عليه السلام), and Job (عليه السلام), and Jonah (عليه السلام) , and Aaron (عليه السلام), and Solomon (عليه السلام), and We gave to David (عليه السلام) Psalms’. (An-Nisa – 163).
It is in Quran - قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ - [ Say (O’Muslims), We believe in Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and that which has been sent down to us (Quran) and that which has been sent down to Abraham (Ibrahim – علیھ السلا م), Ishmael (Ismael - علیھ السلا م), Isaac (Is-haq - علیھ السلا م), Jacob (Ya'qub – علیھ السلا م), and to Al-Asbât (the twelve sons of Jacob - Ya'qub – علیھ السلا م), and that which has been given to Moses (Musa - علیھ السلا م) and Jesus ( Isa - علیھ السلا م), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We (the Muslims) make no distinction between any of them, and to Him (Allah - سبحانہ و تعا لی) we have submitted (in Islam) (We are Muslims)].’ (Al-Baqara – 136).
We believe in all Prophets, including those who are mentioned in Quran. All of them have communicated the same message. The religions of all the Prophets has been the same which is monotheism (one-ness) of Almighty. There are no differences of teachings among prophets with regard to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)) because all of them are honest. Allah ( سبحانه و تعالى ) is the same who is there from the beginning and who will remain existent eternally.
Quran is the only book which has not been changed or altered even by an alphabet or a vowel sign. Quran is available to us in its original dialect (language) Arabic in which it was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Quran’s authenticity is proved beyond doubt.
It is in Quran – إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ [We (Allah –سبحانه و تعالى) have descended Quran and We only shall preserve it’ (Al-Hijr – 9).
Isa (عليه السلام) is an Apostle of Allah. Certain assumptions of Christians about him are negated in the following Quranic verses.
It is in Quran - مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [It is not befitting to (the Majesty of) Allah that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! When He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and there it is.] (Maryam – 35).
It is in Quran - قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا [(Isa said) ‘I am indeed a servant of Allah. Allah has given me revelation and made me a prophet.] (Maryam - 30).
It is in Quran - ذَٰلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۚ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُونَ [Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute. (Maryam – 34).
It is in Quran - وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَـٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا [And because of their saying (to boast), ‘We killed Messiah 'Isa Ibn Maryam (عليه السلام), the Apostle of Allah’ - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of 'Isa (عليه السلام) was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For sure; they killed him not.] (An-Nisa – 157).
Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the last Prophet who was sent for the entire mankind.
It is in Quran - مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا [(Prophet) Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah (سبحانه و تعا لی) is ever Aware of all things’. (Al-Ahzab – 40).
It is in Quran – وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا [And We have sent you ( O’ Muhammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as Apostle to mankind, and Allah (سبحانه و تعا لی) is Sufficient as a Witness. (An-Nisa – 79).Quran is the last scripture sent by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) which has been preserved in its original form for the last one thousand four hundred years.It is in Quran – هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ [He (Allah -سبحانه و تعا لی), it is Who has sent His Apostle with the guidance and the religion of truth that He may make it to prevail over all religions.] (As-Saff – 9).
We believe in the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment. There are many Quranic verses and Ahadith giving details about Resurrection and the Day of Judgment.
It is in Quran - كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ [Whatsoever is on it (earth) will perish.] (Ar-Rahman -26)
No one knows about the Day of Resurrection except Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). However, there are Ahadith and Quranic verses that indicate the circumstances in which the end of the world will happen.We will have to answer for our deeds to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) on the Day of Judgment. We believe, real Muslims will see Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) on the Day of Judgment. We believe in 'Siraath' (the bridge) on which everyone will be required to walk on the Day of Judgment. We believe in Hell and Paradise as these have been described in Quran and Ahadith. We believe some people will be awarded Jannah from the beneficence of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and some will realize that they deserved punishment of Fire in view of their faithlessness and evil deeds.In short, we believe in everything about the Last Day; about the things we know and about the things which are known to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
We believe in Life after Death. We believe in the Questions of two Angels in the Grave after our dead bodies are buried. We believe in the torment of Grave and the life of Burzakh (Life after Death). We believe in Fateha and Eithaal-e-thawaab. It is established from Sahih Ahadith that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) visited the graves of Sahaba, therefore it is Sunnah to visit the graves of dead believers and Awliya Allah.We believe in everything about the Life of Barzakh as known to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Apostel Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).A book titled Life After Death has been written in this context. Interested readers may read it.
