Written in Urdu By
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بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
Monotheism is the primary and distinct faith in Islam. Monotheism of Allah's Unity (ذاتِ الہٰی) and Apostleship of Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) form the basis on which the entire structure of Islam rests.
Islam provides a supreme and comprehensive concept of God. To understand the oneness of God in the backdrop of the colorfulness of this Universe, complexities of its creatures and the varieties of its worlds, we need to know about the Unity of Allah, His attributes and Epithets (اسماء الہیہ). And to know the attributes of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), we have to study the attributes of creatures.
It is in Quran - وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنسَاهُمْ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ [ And be not like those who forgot Allah, so He made them forget themselves.] (Al-Hashr - 19)
It is in Hadith - مَنْ عَرَفَ نَفْسَهُ فَقَدْ عَرَفَ رَبَّهُ [ Whoever knows about himself, knows about his Lord. ]
References - (i) Fatawa Imam An-Nawawi, (ii) Sahl al- Tustari as narrated by Abu Nu`aym in Hilya # 10-208, (iii) Narration of Yahya ibn Mu`adh ar-Razi as reported in Ibn al- Sam`ani's Qawa`id fi Usul al-Fiqh by al-Zarkashi in al-Tadhkira page 129, (iv) Suyuti in Durar pages 258 and 420, (v) Fatwa entitled al-Qawl al-Ashbah fi Hadithi Man `Arafa Nafsahu fa-qad `Arafa Rabbah in Hawi lil-Fatawi # 2-412, (vi) Sakhawi in Maqasid, (vii) Haytami in Fatawa Hadithiyya page 289, (viii) Ibn `Ata' Allah quoting Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi, (ix) Abu Talib al- Makki, (x) Izz al-Din al-Maqdisi, etc.
Absolute existence is only for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and our existence is contingent (temporary), relative (dependent upon Allah) and negligible. People who are unaware of this subject may say that when the existence is only for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), then how come we are also existent or getting the share of existence? The answer to this question is, if our existence was absolute, our own, then it would have never parted from us. But we live and die and our bodies become part of mud. This shows that our existence (the existence of creatures) is not our own. Therefore, there will be a creator whose existence is His Precise Unity ( Ain-e-zaat - عینِ ذات ).
Monotheism can be explained by another example. You know the candle light. Our eyes see the flame constantly burning. But you ask a chemist, he will explain that the flame does not remain the same. Every moment the old flame vanishes and a new flame takes its place. The process is so fast that the eye sees the flame constant. And the thing which keeps the flame constant is the wax. Similarly, this Universe and all its Worlds and their creatures remain the way they are by constant attention (tawajjoh - توجہ) of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Like wax which keeps the flame constant, the existence of all creatures is totally dependent on Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). The whole Universe is getting annihilated by rage of divine infinity ( Qahar-e-Ahdiyet - قہرِ احد یت ) and getting back to life by divine mercy. This process is known as 'Renewal of similitude' (Tajaddud-e-Amthaal - تجدُّ دِ امثال ).
The study of Allah's Unity, His attributes, Epithets and His wisdom in the creation of this Cosmos is known as obligacellance (Obligatory excellence - Tasauuf - تصوٌُف ). Therefore, denial of Tasauuf (تصوٌُف) is the denial of Allah's monotheism which is explicitly described in Quran - قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ . اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ . لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ . وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ [ O' Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم , say Allah is one (and one all the way. His being does not contain elements. He is not a compound). Allah is independent (everybody is dependent on Him). He does not have children (He has not given birth to anyone). Nobody has given birth to Him. (Allah is there from the beginning and nobody precedes Him). Nobody can match Him or can equal Him.] (Ikhlas 1-4).
The book Islamic Wisdom is a complete treatise on monotheism. It is comprehensive text book on the 'knowledge of Truth' (Ilm-e-Haqeeqat - علمِ حقیقت), a like of which could be rarely found.
The translation of this book is indeed a big work, a pioneering work, accomplished by an exceptional skill and pace. I am happy for Quadri that by Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) beneficence this work has been completed. I am sure, Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمة لله عليه) is also very pleased for Quadri's efforts in this task.
I pray Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to accept this translation as its original work and help its readers in comprehending the essence of Islamic teachings.
Hussain Shujauddin Siddiqui (Izzat), Son and successor of the author Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui ( رحمة لله عليه )
Shabaan 5, 1418 AH - December 6, 1997
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
The book Hikmat-e-Islamia ( حکمتِ اسلامیہ - Islamic Wisdom ) was written in Urdu in 1928 when Shaikh was 57 years old and working as Professor and Head of the Department of Theology, at Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. It was published in 1929 and since then it remains the only comprehensive treatise ever written on the subject of 'Monotheism'. Shaikh discusses various internal and external aspects of Monotheism in the book. It was part of postgraduate curriculum of Osmania University for many years when the medium of instruction was Urdu.
I find no words to express veneration for the Shaikh for the depth and vastness of his knowledge. He explains most difficult and complicated issues with distinct style of ease that keeps the reader amazed. Issues covered in this book are numerous, all related to Sahih Iman and as per the understanding requirements of people during his time. The explanations of the issues are apt and brief and to the point. It is amazing to note that the book is as valid and as required in our times as it might have been the case when it was penned down.
The readers will realize that the work of translation of this book is of pioneering nature. The Urdu terms used by the Shaikh were of pioneering nature. These terms had to be translated into English with new terminology in the making of which the dictionaries proved to be of inadequate assistance. I had to undertake a great deal of hard work to bring out the essence of the meaning of the text to its full.
Every subject in the world, like medicine, engineering, etc., has its unique terminology. Similarly, the subject of monotheism has its unique terminology. During translation of this book, I had to use new terms in English, in the making of which, I spent a great deal to bring out the essence of the terms used by the Shaikh in his book. In the process I also tried to maintain the literary flavor which is found in abundance in Shaikh's original Urdu text.
The study of Allah's Unity, His attributes, Epithets and His wisdom in the creation of this Cosmos is known as obligacellance (Obligatory excellence - Tasauuf - تصوٌُف ). Obligacellance is a new English word I used in this book as translation for 'Tasauuf' - تصوٌُف ).
It is important for our readers to be positive in understanding the terms used in this book in the backdrop of Islamic Sharia so that these lead them to the correct understanding. Otherwise you could be misled by the apparent multiplicity of their usage. The readership with some similar literary background will be able to comprehend it relatively easier than those who are reading the subject matter for the first time. Those who are reading the subject matter for the first time, I suggest them to read the bookbefore reading this book.
The formalists in the Islamic world have alienated themselves from this treasure of knowledge that opens your heart to the intrinsic spirit of Islam. To alienate Muslims from the intrinsic reality of Islam and knowledge of truth ( Ilm-e-Haqeeqat); ie., the knowledge about the existence of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), equating it with other spiritualism theories, is a gross misconception which needs to be corrected. Islamic concept of God, the meanings of its cradle Testimony (Kalima Tayyiba) in the light of Quran and Sunnah is different from the Cocktail of all religions propagated by Universal Sufi Gurus andwho claim Sufism predates Islam. Shaikh has refuted these philosophical theories with conclusive evidence from Quran and Sunnah in the book.
The importance of knowledge is dependent upon its known. As the book is written on the subject of the Knowledge of Truth (Ilm-e-Haqeeqat), ie., about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), His attributes, Epithets, His existence, the Cosmos, various worlds and their creatures; its complexity and depth will definitely require at most attention and repetitive reading to grasp the true meanings.
I pray for Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) pardon and forgiveness of the Shaikh for any oversight in this translation.
Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri, Shabaan 3, 1418 AH - December 4, 1997
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
Suppliant (Faqeer Ilallah - فقير الى الله ) Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui begins his submission to the people of knowledge and prudence that to know the facts of things, the way they are, in conformity with human ability, is known as wisdom.It is in Quran - وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا [And whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given abundant virtue. ] (Al-Baqara - 269).CATEGORIES OF SAGES (اقسامِ حُکماء)Those who do research and undertake minute study of these facts are of four types; (i) Muslim Sufi, (ii) Theosophist, (iii) Muslim Theologian (Muslim religious scholar), (iv) Philosopher.Among these, Muslim Sufis and Non Muslim Theosophists acquire knowledge of these facts by unveiling, self mortification and spiritual capability.Research of Muslim theologian and Non-Muslim Philosopher is dependent on their common sense.The Muslim Sufi (Shaikh of Ihsan) and theologian understand and view things in Prophetic (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) light (Noor-e-Nuboo'at - نورِ نبوت ), while the theosophist and philosopher view things as per their self understanding depending upon their common sense.With these facts, we know that Muslim Sufi is that clean heart, pure spirited and illuminated comprehension (Rawshan sir - روشن سِر ) person, who, in theory and practice, is distinct in Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) subordination and is enthroned with the legacy of unveiling (kashf - کشف ) and immanence (Shuhood - شُہود).The Muslim theologian ( Islamic scholar) is that talented person who, with the shield of intellectual reasoning, impedes the assaults of the enemies of Islam and Islamic faith and with the stone splitting sword of conclusive evidence, exposes the suspicions and doubts of the enemies of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).The Muslim Sufi (Shaikh of Ihsan) is in comparison with theosophist and Muslim theologian with philosopher. If any one from the Muslim Sufi or theologian say a word against Quran and Sunnah, he will be out of the limits of Islam. Thus, the Muslim Sufi will become theosophist and Muslim theologian will become philosopher.Differences of opinions may occur between Sufis and theologians in the commentary or interpretation of a particular of verse of Quran or Hadith. This kind of differences may also occur among Muslim theologians. The Muslim theologian does not consider himself innocent (sinless); similarly the Muslim Sufi also does not consider himself innocent (sinless). If a person is not innocent (ma'asoom - معصوم ), his wisdom and unveiling (kashf - کشف ) will also be uncertain. Therefore, neither Muslim Sufi nor Muslim theologian (Mutakallim - متکلِّم) has the power to deny any issue related to the basic faith of Islam, or an issue that is established by the divine revelation, as this will be contrary to the affirmation of the faith in Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) itself. In other words, it will mean that he has not accepted Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as the Apostle of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).It is evident that in the bright day light, the eye neither sees the movement of the sun nor the shadow of the wall. But the intelligent understands that the sun is moving and with it the shadow of the wall. As the state of intelligence is superior, similarly, the state of unveiling and divine inspiration is more superior than that of intelligence. The Muslim Sufi traverses all those stages that are in the visualization of the Muslim theologian. In other words, the Muslim Sufi is essentially a Muslim theologian though he may not be knowing a few terms. But the theologian need not necessarily be a Muslim Sufi. Both, the Muslim Sufi and theologian accept Quran and Hadith, but Muslim theologian does it by intelligence, and the Muslim Sufi with unveiling (kashf - کشف) and intelligence, both.Now, I would like to draw your attention towards another issue. The misinterpretations of the facts is the root cause of all evil. Instead of contradiction with others, if their misunderstanding is cleared, it will be more beneficial. Sometimes the speaker's style of expression is literary and the listener would like to establish it on the rules of logic. Thus if we interpret the utterance of the speaker by drawing real meanings from the metaphorical meanings, the differences disappear. It is generally seen that, most often peoples' aims are not evil, but they are not aware of others' aim.Some people seem to enjoy contradiction. This evil habit is the mother of all troubles. When you listen with an open heart and consider what others are saying, you will definitely find a way out. Islam has come to remove the misunderstanding of all religions.Muslim Sufis have always served Islam and even now if anything can be done, it has to come from them. In today's materialistic world, Muslim Sufis should show some work in theory and practice to bring back peace and order among masses.On the insistence of Maulvi Mohammad Ilyas Barni, the Sprindicant (فقير الى الله) has written a small booklet. You consider it in tasauuf or literalism ( kalaam - کلام ) or philosophy. But I name this book as 'Islamic Wisdom (حکمت اسلامیہ).Let Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), by His beneficence, accept this book, and to let me and let His other servants benefit from it.رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ - وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ [O'our Lord, accept our prayers as you are hearer and knowledgeable. And accept our renouncement (from sin) as you are great forgiver and merciful.] (Al-Baqara - 127-28)
Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui Quadri Dean, College of Islamic Studies, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Deccan
23 Shawwal 1347 AH - April 3, 1929
GENEALOGICAL MAP OF THE COSMOS (Shajara-tul-Kaun - شجرۃ الکون)
(Johar Hiba - جوہر ہبا)
ISLAMIC WISDOMحکمت اسلامیہ
We utter the word by mouth and think it in the heart. Sometimes the meaning is below the word which is understood by word. The word denotes and the meaning is denoted. The word is indicative and the meaning is its connotation, objective and dedicated.