Everything in this Cosmos is being run in a systematic and organized manner. There is no mismanagement or discrepancy in the happenings of this world. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is aware of His creatures before they were created from His command "Be".
The Universal Administration and its happenings, one after the other in a sequence, are known as "Destiny (Qadar )".
'Inevitable fate' is known as "Destiny" (Qadar) and 'Pending Fate' is known as "Fate" (Qadha).
With reference to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) everything is 'Destiny' or Inevitable fate. Some people call it pre-destination. And with reference to Human beings, it is 'Fate' or Pending fate; meaning we generally do not know what is in our "fate".
When we appear in an examination, we do not know how much percentage of marks (or grade) we will get till the outcome of its result. Sometimes it happens that the result is as per our expectation, sometimes the result is close to our expectations and sometimes it is totally against our expectation.
In the above example, there are causes that need to happen to decide the outcome.
Like in our exam, what are the causes that can affect our results?
The causes are (i) our study and preparation in the subject, (ii) our freshness and confidence on the day of exam, (iii) our reaching the Exam Center well before the commencement of exam, (iv) nothing untoward incident should happen to us on the way to exam center, (v) our mental abilities should be working 100% on that day to grasp the questions fast, (vi) the safety of our answer sheets at the exam center, (viii) our answer sheets corrected by a broad minded evaluator who should be in a jolly mood while correcting our answer sheets, (ix) correct tabulation of our marks/grades by the computer operator, (x) honest officials overlooking the results, (xi) an efficient computer program and printing facility at the University / Education Board to publish our results, etc.
If all the above causes work 100% positively, we get an outstanding result, may be we will get a gold medal. If some of the causes work positively and some negatively, it affects our results accordingly.
When the cause (or causes) work favorably for a positive outcome of a work, we term it as 'complementary cause' (illat-e-mutammim); the cause has complemented the positive outcome of our effort/work.
When the cause (or causes) work unfavorably for the negative outcome of a work, we term it as 'impediment cause' (illat-e-ma'ane), the cause has resulted in the negative outcome of our effort/work.
A destiny (Qadar) about which nothing is clearly known is called 'Pending fate' (Qadha-e-Mu'allaq).
By 'complementary cause', or 'impediment cause' when the thing becomes clear, it is known as 'Inevitable fate' (Qadha-e-Mubram).
However, we have been taught about the "positive causes", and warned about the "negative causes" which effect our fate. This is the reason, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) emphasized all of us to undertake good deeds.
What are good deeds? These are positive causes that may effect our fate in this world and in Hereafter. We are required to strive in the way of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and expect good results. But we are told that we need to depend totally upon Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) mercy for positive outcome of our efforts. We should not say that because of our efforts, we got certain thing. Rather we should say that because of Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) mercy and Hidaya we were able to do good work and it is Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) who has accepted our work and rewarded us with this thing.
We are also taught to accept the 'inevitable fate' or destiny without any complaints.
Some people misunderstand the meaning of Destiny and become lazy. When you ask them to get up and work for the welfare of themselves, their families and community, they say that whatever is destined for us will happen and we cannot change anything in this world. This disease is more common in misguided Sufis and among people who misunderstand teachings of great Sufi Shuyookh of Ihsan. They should find a right teacher to learn true Islamic facts.
It is in Quran - وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَىٰ - وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَىٰ [Human being gets what he strives for. Man sees the result of his efforts.] (An Najm 39-40)
It is in Quran - مَّنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَسَاءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۗ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ [Whoever does a good deed, it will be better for (His) self. And whoever does bad, it will cause loss to him.] (Fussilat - 46).
It is in Hadith - Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) replied to a person who asked him - Should I leave my camel untied and trust in Allah? The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "Tie it and trust in Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). (Tirmidhi)
It is in Quran - يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ ۖ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ [Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) erases whatever He wishes and leaves whatever He wishes. He has the mother (original) of all the Books.] (Ar-Ra'd - 39).