For instance, “human” is a word, denoting, indicating a 'rational animal' (حیوانِ ناطق), understood by its meaning, which is denoted and dedicated.
A meaningful word is called a 'postulate' (موضوع) and a meaningless word is called 'absurd' (مہمل). Like the word “Deez”. It does not have a meaning. Therefore the word “Deez” is absurd (meaningless).
Sometimes, the meaning is with the word and with the meaning is its evidence, which is available outside the word, on which, the word and its meaning apply. Like the evidence of humans are Zaid, Bakr and Amer. Thus, evidence is that external thing on which the word applies.
Sometimes the word does have a meaning in our mind but its evidence wont be there outside.
When the evidence of a word and its meaning is existing, it is an entity (Maujood - موجود) and whose evidence is not there, is a non-entity (Ma’doom - معدوم ).
Sometimes the word is called “indicative” and the meaning "dedicated" and sometimes the meaning is or the literary form or mental imagination is called indicative and the evidence is called dedicated.
The Meaning of 'Being' (Existence - وجود)
There are three meanings of 'Being' (Existence - Wajood - وجود ), as follows:
(i) The Essence of Existence (Mabihil Maujoodiyat- مابہ الموجودیۃ).
(ii) Cosmic Perception (Kaun-o-husool - کون و حصول ).
(iii) Manifestation (Zuhoor - ظہور )
The Essence of Existence (Mabihil maujoodiyat - مابہ الموجود یۃ )
The essence of existence is that external thing, witnessing which, we understand the meaning of “is there”.
Cosmic Perception (Kaun-o-Husool - کون و حصول )
The meaning of 'is there' is understood by witnessing the 'essence of existence'. The essence of existence lies externally. From outside a picture comes to the mind. The intelligence; whose work is to join, detach, mix, remove, unite, separate; collects and analyzes it and separates the 'thing' (شۓ) from 'Being' (وجود). For example, we see Zaid (a person) and separate 'Zaid' (his person/essence)' from 'is there' (his existence) and understand 'Zaid is there'.
Zaid is 'Essence of Being' (or essence of Existence). And as we say Zaid 'is there' - this is Cosmic perception (کون و حصول). Thus Cosmos (Kaun - کون ) is that perceived and illimitable (unlimited) understanding meaning which is in mind.
Manifestation ( Zuhoor - ظہور)
Manifestation of a thing means, any existing thing which is there in any world or any state. For instance, it is several years since Zaid (a person) was born, or his “essence of being”, came into existence. This 'state' ( Martaba - مرتبہ ) is also called 'assigned state' (Martaba-e-Taqarrur - مرتبہ تقرر ). He is competent enough that the 'being' (existence) can be derived from him and we understand him to be an 'entity' (affirmed being or confirmed existence). The state where the ‘being’ is understood, is called 'state of being' (Martaba-e-Wajood - مرتبہ وجود ) or 'Cosmic perception' (کون و حصول). And if somebody has come to the world of manifestation, or to a home or verandah, he will be known as 'entity' (موجود).
In any case the essence of being is external and is the origin, intention, reality, fact, innate of the ‘cosmic perception’, an aspect which is derived, understood, known and is not available externally, but it’s essence of being is available outside.
At this stage a few aspects are needed to be explained, without understanding which, major differences (of opinion) occur.
Being (Existence - وجود )
The Being is on which traces (effects) are drawn.
Person (Essence - ذات )
Antecedent of attribute is called ‘person’. Meaning, the essence which is described is called 'person'.
Attribute (Quality - صفت)
Attribute is that temporary thing which is related to a permanent thing.
Name includes 'person with attribute'.
To wield power is an attribute, Allah is its Unity (ذات). 'Powerful' (قدیر) is His name. Allah’s attribute to be powerful is an evidence of His existence. Similarly, mercy, beneficence are the attributes. Allah’s unity is the 'person'. And 'Beneficent' (رحمان) and 'Merciful' (رحیم) are the divine names. Allah’s unity is 'which is named' (Musamma - مسمٰی) or person (ذات).
Thus, we know that divine name with reference to 'intention' (Mansha - (منشاء) is 'precisely which is named' (Ain-e-Musamma -عینِ مُسمّٰی ) and the meaning of it is that, Beneficent, Merciful and Powerful all have the same Unity (Zaat-e-Haqqa - ذاتِ حقہ), Precise Independent Entity ( Ain-e-Wajiba - عینِ واجبہ), and Divine Unility (Huveeyat-e-Ilahiyya - ہویتہ الٰہیہ).
Here I would like to clarify the difference between 'person' (Mausoof - موصوف) or Unity (Zaat - ذات); Contiguous attribute (Sifat-e-Inzimami - صفتِ انضمامی); Derivable attribute (Sifat-e-Inteza'ee - صفتِ انتزاعی) and Lie (Jhoot - جھوٹ).
Unity (Zaat - ذات ) is a permanent self dependent real thing.
Contiguous Attribute (Sifat-e-Inzimami - صفتِ انضمامی) is that attribute, or non-permanent thing, which is associated with a permanent thing and is dependently existent. It can not exist when separated. For contiguous attribute there may not be a permanent existence externally, but a week existence is always accepted. Like the whiteness of the wall.
Derivable Attribute (Sifat-e-Inteza'ee - صفتِ انتزاعی) is that attribute which is not available externally, but its ‘person’ or ‘intention’ is there outside in such a way that the derivable attribute can be understood; can be derived. Like up and down.
Lie (Jhoot - جھوٹ ) has no contact, no relation with the fact or the fact of the matter. For instance, a Syrian is sitting in front of us. This happening is a fact of the matter, outside and a touch stone with which we know his 'person', his white complexion (which is a contiguous attribute) and his sitting (which is derivable attribute). When he is sitting, if somebody says he is standing or says he is black, instead of white or says the Syrian is not there (non-existent), then this information will be a lie, falsehood, a description contrary to the happening and a tale opposed to the fact of the matter.
The 'intention' of the derivable attribute is the derivative (Muntaza unhu - مُنتزع عنہ) which safeguards its fact, its fact of the matter, its authenticity and happening. As against a lie which does not have an 'intention' or 'derivative'.
For derivable attribute, intention of which lies outside, it is described that the attribute is also external. A derivable attribute, the intention of which is in mind, it is said that this is an attribute of sense or it is in the mind.
Keep it in mind that when a word is on the tongue and its meanings are in the mind, the thing does not come into existence. Rather, we will say the thing is 'existing' when the thing itself is available outside. Meaning, the intention is existing.
As compared to the derivable attribute, the contiguous attribute has more share from the external existence.
The terms used to described the essence of existence; like, (i) 'Unity' (Zaat - ذات); (ii) 'Quintessence' (Johar - جوہر); 'Person' (Mausoof - موصوف); 'Which is described' (Muttasif - مُتٌَصف); is that permanent thing which is not dependent because of, in connection with, or which does not exist on account of other; but exists on its own; and other non-permanent meanings are dependent on it.
Among 'Possibilities' (Mumkinaat - مُمکنات), 'Creatures' (Makhlooqat - مخلوقات), if the 'Quintessence' (Johar - جوہر) is described as permanent and 'Characteristic' (Arz - عرض) as non-permanent; or the quintessence as existing independently and characteristic existing contingently, or if we say quintessence as real and characteristic as non-real, it will mean that the quintessence has an 'Absolute Being' (Wajood Biz-zaat - وجود با الذات) opposite the Honorably Glorious (Wajibe Jalle Majduhu - واجِبِ جلٌ مجدُہ or Allah - اللہ). This description will be treated as a lie; against the fact of the matter and contrary to the happening. Everything, every creature, is dependent on Allah (سبحانہ و تعالی).
Certain other terms like (i) 'Incredulous" (Wahmi - وہمی), (ii) 'Annotation' (Eitebari - اعتباری), (iii) 'Hypothetical' (Farzi - فرضی), (iv) 'Non-Primordial' (Ghair Haqeeqi - غیر حقیقی), (v) 'Contingent' (Bil Arz - بِا العرض), (vi) 'Lie' (Kizb - کِذب), (vii) 'Contrary to Happening' (Khilaaf-e-Waaqiya - خِلافِ واقع) are described in detail in the following chapters.
PRIMORDIAL BEING (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی)
Primordial being is also known as Absolute Being (Wajood Biz Zaat - وجود با الذات), Infinitely Independent (Wajibe la Ta'ayyun - واجبِ لا تعیٌُن), Absolutely Unseen (Ghaib-e-Mutlaq - مُطلق غیبِ), Absolutely Indefinite (Mutlaq Wahdat - مُطلق وحدت), and Non-Stipulative Thing (La Bishart-e-Shai - لا بِشرطِ شۓ).
When we take into consideration other attribute of Allah with the exclusion of His being, the epithets (names) of Allah are derived. The derivative of His entity is only the Divine Unity without consideration of other aspects and attributes.
The ‘Primordial Being’ or ‘Being’ in the sense of ‘the essence of existence’, meaning that thing witnessing which we say the thing ‘is there’, is evident in the fact of the matter. The whole world is not unreal, absurd, without intention and untrue. If somebody says that the whole world is untrue, without intention, imaginary and absurd, then this thought itself is wrong. The one who says that the whole world is falsehood, is himself a liar. Because he himself is included in the world. It is established fact that the world is there, all the things in the world are also there. And if you say all these things are derived and are thoughts, is acceptable. But the whole world is dependent on whom? It is dependent on Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)
What is opposite to ‘the Absolute Being' (Wajood-e-Elahi - وجودِ الٰہی) in the sense of 'Essence of Existence' or 'Primordial Being' is only 'Absolute Inexistencia' (Adum-e-Mahaz - عدمِ محض), 'Principle obscurity (Salb-e-Baseet - سلبِ بسیط) and 'Pure Non-Existence' (Neesti Bahet - نِیستی بحت). Therefore, how come an 'Absolute Inexistencia' (absolutely unfounded) could come into existence. If the absolute inexistencia comes into existence, then revolution in nature (Inqilaab-e-Mahiyyet - انقلابِ ماہیت) and concourse of contraries (Ijtema-e-Naqeezain - اجتماعِ نقیضین) will become inevitable.
Will the ‘primordial being’ exist independently or something else will make it exist; or will it be derived in consideration with another thing?
If something else causes 'Primordial Being' (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی) to exist or it is derived in consideration of anything or any other 'Being' then the 'other Being' will be the 'Primordial Being' and (this) existence will become 'Dependent Being' (Wajood bil Ghair - وجود بِاالغیر), or 'Contingent Being' (Wajood bil Arz - وجود بِا العرض) or 'Non Primordial Being' (Wajoode Ghair Haqeeqi - وجود غیر حقیقی) which will be conflicting with reality and concourse of contraries.
Can there be a 'Inexistencia' (unfounded existence) before or after the 'Primordial Being'? Never. Otherwise revolution of facts will become necessary.
Other existences (everything in this Cosmos) have been transpired (came out) on account of whom? From 'Primordial Being' (وجودِ حقیقی), from the 'Essence of Existence' (مابہ الموجودیۃ), from Allah (سبحا نه و تعالى).
Describe, the thing which is the essence of all, is the 'primordial being', is there from the beginning and will remain forever; 'Inexistencia' (عدم) could never step into its exalted expanse; which is the antecedent and recourse of all existing things; neither has contrariety, nor parallel; what is that? It is undoubtedly the 'Independent being' (وجود با الذات), the source of existence and worship-able God.
It is in Quran - قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ . اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ . لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ . وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ [ O'Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم , say, Allah is one (and one all the way. His Being does not contain elements. He is not a compound). Allah is independent (everybody is dependent upon Him). He does not have children (He has not given birth to anyone). Nobody has given birth to Him. (Allah is there from the beginning and no one precedes Him). No one can match Him or can equal Him.] (Ikhlas 1-4).
Is the 'Being' of 'Possibilities' (Mumkinaat - ممکنات), 'Permissibles' (Ja'ezaat - جائزات), and creatures (Makhlooqaat - مخلوقات), their 'Precise Person' (Ain-e-Zaat - عینِ ذات) or essential to their 'persons' (Zawaat - ذوات)?
Never. If the 'Being' was precise and essential for persons of possibilities (Zawaat-e-Mumkinaat - ذوات ممکنات), then the 'Being' would have never been parted or separated from them. Because from a thing, its innate (essence), its individuality and its distinctness never gets separated.
Therefore, when the 'Being' is not incumbent in a person of possibility, and the 'Absolute Possible' (Mumkin Biz Zaat - ممکن با الذات) is not 'Absolute Entity (Maujood Biz Zaat - موجود با الذات), then there is definitely a 'Innate or essence' (Zaat - ذات) whose 'Being' is His 'Precise Unity (Ain-e-Zaat - عینِ ذات) and that 'Independent Absolute Unity' is absolutely independent and from whose 'Being' makes the possibilities dependent on Him.
See, we can say Zaid (a person) is standing, horse is standing, tree is standing, only when there is a 'state' in them seeing which we derive their standing. Meaning, the commonality of the derivation indicates similarity in 'intention' of the derivable. Similarly, we can say Zaid is there, horse is there, when the intention of 'is there' is shared by all of them. What is this 'is there'? This is the 'Essence of Existence' (of this Cosmos) (مابہ الموجودیۃ), which is the 'Precise Independent Existence'.
In summary, definitely there is a common intention of the 'Cosmic perception' (کون و حُصول). The Cosmos, which is derivable, its commonality of the 'intention' of the 'essence of being' is an inevitable aspect.
Also, if the ‘being’ is not independently precise, it will belong to 'other person' (Ghair-e-Zaat - غیرِ ذات). At this time the 'Independent' (Wajib - واجب) will be dependent on other being. The 'Independent' will be no more independent as indigence is contrary to the dignity of independence. Again in this understanding, perfection on account of other becomes essential.
This is also an argument that if the 'Being' is not 'Precise Person', rather it is an 'addition to person', then the 'Being' for the 'Independent' will be established like other attributes. And a thing cannot be there for another thing till it is not existing; like this Arabic saying ثبوت شئ لشئ فرع ثبوت المثبت له [ first 'Independent' will exit, then the existence will be proved for it]. The meaning of existence of the 'Independent' is that the 'Being' is proved for it. At this time (as per this saying) there will be two 'Beings'. One with reference to the 'Person' - المثبت له [which is proved for it] and the second with reference to attributes. When both these 'Beings' are in one, then, تقدم الشئ على نفسهُ [ one near to self ], and one away, will become necessary. If both of these are different from each other, then for the 'Being' which is with reference to 'person', the same question will arise (and same prove will have to be provided again ) and this continuity will become essential. Now the (statement of) thing existing in two 'Beings; is not it ridiculous?
It is in Quran - شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ [There is no God but He; that is the witness of Allah, his Angels and those endued with knowledge standing firm on justice.] (Aal-i-Imran-18).
When the 'Being' is the 'Precise Independent Person' (Ain-e-Zaat-e-Wajib - عینِ ذات واجب), then what is there for the poor 'possible'? The same 'Absolute Inexistencia' (Adum-e-Mahaz - عدمِ محض), the same 'Refutation of Reality' (Butlaan-e-Haqeeqat - بُطلانِ حقیقت), the same 'Original Non-Existence (Neesti Asli - نِیستی اصلی), the same 'Annotation' (Eitebaariyat - اعتباریت), and the same 'Metonymy' (Majaziyat - مجازیت).
دیکھا تو کچھ نہ پا یا‘ سونچا تو بس یہ سمجھا
اک نام رہگیا ہے میرا تیری گلی میں
[When I saw I did not find anything. When I thought, I understood (that) only my name is left in your alley.] (Hasrat)
When the 'possible' itself is a 'refutation' of person and absolute non-entity, then in the state of its existence it cannot come out of its 'refutation of innate' (بُطلانِ ذات) and 'absolute Inexistencia' (Adum-e-Zaati - عدمِ ذاتی). The fourteenth night full moon in all its glitter does not come out of its original darkness. The intelligent understands that the (moon) light is the light of the sun which is reflected back from the surface of the moon. The actual face of the moon is that which is known at the time of solar eclipse and lunar eclipse. Therefore, how come a 'possible' creates another 'possible'. One corpse can not put life into another corpse. خفتہ را خفتہ کے کند بیدار [How can one sleeping person awake another sleeping person ] (Persian Proverb)..
Therefore no 'possible' can become the cause of another 'possible'. The ultimate cause (Illiyet - عِلٌیت) is rested in the 'Divine Unity' (ذاتِ حق). However the set-up of causes is the place of manifestation of His Supreme Wisdom (Hikmat-e-Balegha - حِکمتِ بالغہ).
INEXISTENCIA (Non Existence - عدم )
We have discussed the 'Being' above. Now will also discuss briefly about 'Inexistencia' (Adum - عدم ). Is 'Inexistencia' existing externally? Never. The ‘Inexistencia’ and existence, it will be a revolution of reality and concourse of contraries. Then how is it understood? And with whom is it derived? Always remember, ‘Inexistencia’ is known when it is compared with “Being”. وَبِضِدِّهَا تَتَبَيَّنُ الاشيَاءُ [When you keep two opposite things in front of each other, then only their distinction and difference will be known.] (Arabic saying).
Suppose a man has a horse and the second man does not have one. The knowledge of other man not having the horse is known when compared with the one who has the horse. Similarly the pauper is known in comparison with the rich. Likewise, the one having eyes by which he can see is understood in comparison with the blind who may have eyes but cannot see. Thus, ‘contingent being’ (وجودِ اضافی) is the derivative of 'contingent Inexistencia' (عدمِ اضافی) and 'Absolute Being' (وجودِ محض) is the derivative for Absolute Inexistencia (عدمِ محض).
Since ‘possible’ is a derivative and a non-existent thing and ‘Independent’ (واجب) is the ‘Primordial Entity’ (موجودِ حقیقی), the ‘Being’ is the ‘Precise Person’ (Ain-e-zaat - عینِ ذات) for it. Therefore this utterance is proved correct - الْحَقُّ مَحْسُوسٌ وَاَلْخَلْقُ مَعْقُولٌ [Allah is sensed and creatures are understood].
Here is a question. How come ‘the being’ is also an ‘independent precise person’ and the ‘possible’ also gets a share from the ‘primordial being’?
The answer is, until God is sensed, the servant will never be understood. The meanings indicate that the ‘creatures’ and ‘possibilities’ have come out of ‘Inexistencia’. No it is not like that. The ‘Possibilities’ have come out from the hidden treasure of ‘Being’. Subhanallah. The eye is on the ‘being’ and the ‘Inexistencia’ is understood. Thus when we understand the ‘Independent’ (wajib - واجب) as ‘absolute being’ (wajood-e-mahaz - وجودِ محض), we will understand ourselves as ‘absolute Inexistencia’ (adum-e-mahez - عدمِ محض).
INTERNAL & EXTERNAL STATES (مراتِبِ داخلیہ و خارِجیہ)
There are two annotations (eitebaarat - اعتبارات) of ‘Being’ (wajood - وجود) or ‘entity’ (affirmed being - maujood - موجود). These are (i) Internal State (مرتبہ داخلیہ), and (ii) External State (مرتبہ خارجیہ).
The Internal state is prior to 'Be and there it is' (kun fayakun - کُن فیکون). Therefore neither the creatures have an access here nor ‘numerous innates’ (muta’addid zawaat - متعدد ذوات) are accepted to exist here externally, as compared with the ‘external states’ (martaba-e-kharijiya - مرتبہ خارجیہ) which is a ‘state of creatures’, contingent beings (wajood bil arz - وجود بِا العرض) and after ‘Be’ (kun - کُن).
In the ‘internal state’ the seeming multiplicity is actually existing in ‘knowledge and annotation’ (Ilm wo eitebaar - علم و اعتبار) or say these are the different annotations (eitebaraat - اعتبارات) of the ‘divine unity’ (zaat-e-haq - ذاتِ حق), but the unity is one, single.
Infinity is a state of ‘Unity’ which is pure from incredulity and supposition. Multiplicity has no access to this splendor. (Here) unity is completely free from confinements.
Infinity is also known as ‘Unicity’ (Hahoot - ہاہوت), Unility (Hoo - ہُو), Purgative Magnificence (shaan-e-tanzia - شانِ تنزیہ), ‘Absolutely Unseen’ (Ghaib-e-Mutlaq - غیبِ مطلق), ‘Stipulative Unconfined Thing’ (Bi-Sharte La Shai - بِشرطِ لا شۓ), ‘Stipulative Non-Multiplicity’ (Bi-sharte la kasrath - بِشرطِ لا کثرت), ‘Divine Conceit’ (Ananiyat-e-haqqa - انانیتِ حقہ) and ‘Divine Unility’ (Hooviyat-e-Haqqa - ھویۃِ حقہ).
In the state of ‘Infinity’, ‘personal knowledge’ (zaati ilm - ذاتی علم), ‘divine light’ (noor - نور), ‘Being’ (wajood - وجود) and ‘immanence’ (shuhood - شہود) are definitely there. In this state Allah is Himself knowledge; Himself knowledgeable and Himself known. But in this state, it has not been taken into annotation (consideration) because in here diversity and illustrative otherness (eitebar-e-gairiyat - اعتبارِ غیریت) do not have any access. Details of this issue are covered in the description of 'knowledge'.
The state of Indefinity (Wahdat - وحدت) is also known as 'Veracity of Prophet Mohammad (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and 'Stipulative Exalted Thing (Bishart-e-shai bil quwwa - بِشرطِ شۓ بِا القوّہ). Some people also call it 'Beneficent Self' (Nafas-e-Rahmani - نفَسِ رحمانی). Since details of this state are unfolded in 'Actiplicity ( Active Multiplicity - Wahidiyet - واحدیت), some people call it 'Exalted State' (Rafi-ud-darajaat - رفیع الدرجات). And the 'Exalted State on Empyrean' (Rafi-ud-darajaat zul arsh - رفیع الدرجات ذوالعرش) is an indication of this. Some people, in consideration that 'Indefinity' wants its details in 'Actiplicity', call it 'Self affection' (Hubb-e-Zaati - حبٌِ ذاتی ). فَاَحَبَبْتُ اَنْ اَعْرَفَ [Then Allah wanted to be known.] (Hadith) is an indication of this State.
It is in Hadith-e-Qudsi - كنت كنزا مخفيا ، فأحببت أن أعرف [ I (Allah) was a hidden treasure, then I wanted to be known.]
Indefinity is a state of 'Divine Unity' where multiplicity is inherent, still multiplicity does not exist, or actively not existing. The capacities of multiplicity are known as 'personal affinities' (Shuyoon-e-Zatiya - شیونِ ذاتیہ).
Veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)
In the Veracity of Prophet Mohamad (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Zaid, Bakr, Aamer, all these are 'fractional reflectivities (Juzziyaat - جزئیات); and human beings, animals, body, etc., are 'Integral reflectivities' (Kulliyaat - کلیات). Similar is the case of the probate archetypes (Ayaan-e-Thabita - اعیانِ ثابتہ). Some of them are 'fractional reflectivities (Juzziyaat - جزئیات) and some are 'Integral reflectivities' (Kulliyaat - کلیات ). In 'Integral Reflectivities also, some are larger and some are small. For instance, 'human being' is a smaller integral reflectivity, and 'animal' is a larger integral reflectivity. The biggest of them all is known as 'Archetypes Primeval' (Ain-ul-Ayan - عینُ الاعیان).
When we consider, we realize that though all 'Probate Archetypes' (اعیانِ ثابتہ) are comprised of 'Archetype Primeval', still in its own limits it is 'fractional reflective reality' (Juzz-e-Haqeeqi - جز حقیقی ) only. You consider it further, you will know that there are two identities of 'Archetype Primeval', viz., (i) its individual identity which has a person/innate (ذات) (ii) its 'contingent identity' with reference to 'Probate archetypes'. The integral aspect befalling on it is in regard to 'probate archetypes'.
This is also evident that until the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes fling on probate archetype (Ain-e-Thabita - عینِ ثابتہ), it will not come into existence. Thus on 'fractional probate archetype the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes will fling fractionally. The refulgence on one probate archetype will never fling on other probate archetype, else there will not be two different manifestations of two probate archetypes.
دیتا ہے ہر ایک کو حکیم - جسکی جیسی لیاقت ہے
(The Wise gives to everybody in consideration of the individual capability).