The meaning of "Mother of all books", is Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) Knowledge (Ilm-e-Elahi). Some people say it is 'Divine Tablet' (Lauh-e-Mahfooz). All the things which will appear or not appear in this cosmos are their in Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge.
We should do good deeds and pray earnestly that even if some bad is written in our fate, let Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) erase it with His Mercy or change the bad into good. If torment is written in our fate in Hereafter, let Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) change it into recompense from His Mercy. Remember, only our "Dua" can become the cause of changing our fate from bad into good.
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is absolutely virtuous. Whatever is happening in the cosmos is as per the prior knowledge of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and is therefore virtuous.
What is evil?
A thing could be virtuous for a certain thing and evil for another. Like a tiger killing a deer is virtuous for tiger because if he does not kill the deer, he will die of hunger. But the same act is evil for the deer.
How do we understand the following 3 verses of Quran?
(i) It is in Quran - "Laha ma kasabath wa alaiha maktasabath" (The servant gets good of the virtue he earned and he suffers for the evil he earned". (Al-Baqara - 286).
(ii) It is in Quran - مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ [Evil is from servant and virtue is from Allah.] (An-Nisa - 79)
(iii) It is in Quran - قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ [ Say (O'Prophet ﷺ), Everything is from Allah. (An-Nisa - 78).
Understanding of verse No. (i) - It is evident that we pray, we do fasting. But many of us also get involve in lie and back biting. Out of these, nothing can be attributed to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Therefore, the virtue and evil concern with 'Servant', and not with Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).
Understanding of verse No. (ii) - Everyone of us knows that the sunlight is coming evenly to everything on this planet. However when this sunlight hits different things, it gets reflected in accordance with the capacities of these things. This is the reason we see the colorfulness of this Universe. In the same way, Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) bestowal is reaching to everyone. Some people are using it properly, as per the guidance provided in Quran and Sunnah while others are misusing these bestowals and are getting involved in all kinds of sins. Thus, it is proved that the virtue is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and evil is from servants.
Understanding of verse No. (iii) - We all know that everything in this cosmos is appearing after Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) command "Be". Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is the creator of all the things in this cosmos. Unless He commands "Be", neither we can come into existence, nor our deeds. Thus, in the bestowal of being (Ata-e-Wajood), everything is dependent upon Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).An important issue has to be understood here. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew all His creatures before their birth. He knew them as they were and what are their characteristics. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew Horse as Horse, elephant as elephant and human being as human being. Among Humans, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew who is capable to understanding Tawheed, who will follow His prophets and who will reject them. Thus Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knowledge is as the per the fact of the creatures. If you feed a tiger with grass, it will die. Similarly, if you feed a cow with meat, it will die. Thus, Hidaya will be effective only for those who are capable of understanding it and who were destined to follow it. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) will not command a virtuous person to steal and kill people. Similarly, a evil nature man will not follow the teachings of prophets even if you tell him a thousand times about its virtues.(i) It is in Quran - وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ [ And say (O'Prophet ﷺ), the truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills - let him believe; and whoever wills - let him disbelieve. ] (Al-Kahf - 29)(ii) It is in Quran - قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُم بِوَكِيلٍ [ Say (O'Prophet ﷺ), O' mankind, the truth has come to you from your Lord, so whoever is guided is only guided for himself, and whoever goes against it, goes astray for himself. And I (Prophet Mohammad ﷺ) am not responsible for you.(iii) It is in Quran - إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ [Indeed, (O' Prophet ﷺ), you do not guide whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows who is capable of guidance. ] (Al-Qasas - 56)(iv) It is in Quran - وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ [ And indeed, (O'Prophet ﷺ), you (are the one who) guide (people) to a straight path.]The above verses clearly indicates that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is a guide for everyone in the world. However, it is up to individuals to accept it or not. And they do it as per their inbuilt natures.
With the above explanations, it is clear that we need to understand Quranic verses in their proper perspective. We believe in Quran and all Ahadith books. By reading certain verses which apparently describe creature like attributes, you should not start saying that (Nauzubillahi), Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has hands, face, eyes, body and other limbs. This kind of understanding of Quran will lead you to go astray.