With regard to the 'Archetype primeval' (Ain-ul-Ayaan - عینُ الاعیان), that envelops, and is included in, all probate archetypes, the refulgence flinging on it will be dominant to all refulglences. This is known as divinity splendor (Shaan-e-Uloohiyat - شانِ اُلوہیت). The Sufis (the people of obligatory excellence - obligacellents) call the refulgence as 'Sustainer' (رب) and probate archetype as 'Sustainable' (مربوب). The refulglence flinging on 'Archetype primeval' is known as 'Sustainer of the Sustainers' (Rabbul Arbaab - رب الارباب), and supreme refulgence (تجلی اعظم), and the Archetypes primeval is known as 'Servant of Allah' (Abdullah - عبداللہ) or 'Supreme Sustainable' (مربوبِ اعظم). In our view, the Archetype Primeval and Servant of Allah is the veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). And Allah, who is the Sustainer of sustainers is the supreme refulgence which is the collection of all attributes of utmost excellence that flings on the Veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When both these meet, the 'supreme external entity (Maujood-e-Kharij-e-Azam - موجودِ خارجِ اعظم) wears the dress of 'Being'. This is the reason, some people call this compound as Veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Their vision is on the one who receives and and not on the one who gives. They need to pay their attention to this Hadith - اِنّما اَنَا قَا سِمٌ واللهُ يُعطي [The fact is that I am the distributor and Allah gives] (Bukhari, Muslim). It is important to differentiate between who gives and who receives. The summation is that the veracity of Prophet Mohammad (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the one who receives, is the 'Servant of Allah' (عبداللہ) and the one who gives is Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).
Actiplicity (Active Multiplicity - واحدیت )
Actiplicity (Active Multiplicity) (Wahidiyet - واحدیت) is a state of 'Divine Unity' (ذاتِ حق) in which active multiplicity is taken into consideration. Here multiplicity means the multiplicity of 'Divine Epithets, attributes and knowledge. Actiplicity is also called as 'Stipulative Active Thing (Bi Shart-e-Shai bil Feil - بِشرطِ شۓ بِا الفیل) and Stipulative Multiplicity of Activity (Bi Shart-e-Kasrat bil feil - بِشرطِ کثرت بِا الفیل).
It should be clear that when a thing is subjected to confinement, three annotations appear, as described below.
(i) Stipulative Unconfined Thing (Bi Shart-e-La Shai - بِشرطِ لا شۓ) or the thing absolutely pure from confinements.
(ii) Stipulative Thing (Bi Shart-e-Shai - بِشرطِ شۓ), the confined thing, or the thing with confinement.
(iii) Non Stipulative Thing (لا بِشرطِ شۓ) or the absolute thing, common with both confinement and non - confinement.
Thus, there are two aspects of Non Stipulative Thing. (a) Stipulative Unconfined Thing (Bi Shart-e-La Shai - بِشرطِ لا شۓ) or Infinity (احدیت), and (b) Stipulative Thing (Bi Shart-e-Shai - بِشرطِ شۓ ) or Actiplicity (Wahidiyet - واحدیت).
Consider this example. Kid, nude kid and dressed kid. So to say, the kid is 'Non Stipulative Thing' (لا بِشرطِ شۓ). The Nude kid is 'Stipulative unconfined Thing' (بِشرطِ لا شۓ). And the kid with cloths is the example of 'Stipulative Thing (بِشرطِ شۓ).
Thus, there are three annotations of in the 'Being' (وجود), as follows:
(i) Absolute Indefinity (Wahdat-e-Mutlaqa - وحدتِ مُطلقہ), or Non Stipulative Thing' (لا بِشرطِ شۓ), common to all.
(ii) Infinity (احدیت), or Stipulative Unconfined Thing (بِشرطِ لا شۓ), pure from confinements and annotations.
Now left is 'Stipulative Thing' (بِشرطِ شۓ) which has two aspects, as follows:
(iii) Stipulative Exalted Multiplicity (Bi Shart-e-Kasrat bil Quwwa - بِشرطِ کثرت بِا القوہ) or 'Indefinity (وحدت).
(iv) Stipulative Active Multiplicity (بِشرطِ کثرت بِا الفیل) or 'Actiplicity' (واحدیت).
When differentiation is not made in the above terms, there will be a lot of confusion in understanding the subject.
Remember one thing. The manifestation is from abstract to detail, from indefinity to multiplicity and from internal to external.
Also remember that finiteness is of two types, (a) Unitary finiteness (تعیٌنِ ذاتی), and (b) descriptive finiteness (تعیٌنِ اعتباری) with reference to epithets and attributes.
The Unitary finiteness always remains the same, but there are changes in the finiteness of epithets and attributes. For instance, Zaid was earlier a child, then he became young, then middle aged and then old. So the childhood, youth, middle age and old age are his attributed confinements which are changing and Ziad's Unitary (personal) finiteness or confirment, ie., to be Zaid, remains intact.
STATE OF DIVINE ATTRIBUTES (مرتبہ صفاتِ الٰہیہ)
This is called 'Divine Radiance' (Jabaroot - جبروت ). The State of 'Divinity' (Martaba Uloohiyat - مرتبہ الوحیت) is the epitome of all transcendence; and all attributes are its details. The state of Divinity is also known as 'Uniquity' (Lahoot - لاہوت).
The Divine attributes are 'precise unity' (ain-e-zaat - عینِ ذات), in context of 'intention and derivative' (mansha wo muntaza unhu - منشاء ومنتزع عنہ); meaning, these are derived from one Unity (ذات), and are different from Unity in context of their meanings. They have different appellations, and their traces and meanings are different from each other. Thus 'Divine epithets and attributes (Asma wo sifaat-e-Elahia - اسماء وصفات الٰہیہ ) are 'non-precise and non-unrelated' (la ain wo la ghair - لا عین ولا غیر).
See the logicians say that Zaid's person (ذات) is outside but the human mind analysis it and extracts and derives many aspects like 'Zaid's being as rational, intentionally active, having name and three dimensional capability. Whereas the intention and external existence of all these (derivations) is precise person (عینِ ذات) of Zaid. The gender, race and existence of human being are not different from each other outside.
In short, the divine attributes are derivable, not contiguous. The contiguous attribute also exists outside, in association with the 'mentioned person' (Zaat-e-mausoof - ذاتِ موصوف). Since 'being' is the precise unity of the independent Almighty, nothing can ever emerge out of it. Whether these are the attributes and epithets of the 'Independent Almighty' or the 'persons of possibilities' (Zawaat-e-Mumkinaat - ذواتِ ممکنات). Thus whatever is there other than Allah is derivable, be it existential or non-existential . And 'Divine Unity' is encircling everything is proven (meaning nothing is outside divine unity). This way, the encircling of divine knowledge is established. The issue of knowledge is described later in the book.
All 'Divine attributes' are distinct from each other. Each has different meaning. Each has different traces. However, the numerality of epithets, attributes and divine facts does not entail external existence of numerous unities (muta'addid zawaat - متعدِّد ذوات) because 'divine epithets' are the derivable aspect and all of them have one and the same 'Unity' which is 'Independent Unity' (ذاتِ واجبہ) and 'Divine Unility' (Huveeyat-e-Haqqa - ہویّتہ حقّہ).
دائرہ سے منتزع ہیں مرکز و قطر و محیط
شانِ وحدت سے ہوئ ہے شانِ کثرت آشکار
(The center, diameter and circumference are derived from the circle. From the dignity of Indefinite, the splendor of multiplicity has become apparent.).
Allah has the knowledge of all His attributes and epithets and also knows all His creatures before their creation. The divine epithets which are known to Allah are called 'Facts of Allah' (Haqa'eq-e-Ilahiyya - حقائقِ اِلٰہیہ) and Archetypes of epithets (Ayaan-e-Asma - اعیانِ اسماء). The creatures which are known to Allah, are called 'Facts of Possibilities' (حقائقِ ممکنہ), probate archetypes of creatures, natures of possibilities or permissible.
Since divine epithets and probate Archetypes are before 'Be' (کُن), and are in the interior state, the distinction among them is in knowledge only. Their distinction does not entail 'numerous unities' (Ta'ddud-e-zawaat - تعدٌُدِ ذوات ), rather they are considered as different appellations of Divine Unity. Therefore, it is said that 'attributes and divine epithets, in context of divine unity are non-precise and non-unrelated (لا عین ولا غیر). That is to say, they are (considered) different from divine unity in knowledge. And with respect to their 'external relevance, with respect to 'intention', they are 'precise divine Unity' (ain-e-zaat-e-Haq - عینِ ذاتِ حق).
Buddhists, Mutazillites and hypocrites deny the existence of 'divine epithets and their distinction among themselves. They have emphasized on 'Unification' (monotheism - توحید) to an extent that they ended up in denying the facts. In their view to concede to the existence of 'divine epithets is to acknowledge 'pre-multitudinous (تعددِ قُدما), or post multitudinous (تعددِ وجباء) of divine unity. They should keep in view that pre-multitudinous is spurious, but derivational numerous aspects of divine unity in consideration of its numerous appellations does not necessitates multitudinous of unities of the divine epithets and attributes. If epithets and attributes are not 'derived' from divine unity, rather they come into being in view of 'creature appendage', then, if we ignore the creatures, these attributes will also vanish.
Idol worshipers, male and female diety worshippers, spirit worshippers, statute and object worshippers have heavily emphasized on the differenciation of epithets and attributes to the extent that they started believing every epithet a permanent God. They are unaware of the relevance between the divine epithet and divine unity. The visualization of various refulgences of epithets and attributes in the 'world of similitude' (عالمِ مِثال) became calamitous for them. The epithets and attributes that were to lead them to the 'knowledge of truth' and were the evidence of the divine Unity, became obstructive curtain and stumbling blocks. These people, in view of their frustration to understand monotheism became idolators. When they are told that these 'epithets' are not permanent, are 'affinities (شُیون) of divine Unity, are refulgences; and if there were several deities and all had the permanent power and intention, the world would have been annihilated, the chicken would be dead among two priests. It is in Quran لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ [ If there were Gods other than Allah in the world and skies, then there would have been disorder - the world and the skies would have been annihilated] (Al-Anbiya - 22). When these facts are explained to them, they express astonishment. It is in Quran - أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَـٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَـٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ [What! he (Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) made one God of all the Gods. Undoubtedly it is a strange thing.] (Saad - 5).
I seek Allah's refuge, monotheism swelled to become hypocrisy, eulogy was debouched to become idolatry.
But Islam's deteriorated monotheist also believes in this Quranic verse - هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ [He is Allah, who creates from nothing (from non-existence to existence) gives form to everybody, who has all graceful epithets (names)] (Al-Hashr - 24).
Islam's half-baked monotheist (mushabba - مُشبہ) is also convinced of these Quranic verses لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ [ Nothing is like Him.] (Ash-Shura - 11); and لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ [ Eyes cannot encircle Him.] (Al-An'aam - 104).
This is abstract knowledge of divine light. O'Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), I lay down my life for you, I sacrifice my heart upon you, how dignified magnificent knowledge you have imparted to us.
CATEGORIES OF ATTRIBUTES (اقسامِ صفات)
(i) The First Division of Attributes - It should be evident that there are three categories of divine attributes, as follows:
(a) Absolute Primordial Attributes (Sifaat-e-Haqeeqia Mahazza - صفاتِ حقیقیہ محضہ)
(b) Primordial Person Appendage Attributes (Sifaat-e-Haqeeqia Zaat-e-Izaafat - صفاتِ حقیقیہ ذاتِ اضافت)
(c) Absolute Appendage Attributes (Sifaat-e-Izaafia Mahazza - صفاتِ اضافیہ محضہ)
The Absolute Primordial Attributes (صفاتِ حقیقیہ محضہ) are the principle attributes of 'Unity' that do not require any relation with anyone else. Like 'Life' (حیات).
The Primordial Person Appendage Attributes (صفاتِ حقیقیہ ذاتِ اضافت) are also the principle attributes, but they have relevance to, and are appendage with, creatures. Like 'knowledge' (علم) which is Allah's principle attribute, but also has relevance and connection with the 'known'.
Generally, the repetitive deeds have a connection with the subject (doer - فاعل) in regard to their existence. However, they also have specific connection with the object (مفعول) in regard to their occurrence.
Absolute Appendage Attributes (صفاتِ اضافیہ محضہ) do not have an origin or description in the mentioned personal-self ( Nafs-e-Mausoof - نفسِ موصوف), but when the 'mentioned person' (موصوف) is referred to another thing, an attribute comes into existence or derived. As a matter of fact these attributes are not 'existential' (وجودی), rather are non-existential (عدمی) and appellative (اعتباری). For instance when Zaid was ahead of you, the attribute of 'precedence' was being derived from you. When he want behind you, the attribute of 'following' is being derived from you. Similarly, Allah has certain appendage attributes. Like 'creation of Zaid', which comes into existence in view of Zaid's appendage (birth of Zaid).
Always, the relative names have relevance towards each other. Like the word brother will not become a reality unless there is a brother for him. Similarly, father, son, mother, daughter, wife, husband, teacher, pupil, king, servant and God are there.
After the above introduction, it should be apparent that Allah's 'Absolute Primordial Attributes' (ِِِصفاتِ حقیقیہ محضہ), and 'Primordial Person Appendage Attributes (صفاتِ حقیقیہ ذاتِ اضافت) are eternally antiquated (ازلی و ابدی) for their existence. They do not need to be related or appendage with anyone else. These are the characteristics of the 'Attributes of Perfection' (صفاتِ کمالیہ).
Absolute Appendage Attributes (ِِِصفاتِ حقیقیہ محضہ) that come into existence in view of some relevance and connection; their appearance also require creature appellation. Manifestation of these attributes require creatures.
Like the son, in coquetry, says, 'Papa you have become father because of me. If I was not there, you would have fathered whom and how? The beggar says, 'O generous, O' munificent, the show of your munificence is because of me. If I did not ask, you would have given. If you had not given, who would have said you are munificent. I am all the way indigent, in need of you. But you are also in need of me for the display of your munificence.
بربادئ عاشق سے کب رہتی ہے معشوقی
سب دم سے ہمارے ہے معشوقی و شیدایئ
(The savaging of the lover does not hold good for belevedness. The belovedness and devotedness is all dependent on our life.)
آئینہ تا بانم از بر بِرُ بایم دل
زنہار کہ پیشِ من با ناز چنیں آئی
(This couplet is from the Persian poetical work of Hadhrat Siddiqui (رحمة الله عليه). Meaning, O' beloved, when you look yourself in a refulgent mirror like me, you features will be so clear and luminous that you will give away your heart to your own elegance.)
Divine Deeds are non-ineffective for things.
It should be known that Allah's deeds are selfless; meaning, they are not for the sake of completion of His Unity and attributes of perfection, but are for the sake of others to help them achieve sobriety. Even though His attributes of perfection are proven right from the beginning, still he manifestation of appendage attributes () is dependent on the relevance with creatures. It is thus evident that personal requirements and purposes is differe4nt from wisdom and expediency.
(ii) The second division of Attributes are as follows:
(i) Nominative (Eijaabi - ایجابی), wherein the evidence of perfection is proven like 'Alive' (حی); 'knowledgeable (عالِم), Powerful' (قدیر), etc.
(ii) Divestive (Salbi - سلبی) in which non-existence of any type of deficiency is proven. Like, 'Rich' (غنی), 'Independent' (صمد), Sanctitious (قدوس).
(iii) The third division of attributes - The mother attributes are three; Life (حیات), Knowledge (علم), Omnipotence (قدرت). There are two auxiliaries of Knowledge; (a) Hearing (سمع), (b) Vision (بصر). There are two auxiliaries of 'Omnipotence'; (a) Will (ارادہ), (b) Speech (کلام). If you like, you can say there are seven mother attributes; (a) Life, (b) Knowledge, (c) Hearing, (d) Vision, (e) Omnipotence, (f) Will, and (g) Speech. Some Shuyookh consider 'Will' as primary and 'Omnipotence' and 'Speech' as auxiliary attributes.
The issues of 'attributes and epithets' are very important. The religion is dependent on their understanding. Their misunderstanding has resulted in the emergence of different religions/sects. Therefore, in their clarification and exposition, repetitions and details will not be inappropriate.
Principle Attributes (Sifaat-e-Baseet - صفاتِ بسیط) - are those that point out only one meaning, like 'Life' (حیات).
Compound Attributes (Sifaat-e-Murakkab - صفاتِ مرکب) - are those that denote several meanings, like 'creator' (خالق), 'Sustainer (رب), Cherisher (رذاق).
The mother attributes are actually the principle attributes. The 'compound attribute' is the name given to concourses of different mother attributes and their diverse knotting. For instance, consider the epithet 'Creator'. Is it principle or compound?
Is it not necessary for 'Creator' to say 'Be' (کُن)? Are the attributes of 'will', omnipotence, knowledge, hearing, vision and life not necessary? Definitely they are necessary. Therefore, the epithet 'creator' is compound. Similar are the epithets (names) 'Sustainer', and Obliterater (Mumeet - one who causes death - ممیت).
At this stage remember this delicate issue. Sometimes there is an existent thing and in context with another place we understand a non-existent attribute befalling upon it. For instance, when Zaid goes from the room to the courtyard. His 'being' (wajood) in courtyard is an existential attribute. But with reference to the room he will be considered as 'absent' and to be absent is a non-existential attribute. The epithet of 'obliterator' (ممیت) is in consideration of the preceding 'world of manifestation' (عالمِ شہادت). And the annotation of 'alive' (حی) is in consideration of the following world; ie., the World after Death (عالمِ برزخ), when that person will be transferred there. Like Zaid is dead. In consideration of the world of manifestation, the epithet 'obliterator' occurs and with respect to World after Death, the epithet of 'alive'.
(iv) The Fourth Division of Attribute
(i) The 'Unitary Epithet' (اِسمِ ذات) which gives an indication of Unity, like 'Sanctitious' (قدوس), rich (غنی), Independent (صمد).
(ii) The attribute epithet (اِسمِ صفت), is in which there is manifestation of attribute, like 'Living' (), Knowledgeable (), hearing (), seeing (), Mighty (), Graceful (), and 'generous ().
The Deed Epithet (اِسمِ فعل) - In which the manifestation of action is evident. The effect of which reaches the other. Like 'creator' (خالق), Cherisher (رذاق), Alive (حی), Obliterator (ممیت).
(v) The Fifth Division of Attributes - There are two pairs of 'epithets of uniquity' (اسماء لاہوتی) from which nothing is excluded. First pair - 'First -Last' (الاول ـ الآخر). Second pair 'Manifested - Intrinsic' (الظاہرُ ـ الباطنُ).
(vi) The Sixth Division of Attributes
(i) Majestic (جلالی) which are related to divine wrath (قہرِ اِلاہی). Like Wrathful (قہّار), Degrader (مُذل), Possessor (خافضُ), Avenging (مُنتقِم).
(ii) Graceful (جمالی) - which are related to benignity (لُطف); like 'Beneficent' (رحمٰن), 'Merciful (رحیم), Kind (رؤف), Subtle (رؤف).
(vii) In some people's opinion, there are 28 Sustainers (ارباب), meaning 'facts of Allah (حقائقِ اِلٰہیہ) and there are 28 Sustainables (مربوب), meaning 'facts of creatures (حقائقِ کونیہ). In their view, every epithet has a manifestation which they call as 'Sustainer and Sustainable' and to them an alphabet is also related. Some people have included 28 stages of moon with it. But all these issues have no relevance to 'Tassuuf. These are philosophical theories that have no relevance with religion. Details of their views are as follows.
AFFINITIES AND PROBATE ARCHETYPES (Shuyoon & Ayan-e-Thabita - شیون و اعیانِ ثابتہ)
We have already described that in the 'state of Indefinity' (مرتبہ وحدت), every type of multiplicity is capacitated. All these capacities are called 'Affinities' (شیون). The Affinities are of two types; (i) Divine Affinities, and (ii) Creature Affinities. Allah knows about Himself; this in the state of 'Indefinity' is Divine Affinity (شیون ِاِلٰہی). And Allah knows the creatures ; this in the state of 'Indefinity' is 'creature affinity' (شیون خلقیہ).
In the 'State of Actiplicity' (مرتبہ واحدیّت), the Divine Affinities will be know as 'Facts of Allah (حقائقِ اِلٰہیہ), and Creature affinities will be known as 'facts of possibles' (حقائقِ ممکنہ) or natures of permissibles (طبائع جائزات). Comprehensive epithet of all divine facts is the the 'epithet of Allah' (اِسم اللہ) or you can say that it is the 'state of Divinity' (مرتبہ الوہیت) and its sustainable (مربوب) or servant (عبد) is the comprehensive reality of possibilities (حقیقتِ جامع ممکنات); or supreme probate archetype (عینِ ثابتہ اعظم), or probate archetype of Prophet Mohammad (عینِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
The details of the State of Divinity (مرتبہ الوہیت) are the 'divine epithets' (اسماء الٰہیہ), and the details of the Probate Archetype of Prophet Mohammad (عینِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are all probate Archetypes. The nucleus of all epithets and attributes is 'Life'; which precedes all other epithets. The details of the epithet of Life are, Knowledgeable, Seeing, Hearing, Powerful, Benefactor (مُرید), and Speaking.
'Knowledgeable' (علیم) - The epithet of 'Knowledgeable' is the ruler of all epithets and all worlds are dependent on it. Details of the epithet of 'knowledgeable are provided in the following pages in this book.
'Seeing' (بصیر) - With the epithet of 'seeing', all probate Archetypes, or Allah's awareness are differentiated among themselves. Or you can say that the individual knowledge gets associated with them.
'Hearing (سمیع) - With the epithet of 'hearing', the exigencies of all probate archetypes are known.
'Powerful; (قدیر) - With the epithet of 'powerful', the Divine omnipotence as a whole diverts its attention towards the 'bestowal of Being' of the probate Archetypes.
'Benefactor' (مُرید) - With the epithet of 'benefactor', the divine omnipotence specifically diverts its attention towards the 'bestowal of being' of the creaqtures and exposition of their exigencies.
'Speaking' (کلیم) - The epithet of 'speaking' adresses 'Be' (کُن) to the probate archetype which comes out distinct in a specific attire.
The thing which comes out from 'Be' (کُن), is divine command (امر حق) and 'the word of Allah' (کلمۃ اللہ). In existence, the world of Allah becomes 'soul (روح). This is the reason the 'world of souls (عالمِ ارواح) is called 'world of commands (عالمِ امر).
Now we give some details about the 'mother attributes' (اُمٌھات الصفات) as these are very important.
The worst illiterate in the world is he who thinks himself knowledgeable and considers 'the Independent Honorably Glorious (واجب جلٌ مجدُہ) as illiterate. The possible (ممکن) whose 'Being' is contingent (با العرض), what kind of an attribute could be 'absolute' (با الذات) for him. Therefore, the knowledge and omnipotence are absolute for the Independent Honorably Glorious (واجب جلٌ مجدُہ). It is evident that any absolute attribute cannot be separated from the 'person' (ذات), therefore, 'life', 'knowledge', omnipotence, and whatever else among Allah's attributes, all these are eternally antiquated, and are associated with Him. Can't, these innocent people understand that the nucleus of all perfections and excellence is the same 'Absolute Being'. Whatever is there, are the manifestations of the 'Being'. Anything which is not in 'Being', can never exist. The 'Independent Unity is 'precise being', and other's existence is dependent on 'Him'. From His 'Life' is the life of everyone; from His knowledge is the knowledge of everyone and from His omnipotence is the omnipotence of everybody.
With us (in our belief) it is not like پہلے پہل کی سنیو سہیلی ـ رہتی تھی رنگ محل میں اکیلی '[Listen, the riddle of the first beginning is (our beloved) used to sleep alone in the castle]; but it is لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ [No slumber can seize Him, nor sleep.] (Al-Baqara - 255).
It is evident that the Divine knowledge has many modes and different annotations. In the 'state of Infinity' (مرتبہ احدیت), the 'knowledge' is 'Precise Unity' (عینِ ذات), Divine Unity (ذاتِ حق) and 'absolute divine light' (نُور محض). The darkness has no access there. The knowledge is only the light and ignorance is darkness. In this state, He is the 'knowledgeable', He is the 'known', He is the viewer, He is the 'viewed' and He is the witness. He is the 'Being' and He is the 'Entity'. Here others have no room. In this state, the name of knowledge is divine light, and 'absolute knowledge'. It is the Quran - اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ [Allah is the light of Earth and Skies.] (An-Noor - 35).
In the 'state of Actiplicity' (active multiplicity - مرتبہ واحدیّت), which is the state of 'epithets and attributes', the state of 'knowledge' succeeds the state of 'Life' and precedes the state of 'Omnipotence. The knowledge is the branch of 'Life'; and 'omnipotence' is subordinated to 'knowledge'. In this state the annotation of otherness (غیریتِ اعتباری) becomes distinct between the 'knowledgeable' and the 'known'.
The prominence of the 'persons of possibilities' (ذواتِ ممکنات) in 'knowledge' does not entail their coming into existence. Their prominence is actually the exposition of divine intention. They will become creatures after the command of 'Be'. The knowledge in this state is 'detailed knowledge of Deeds'. On it depends the divine Wisdom. In this state, Allah flings refulgence of His epithets on the probate archetypes and the command of 'Be' is given and the thing appears outside. It is in Quran - إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [A thing We want to create, We only say 'Be', and there it is (it comes into existence)] (An Nahl - 40).
Now, one more state of knowledge is left, ie., the 'knowledge of passivity' (علمِ اِنفعالی); meaning, as the creatures reach different worlds, the divine knowledge will get associated with them accordingly. Because of the connection of this knowledge with the creatures, neoterics (حوادث), the 'knowledge itself looks 'neoteric' (حادث). But this connection, or this manifestation does not affect the 'antiquity of divine knowledge. In a similar way, 'the Being' which is the precise Unity, when gets associated with creatures, looks new and is called 'Contingent Being'. It is in Quran - وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّابِرِينَ [And still Allah neither knew who will undertake religious war or who have forbearance.] (Aal-i-Imran - 142). Be cautioned. Do not interpret this verse as Allah is not aware of who will do what. It means, till this date (when the verse was revealed) people have not displayed their resolve (attribute) by undertaking the religious war nor shown the self restraint or forbearance.
THE KNOWN (Ma’loom - معلوم)
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) creates everything with prior knowledge. Else ignorance and constraint will become inevitable. Divine awareness is known as probate Archetype (عینِ ثابتہ). When command of ‘Be’ is given, the creatures are born. Therefore, probate Archetypes are in the ‘internal state’ of Divine Unity’ and are not creatures.
Probate Archetypes (اعیانِ ثابتہ) are of two types; (i) Facts of Allah (حقائقِ اِلاھیّه) and (ii) Facts of creatures (حقائقِ ممکنه). Facts of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) are the divine epithets (اسماء اِلاھیّه) which are known to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Facts of creatures are the facts of possibilities (حقائقِ ممکنه) which are known to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).
We have already described that in the 'state of Indefinity’ (مرتبۂ وحدت), the multiplicity is capacitated. The capacities are known as ‘Affinities’ (Shuyoon - شُیون). The Affinities are of two types; (i) Divine Affinities (Shuyoon-e-Elahiyya - شُیونِ اِلاھیّه) and ‘Creature Affinities’ (Shuyoon-e-Khalqiya - شُیونِ خلقیہ). In the 'state of Indefinity’ (مرتبۂ وحدت), Divine Affinities are ‘the facts of Allah’ and ‘Creature Affinities’ are ‘the facts of possibilities’, or ‘nature of permissibilities’ (Taba’e Ja’ezaat - طبائع جائزات).
The Supremely know (Ma’loom-e-Azam - معلومِ اعظم)
The epithet ‘Allah’ comprehends all divine facts, or this is the ‘State of divinity’ (Martaba-e-Uloohiyat - مرتبہ الوہیت). Its servant (Abd - عبد) or ‘Sustainable’ (Marboob - مربوب) is the ‘Comprehensive fact of creatures’ (Haqeeqat-e-Jame’ Mumkinaat - حقیقتِ جامع ممکنات) or ‘Supreme Probate Archetype’ (Ain-e-Thabita Azam - عینِ ثابتہ اعظم) or ‘Probate Archetype of Prophet Mohammad (Ain-e-Mohammadi - عينِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) or ‘Archetype Primeval’ (Ain-ul-Ayaan - عینُ الاعیان) or ‘Supremely Known’ (Ma’aloom-e-Azam - معلومِ اعظم).The details of the ‘State of Divinity’ are all the ‘Divine epithets’, and details of the Probate Archetype of Prophet Mohammad (عينِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are probate Archetypes of all creatures.It is evident that we use the word 'Allah' at two places. One for the 'State of Divine Unity' (Martaba-e-Zaat-e-Haq - مرتبہ ذاتِ حق), the second is the 'State of Divinity' (Martaba-e-Uloohiyat - مرتبہ اُلوہیت) which is the 'epitome of all Sober effective attributes' (jamee'a sifaat-e-kamaliya mu'assera - جمیع صفاتِ کمالیہ مؤثرہ).The state of Divine Unity is 'Precise Being' (ain-e-Wajood - عینِ وجود), the epitome and essence of existence (Maabihil Maujudiya - مابہ الموجودیتہ). There is nothing which could be compared with it. If there is any meaning opposite it, it is 'Inexistencia' (Non-Existence - Adum - عدم). which can never exist. Thus in context of 'Unity', neither anything is comparable with Allah, nor is there any of His manifestations.In the context of the 'state of Divinity' (Martaba-e-Uloohiyat - مرتبہ اُلوہیت), which is comprehensive state of the perfect divine attributes; in front (muqabil - مقابِل) of Allah is 'Supreme Servant of Allah. Divinity is active and it has effect and servant-hood is passive and endowed to get affected. Divinity is self contented, while servanthood has necessity and exigency. The 'Possible' in consideration of 'Innaty (Zaat - ذات) and 'Fact' (Haqeeqat - حقیقت) does not have independent existence of his own; his being is not absolute, rather contingent, and even during the course of his existence, does not come out of his 'absolute 'Inexistencia' (Absolute Non-Existence) (Adum-e-Zaati - عدمِ ذاتی). Like the fourteenth night moon, even when it is luminous and resplendent; in context of its person and fact, is dark and without light. It is in Hadith - العبدُ وما ملكت يداهُ لِمولاهُ [ The slave and whatever is their in his possession, all belong to his master.].Still the supreme servant of Allah is he, from whom all perfections of divinity are luminous and evident. The mirror which does not have its own embellishments, nor scars, no spots, is not visible. However, can definitely show the world the illuminated sun. The one who does not keep anything becomes the owner of everything. Everyone considers him rich. But he considers himself entirely needy. The factual knowledge only makes him Allah's vicegerent.اے ذات تومجمع الکمالات ـ میں بھی ہوں کمالِ بےکمالی(O'Unity, you are the comprehensive perfection. And I am also perfectly imperfect.)Some earlier religious elderly have said انّي عبدُالله تابع لِمحمد بِن عبدُالله [I am the servant of Allah and faithful, subordinated and obedient of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)]. Some wicked and evil comprehension novices put up the meaning that 'in all perfections I am equal to Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and he does not have any preference over me. He is not the master of the children of Adam (عليه السلام) and the one who defies me is infidel (كافر). I am better than all prophets, Sahabah, Ahle Bait and Aqtaab. I am only subordinated to the law of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). If Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) would have lived in this period, he would have made the promise of allegiance (bait - بيعت) on my hand. And this venerable Shaikh is pure from this and that. To create this type of meaning is not in good faith, rather it is a disgrace to Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (Astahgfirullahal Azeem). العياذُ بِاالله (Al-Ayazu billah) was said which was interpreted as لِكُلِّ مَقَالٍ مَجَال [ Every utterance or a thing which is said revolves under a specif circle] (It is an Arabic saying).The 'Being' (وجود), Archetypes Primeval (عینُ الاعیان), Supreme Soul (روحِ اعظم) have two identities. One is unitary identity or Unitary finiteness (تعینِ ذاتی) which remains intact in every state. Second, the attributive identity or Attributive finiteness (تعینِ صفاتی). The attributive or explicatory (اعتباری) identity which keeps on changing, gets altered and modified. For instance, Zaid is an 'integral reflective reality. He happens to go through childhood, youth, middle age and the old age which are his numerous identities and finities. Does it mean that Zaid became absolutely integral (بذات کلی) or exegetic (اعتباری) as we understand the Unity of Almighty? Never.Ambiguous Verses of Quran (آیاتِ مُتشابہات)There are some Quranic verses in which Allah has used words (for Himself) which are also used for creatures. It is a known fact that the secret to Islamic teaching is monotheism (توحید) and of 'Purgative divine Almighty' (تنزیہ حق تعالٰی). It is in Quran - لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ [There is nothing like Him] (Ash-Shura - 11). These type of verses are called ambiguous verses (آیاتِ مُتشابہات). There are various schools of thoughts of Muslim scholars about these verses as follows:(i) Hesitants (مُتوقفین)There is verse in Quran - يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ [Allah's hand is on their hands.] (Al-Fath - 10)Hesitants are those who stay away. Their doctrine is that 'we know the literal meaning of the above verse and we proclaim our faith in Allah's interpretation'. Even in this, there are two types of people.(a) Those who do not translate the Arabic word ید (Yad) as hand. They say ید (Yad) only.(b) Those who translate the Arabic word ید (Yad) as 'hand' but do not provide comments and leave the interpretation to Allah.(ii) Affirmative purifiers (مُنَزٌِھِینْ بعدَ الاثبات)Their school of thought is that from the verse - يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ [Allah's hand is on their hands.] (Al-Fath - 10); Allah's hand is proved. But His hand is not like our hand. Similarly, everything which is mentioned in Quran is proved for Allah, though it is not in similarity with the creatures.One more school of thought is close to the thiking of the above. They say that from the Arabic word ید (Yad) a specific attribute of Allah is meant which is different from omnipotence (قدرت). Similar are the other words, like 'feet' (رِجُلٌ - Rijulun).(iii) Idiomatic Interpreters (مُاوٌِلین)In this school of thought, at every place the meanings are metaphorically interpreted as per Arabic idiomatic phrasography. For instance, this verse الرَّحْمَـٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ [ The most beneficent is sitting on the Empyrean.] (Ta Ha - 5). Sitting on the Throne is interpreted as 'Government', Supreme Authority' and 'Empire'. The interpretation of يَدُ اللَّهِ (Yadullah) is, His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as he was His Vicegerent, appointed by Him. The work of the Vicegerent (خلیفہ) reflects the wok of the 'Supreme authority. Similarly, the meaning of the Arabic words رِجُلُ الرحمان (Rijulur Rahman) 'Divine Feet' entering the Hell and the Hell expressing 'Clemency', Clemency' (Qat, Qat - قط قط) is overcoming of Allah's mercy on His rage; like we say that certain monarchy has overpowered certain Kingdom.At this stage, there is a general rule. Whatever words have been used for Allah have been used as a consequence and are for objective purposes. For instance, this verse اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ [Allah also ridicules them.] (Al-Baqara - 15). This means, as a consequence of their ridicule, Allah subjects them to torment. This is referred as allegory (مُشاکلہ).(iv) Attributive Interpreters (مُتَصَوّفه)This school of thought says that Allah, with reference to His Unity, is pure from creature attributes. But in the world of similitude where the meanings take shape, the refulgence with reference to human beings seems to carry some shape. However, this shape does not affect the reality. Like one real meaning is depicted in hundreds of metaphors and shapes. The form of parable is not detriment to the celibacy of the allegory.Remember this very well that, you understand whatever is grasped by the mind, view whatever comes to you by unveiling (كشف), but our intelligence and our unveiling, both are uncertain. Always keep in view آمَنٌا بِمُرادِاللہ [ We believe in Allah's interpretation]. Do not confine the revelation of Allah to your intelligence and unvieling. This abstract knowledge and faith which has reached to us by Allah's revelations (to Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) like an illuminated lamp, will keep us forging ahead continuously. You continue your march with your head down, uttering سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا [ You are Glrorious our Lord. We know nothing except what you have taught us.] (Al-Baqara - 32) and invoke with your tongue ربنا انت وراء ا لورا - ثمَّ وراء ا لورا [ O our Lord, you are beyond our imagination, absolutely beyond our imagination].
INTERPRETATIONS OF EXISTENCE (تاویلاتِ وجود)
Now we will focus our attention towards one more division of the 'Being' (existence), not knowing which great dissent occur. Often people disagree as one believes in one type of 'Being' (Wajood - ), the other believes in a different. However, contradiction of any type of 'Being' is an outright refusal. Till a superior category of 'Being' is proved difficult, hypothesis or acceptance of an inferior category of existence is an oppression, injustice.
There are various categories of 'Being' (existence), as follows:
(i) External Being (Wajood-e-Khariji - وجودِ خارجی), or Visual Being (Wajood-e-Ainee - وجودِ عینی) or Testimonial Being (Wajood-e-Shahadi - وجودِ شہادی) or Innate Being (Wajood-e-Zaati - وجودِ ذاتی)
(ii) Sensory Being (Wajood-e-Hissi - وجودِ حِسٌی)
(iii) Notional Being (Wajood-e-Khiyali - وجودِ خیالی)
(iv) Similitude Being (Wajood-e-Mithali - وجودِ مِثالی)
(v) Intellectual Being (Wajood-e-Aqli - وجودِ مِثالی)
(vi) Allegorical Being (Wajood-e-Tashbeehi - وجودِ تشبیہی) or Imagery Being (Wajood-e-Shabeehi - وجودِ شبیہی)
(vii) Metaphorical Being (Wajood-e-Majaazi - وجودِ مجازی) or Metanymy (Majaz-e-Mursali - مجازِ مُرسلی).
(i) External Being (Wajood-e-Khariji - وجودِ خارجی)
The 'Being' which is not dependent upon our understanding or imagination, is outside our knowledge, and is irrespective of our contemplation, is described as 'external being' (external existence). Like Zaid (a person) is there outside. He neither exists because of someone's understanding of his entity, nor he becomes non-entity (Ma'adoom - معدوم) if one does not consider him to be existing.
The existence of things is definitely an 'external being'. Meaning, there is something existing outside our knowledge; either its exterior existence is maintained by the matter or the knowledge of it is imparted to our soul by 'Primordial Entity' (Maujood-e-Haqeeqi - موجودِ حقیقی) Allah (سبحا نه و تعالى). In any case, there is definitely a thing outside our knowledge. There are two categories of 'External Being'; (a) Absolute Being (Wajood Biz Zaat - وجود بِا الذات), and (b) 'Contingent Being' (Wajood bil Arz - وجود بِاالعرض).
(a) Absolute Being (Wajood Biz Zaat - وجود بِا الذات)
The Absolute Being is which is recognized and derived from 'Essence of Existence (Maba Al-Maujoodiat - مابہ الموجودیۃ) or is 'Precise Person (Ain-e-Zaat - عینِ ذات); and is not derived or realized from an 'unrelated being'. This type of 'Being' is resting only with the Independent Being (Zaat-e-Wajib - ) Allah (سبحا نه و تعالى).
(b) Contingent Being (Wajood bil Arz - وجود بِاالعرض)
The Contingent Being is which is benefited and is dependent upon the Absolute Being. The 'Being of Possibilities' is contingent existence (temporary existence). We all know that the Sun, moon and all planets, stars and everything in this Cosmos is dependent on Allah (سبحا نه و تعالى). However, for explanation and understanding purpose, the example of Absolute Being is the sunlight which is evident and which originates from the sun. The example of contingent being is the moonlight. In fact, it is the sunlight which hits the surface of the moon and gets reflected to be called moonlight. When you consider, you will know that moon, even when it glitters in its full, does not come out of its darkness and obscurity. Similarly, the 'Possibilities' (creatures) in their existence do not come out of their 'Absolute Lavide' (Absolute non existence).
There are two divisions of 'Contingent Being'; (b1) Essential Being (Wajood Li Zaata - وجود لِذاتہ), and (b2) 'Related Being (Wajood Li Ghaira - وجود لِغیرہ).
(b1) Essential Being (Wajood Li Zaata - وجود لِذاتہ)
The Being of Quintessences (Jawaaher - جواہر) which is dependent on them. Like (a person) Zaid; his existence is dependent on himself; not like the existence of color or smell which are dependent upon others.
(b2) 'Related Being' (Wajood Li Ghaira - وجود لِغیرہ)
The existence of Characteristics (E'raaz - اعراض) which is dependent on others. Meaning, the 'Characteristics' are dependent upon their 'Quintessences'.
'Absolute Essential Being' ( Wajood Biz Zaat li Zaata - وجود بِا الذات لِذاتہ) is resting in 'Independent Honorably Glorious (Wajib Jalla Majduhu - واجب جلٌ مجدُہ). The 'Contingent Essential Being' ( Wajood Bil Arz li Zaata - وجود بِاالعرض لِذاتہ) is resting in Quintessences. The 'Contingent Related Being' ( Wajood bil arz li ghaira - وجود بِاالعرض لِغیرہ) is resting in 'Characteristics'; like color and smell.
There are again two categories of 'Contingent Related Being' ( Wajood bil Arz li Ghaira - وجود بِاالعرض لِغیرہ). (b2.1) Contiguous Being (Wajood-e-Inzemami - وجودِ انضمامی), and (b2.2) Derivable Being (Wajood-e-Intezaa'ee - وجودِ انتزاعی).
(b2.1) 'Contiguous Being' (Wajood-e-Inzemami - وجودِ انضمامی)
The Being of a Characteristic (Sifat - صفت) which is outside the person (Zaat - ذات) but is associated with it. Like the color and smell of the flowers and paint on the wall.
(b2.2) Derivable Being (Wajood-e-Intezaa'ee - وجودِ انتزاعی)
The Being of a characteristic which is not considered to be outside its person, rather it is derivable from the person. Like Zaid is standing. Standing or sitting of Ziad is not in addition to his person, nor it is derived in view of an associated thing. Similarly, we say sky is above and Earth is below, or Zaid is the son of Bakr, etc. All these are 'Derivable Appendages ( Intezaa'ee Izaafi - انتزاعی اضافی).
Remember this aspect that literary phraseology is different and logical expressions are different. Emotional people are different and philosophers are different. The emotional people and literates contradict the 'weak existence' (Kamzor Wajood - کمزور وجود) considering it to be of 'Lavide order ( Hukm-e-Adami - حُکمِ عدمی). The people of philosophical mind, thinking that these people are in fact denying the fact of existence, dispute with them. Thus, the emotional people and literates negate 'contingent being' (Wajood bil arz - وجود بِاالعرض) as compared with 'Absolute Being' (Wajood Biz Zaat - وجود بِا الذات). Derivatives (Intezaa'i yaat - انتزاعیات) in contrast with Quintessences (Jawaaher - انتزاعیات). The people of philosophical mind consider it as contradiction of facts; thereby the floodgate of disputes gets opened.
سخن شناس نئ جان من خطا این جاست
Sukhun Shinaas na'ee Jaan-e-man Khataa Ein Jaast
The person who is aware of the types of writing does not complain of mistakes in the expression.
Persian Poet Hafiz Shirazi (1325-1390)
(ii) Sensory Being (Wajood-e-Hissi - وجودِ حِسٌی )
When we see certain thing or sense it by way of outward senses, the picture of this thing, or its effect gets added up in our Common Sense ( Hisse Mushtarik - ). Shaikh says that by picture, he is not purporting here a shape or form, but in this state every known thing is called 'picture' (soorat - ).
The outside senses are ; (i) Vision or eyesight (the power to see), (ii) Hearing or Listening (the power to hear), (iii) Olfaction or smelling (the power to smell), (iv) Flavor or Relish (the power to taste), and (v) Tactile Sense or Touch (the power to touch).
Thus the things related to be sensed by Observation (Mubassiraath - مُبصٌِرات), Hearing (Masmu'aat - مسموعات), Smelling (Mashamumaath - مشمومات), Relishing (mazuqaat - مذوقات), and Touching (Malmusaath - ملموسات) are all the forms sensed by outside senses.
From the above 5 faculties, the pictures are deposited in common sense and our 'Rational Self' (Nafs-e-Natiqa - نفسِ ناطقہ) or our soul (Rooh - روح) studies them. Remember this, as long as we are seeing, we are seeing all of them in the common sense, which is the 'Sensory Being' (Wajood-e-Hissi - وجودِ حِسٌی). No sooner the viewer drew his attention away from the thing, than the picture moves out of the common sense and went away into the 'Notional Reservior' (Khazana-e-Khiyaal - خزانہ خیال).
(iii) Notional Being (Wajood-e-Khayali - وجودِ خیالی)
We have described above that from external five senses all pictures add to the common sense and are known to, and perceived by, the 'rational self (Nafs-e-Natiqa - نفسِ ناطقہ). And when the attention is moved away, these pictures go to the 'Notional Reservoir (Khazana-e-Khiyaal - خزانہ خیال) via common sense. And later when you turn your attention towards them, and as they had earlier come from the common sense and were reserved in the 'Notional Reservoir', they come back to common sense and become visible again. The place of study of pictures is common sense only. But if they have come from outside five senses, it is known as 'Sensory Being' (Wajood-e-Hissi - وجودِ حِسٌی). And if they come from 'Notional Reservoir' and have appeared in the common sense, it is known as 'Notional Being' (Wajood-e-Khiyali - وجودِ خیالی).
Now, I consider it necessary to describe the 'Internal Five Senses ( Hawas-e-Khamsa batini - حواسِ خمسہ باطنی) so that the benefit to the reader is complete.
When the pictures come to the mind from outside, the mind analysis them and separates 'meaning' (ma'ani - معانی) from the apparent picture (sur-e-zahiri - صورِ ظاہری). The place of study of the apparent picture is the 'common sense' and its reservoir is 'Notion' (Khayal - خیال). The place of the study of 'meaning' and 'derivatives' is 'Incredulity' (Wahm - وہم) and its reservoir is 'Memory' (Hafiza - حافظہ). For instance we saw Zaid (a person) and found him handsome/graceful and learned. His graceful picture will be viewed in the common sense and his knowledge will be known through 'Incredulity'. And when we divert our attention away from both (his knowledge and his graceful face, then his graceful face will go to the 'Notional Reservoir' and his knowledge will go to the memory. And when the attention is diverted towards him again, his picture will come from the 'common sense' via 'notion' and the 'derivative' (derivable meaning), that 'he is knowledgeable' will be known by coming into mind via incredulity and memory.
There is one more faculty whose work is to separate the concomitants, and join different things. Its name is 'Imagination' (Muta'qayyala - مُتخیلہ) and 'Solicitude' (Mutafakkira - مُتفکٌِرہ).
There is an Indian story that a certain person thought that the body of a man is of human being and the head is of an elephant and he is eloquent and rhetoric. All of these proceeding is of 'Mr. Imagination'. From his 'notion' he brought a human body, separating its head from it, and brought an elephant's head separating it from its body, and joined these two together. Then from his 'mind' he brought the meaning of knowledge and eloquence and kept it in the elephant's head and gave it a name 'Ganpati'.
In consideration of these faculties, the primeval sages (Hukma-e-Qadeem - حُکماء قدیم) have identified 5 faculties of human mind; (i) Common Sense, (ii) Notion, (iii) Imagination, (iv) Incredulity, and (v) Memory.
Phrenologists have identified different places of brain's faculties. They identify and relate different faculties with growth areas in the head/skull.
They show up these capacities by seeing or by groping on the head describing that this (certain) person will be good in music, or he will be good in mathematics or he will be irritable; his knowledge or imagination will be good or his memory will be good, etc. To understand it, they have made a porcelain skull marking the places of these faculties.
Also remember that in imagination those 'meanings' which come from 'incredulity (Wahm - وہم) and Memory, and those pictures which come from common sense and notion; for all these 'Notional Being (Wajood-e-Khiyali - وجودِ خیالی) has been conceded and accepted.
(iv) The Similitude Being (Wajood-e-Mithali - وجودِ مِثالی)
Detailed description of the World of Similitude (Aalam-e-Mithaal - عالمِ مثال) has been provided in the book separately. Shaikh says that he has published a detailed article about the World of Similitude in 'Al-Noor' Magazine. A brief summary is provided here.
The pictures come from the 'World of Similitude' in a similar way as they come from the external world. The pictures coming from the World of Similitude are called 'Determined Thought' (Khayaal-e-Munfasal - خیالِ مُنفصل) or 'Confined Thought' (Khayaal-e-Muqayyed - خیالِ مُقیٌد). The story or 'Narration' (Hikayat - حِکایت) which is produced as a result of the disposal of imagination by mixing 'pictures', 'notions' and 'meanings' deposited into the memory is known as 'Incessant thought' (Khayal-e-Muttasil - خیالِ مُتصل) or 'Despotic thought' (Khayaal-e-Mutlaq - خیالِ مُطلق).
Sometimes the 'Unveiling' (Kashf - کشف) or 'Dream' (Khawab - خواب) are the pure fabrication of the 'imagination'. Sometimes they come from the World of Similitude. The first category of dreams are known as 'disturbed dreams' (Asghas-e-ehlaam - اضغاثِ احلام) and the second category of dreams are known as 'true dreams' (Ruya-e-Saadiqa - رویاۓ صادقہ). The true dreams are sometimes bona fide (genuine that can be understood in literal sense); and sometimes these are metaphorical (Majaazi - مجازی) and for their figurative expression, these types of dreams and unveiling are explicable (ta'abeer talab - تعبیر طلب). Sometimes the notion comes out of the heart and mind. For instance a man who has been infected by influenza sees in the dream that a river is flooding. A person who got blood pressure and plethora sees in the dream that his house has caught fire. Ascertainment of reality from 'simile' (tashbeeh - تشبیی) and notional aspects is the work of an expert reliable person.
(v) Intellectual Being (Wajood-e-Aqali - وجودِ عقلی )As we have described, the external pictures come to the mind via the senses. The 'intellect' (Aqal - عقل) analysis them, derives the meaning out of the individual pictures by separating 'person' (tashaqqus - تشخص) and 'determination' (Ta'ayyun - تعین) extracts the 'integral reflective realities' (Kulliyaat - کُلٌیات). For instance, the picture of Zaid (a person) and Aamer (another person) comes to our mind via the senses. The intellect (Aqal - عقل) ignoring the qualities of Zaid and Aamer has extracted 'human being'; which is the integral reflective reality of both these persons. Thus, the human beings existence is not 'visual' (aini - عینی) or external (khariji - خارجی), but is definitely 'Intellectual Being' (Wajood-e-Aqali - وجودِ عقلی ).Similarly, look at the 'hand'. When you consider specifics, some animals' hands have three fingers, some four, some five and some more than that. Some are without nail and some with nails. Some nails are sharp and some are soft. All these are the kinds of hand. The reality of hand is pure from these specific characteristics.(vi) Allegorical Being (Wajood-e-Tashbeehi - وجودِ تشبیہی)Allegorical Being (Wajood-e-Tashbeehi - وجودِ تشبیہی) is also known as Imagery Being (Wajood-e-Shabeehi - وجودِ شبیہی). In two things if the aspect of an allegory is found in common; and in one, the common attribute is well known and famous; this aspect is known as 'Self Acquisition' (Musta'ar min - مُستعار منہ) and in the other the common attribute is known as 'borrowed acquisition' (Musta'ar lahu - مُستعار لہ). For instance, bravery is common in Zaid (a person) and tiger which is an aspect of comparison. And tiger is famous for bravery. In this, the tiger has 'self acquisition' and Zaid, whose bravery is required to be expressed has 'borrowed acquisition'. Therefore, if someone says that 'I have seen a tiger going armed and strut', the interpretation and reality of this statement will be 'I have seen Zaid, who is like a tiger in bravery, going armed and strut. Sometimes an incident is described with a lengthy allegory which is known as 'Simile' (Tamseel - تمثیل).It is in Quran - مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ [Their example is like a person who lighted the fire and when the fire illuminated his surrounding, then Allah took away the light and left them in darkness that they cannot see anything.] (Al-Baqara - 17).In another Quranic verse, the simile of 'infidility (kufr - کُفر) has been described as - أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُّجِّيٍّ [ (The example of these infidels is like ) the darkness which are in the bedless oceans.] (Al-Noor - 40).Thus the Simile is related to description and expression. Many novels are based on 'simile'. The 'drama' in Arabic is termed as ' تمثیل '. The Simile in imagination is sometimes unreal, sometimes depicts the state of the body of the person. For instance, a person suffering from bile sees in the dream that he is going in a desolute wilderness under a strong sun and somehow he manages to reach an oasis. There he sees branches of the trees catch fire by friction. The fire engulfs the entire oasis. He tries to run for safety but does not find a way out of fire. In the end his cloths also catch fire. he feels extremely unnerved and the sleeps breaks.Similarly an incident coming from the 'World of Similitude' is witnessed in a dream and sometimes is seen in an 'unveiling'. In any case, these types of dreams and unveiling are explicable. Meaning, the reality and effect are required to be ascertained.This way a dependable art of explication is evolved. Abdul Ghani Nablisi and Ibn Siereen's books in this context are exclusively prominent. Every nation's metaphors and idiomatic usage of their languages are different. For an identical dream seen by different people, the explication becomes different because of their individual circumstances.A man came into the audience of Mohammad Ibn Siereen and described his dream that he was making a call for Salah. He explicated that the person will go for Hajj. The source of his explication was - وَأَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ [ And announcement has to be made on behalf of Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on the day of Hajj al-Akbar.] (At-Tauba - 3)Another person also submitted that 'I have seen myself as making a call of Salah. Ibn Siereen said to him 'You are a thief and you will be caught'. The source of this was - أَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنٌ أَيَّتُهَا الْعِيرُ إِنَّكُمْ لَسَارِقُونَ [ Then an caller voiced that O'people of the Caravan, you are indeed thieves.] (Yusuf - 70).Shaikh says that one of his friends informed him that he has seen his father making a call for Salah in his dream. His father was very old and very pious person. This Arabic couplet came to my mind in the explication of his dream.اَذَ نَتُنا بَینِھا اَسماءُ ـ رُبٌَ ثاوٍ يَمَلُّ مِنْهُ الثوَ اءُThe poet's beloved named 'Asma' alerted him of her impending separation as she was leaving his native town.(The couplet is of Al-Harith Ibn Hillizah Al-Yashkuri (الحارث بن حلزة اليشكري), one of the poets of Seven Gold Odes (المعلقات) of Arabian Peninsula in the times of illiteracy before Islam. The other 6 poets are, Imru' al-Qais, Tarafa, Zuhayr ibn Abi Sulma , Labīd, Antara Ibn Shaddad, and Amr ibn Kulthum.)The explication of the dream was that this was the news about death. After a few days, he died.Sometimes it so happens that actual incident came out very clearly. But as per the wishes of his Anima (Nafs - نفس), he added complimentary details and the person seeing the dream could not differentiate between the reality of the dream and his Anima's appendices and considered everything the same (real). In this context, the explicator needs to be very efficient to separate the reality from the Anima's appendages. In short, till the a person's Anima ( Nafs - نفس) becomes rational and irrelevant thoughts are controlled, the real incident coming to light is difficult.(vii) Metaphorical Being (Wajood-e-Majazi - وجودِ مجازی)The Metaphorical Being (Wajood-e-Majazi - وجودِ مجازی) is also known as Metonymy (Majaz-e-Mursali - مجازِ مُرسلی).In the 'Metaphorical Being', the allegorical connection will not be there. Instead, there will be another connection. Like 'Cause' (Sabab - سبب), 'Causer' (Musabbab - مُسبب), 'State' ( Haal - حال), 'Place' (Mahal - محل), 'Part' (Juz - جز), 'Whole' (Kul - کُل), مَا کان ومایؤل [the connection of the 'Pre-state' (حالتِ سابقہ) and 'Current state' (حالتِ لاحقہ)].It is in Quran - وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا هَامَانُ ابْنِ لِي صَرْحًا [ And the Pharoah said O'Hamaan, construct an elevated house for me.] (Ghafir- 36).It is obvious that the people who construct the house are masons and laborers. But the reference/connection of constructing a house is with him since Hamaan, the Minister, was the active causer, the one who orders for the construction of the house.In the same way, 'Accession to Governmental authority' (Iqtedaar-e-Aala - اقتدار اعلی) is termed as 'Coronation or Accession to Throne' though in that country at the time of accession to power, a sword could be tied. In the same way the work of the Vicegerent (Caliph - خلیفہ) is associated with the one who has appointed the Vicegerent.It is in Quran - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ [ Without doubt those who are placing their hand as a promise of allegiance into your hand, their allegiance is in truth to Allah. Allah's hand is over their hands]. (Al-Fath - 10).
DESTINY (تقدیر)The 'Divine Epithets (Asma-e-Elahi - اسماء الٰہی) aim at influencing their 'Sustainables' (Marboobaat - مربوبات). Since the 'Divine epithets' are varied and different; like 'Creator' (Khaleq - خالق), 'Sustainer' (Rab - رب) and 'Obliterator' (Mumeet - مُمیت); and all these epithets cannot actively affect at one time, the epithet of 'Just' (Maqsat - مقسط) with the help of the epithet 'Wise' (Hakeem - حکیم) gives sequence to all these epithets. The general sequence and universal administration (Nizam-e-Kulli - نظامِ کُلٌی) is called 'Destiny' or 'Divine Decree'. As per Destiny, when each and everything appears, it is called 'Fate' (Qaza - قضاء). What will happen in future is not known in the 'World of Manifestation' (Aalam-e-Shahadat - عالمِ شہادت), as only the 'Present' is known in this world. Neither past nor future is known in this world and all the efforts, endeavor and action is undertaken as a result of this. A person belonging to certain world has to carry out all the necessities of that world.Some people claim they are living 'will-less'. Having 'individualistic' (Juzzee - جُزیٔ) 'Will' (Iraada - ارادہ), of doing things and claim to be living 'will-less' (Bay Irada - بے ارادہ) is a big utterance of a small mouth. Having palatial dreams while living in a hut is ridiculous.From 'divine knowledge' (Ilm-e-Elahi - علمِ اِلٰہی), for the existence of a certain thing, sometimes all 'dependable causes' (Mauqoof alai asbab - موقوف علیہ) and 'visible impediments' (alal-e-mara'ee - عللِ مرئی) do not appear. At this time the fate will be called 'Pending fate' (Qaza-e-Mu'allaq - قضاء معلٌق). If the 'conclusive factor' (Juzz-e-akheer - جزٌِ اخیر) and complimentary causes (Mutammim - متمٌِم) comes, the thing comes into being. If the 'impediment cause' (m'ane - مانع) becomes apparent and evident, the thing does not come into being. In short, after the appearance of the 'complementary cause' or impediment cause', when the thing appears, it is said that the 'pending fate' has become 'inevitable fate (qaza-e-mubram - قضاء مبرم).The efforts in the word affairs, and the endeavor for the 'aspects of hereafter' (Ukhravi umoor - اُخروی امور), supplication, requirement of prayer and all these issues are based on this 'pending fate'.'Pending fate' is the 'deficient cause' (illat-e-naqisa - علت ناقصہ) and the 'inevitable fate' is 'constant cause (illat-e-taamma - علتِ تامہ). The complete link is known when the thing appears in the 'world of manifestation (عالمِ شہادت) (our physical world. In Divine Knowledge, all the Universe and whatever is going to happen in it, is all there. But who has an access there. If Almighty Himself gives information to someone, it should be considered as 'His beneficence'.It is in Quran - يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ ۖ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ [Allah blots whatever He wishes and keeps as it is whatever He pleases. And He has the 'mother of the book, ie., divine knowledge] (Ar-Raad - 39).It is in Quran - وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ [Nobody can encompass anything from His knowledge excepting what He wishes.] (Al-Baqara - 255).It is in Quran - وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا [You have not been given knowledge except a little.] (Al-Isra - 85).Anything, from the tiny molecule to the glittering sun, is not empty from the divine unity (zaat-e-Elahi - ذاتِ اِلٰہی); rather from the 'divine epithets (Asma-e-Elahia - اسماء الٰہیہ). What generally happens is, at a given time, an 'epithet' is generally the Chief and Commander, and all other epithets provide assistance and are subordinated to it. This is the meaning of الکل فی الکل [Everything is in one thing.].Suspended or inactive is he who does not work at the time of work. As all Epithets of Allah perform their tasks at their times, therefore, none of them is suspended.To what we call 'soberiety (kamaal - کمال), is the name of the exposure of as many epithets of Allah as possible. If the person's 'mirror of heart' (Mirrat-e-dil - مِرٌات دل) is entirely clean, the irrelevant thoughts have stopped, no personal wish remained, then that person will be the 'focus of divine effulgence (Tajalli gah-e-Haq - تجلی گاہ حق); world viewing goblet (Jam-e-jehan numa - جامِ جہاں نُما), and the mirror of facts (Mirrat-e-Haqa'eq - مِرٌات حقائق). This person will view the divine light in every creature from the mirror of his heart. Honestly speaking, this is the only person who will be rightfully called the 'Human Being' and the 'crown of vicegerent' (Taj-e-Khilafat - تاج خلافت) will be placed on his head.MODULATION (Ja'al - جعل)There are two meanings of 'Mudulation' (جعل), as follows:(i) The unfolding of the 'Archetypes' (Ayaan - اعیانِ) from the 'refulgence of knowledge (Tajalli-e-Ilmi - تجلی علمی) and 'sanctified beneficence (faiz-e-aqdas - فیض اقدس) into divine knowledge. This is veritably the meaning of 'indigence towards independent (ehtiyaaj ilal wajib - احتیاج الی الواجب). This 'modulation' is 'principle modulation' (ja'al-e-baseet - جعل بسیط) as only 'innates' (zawaat - ذوات) and facts (Haqa'eq - حقائق) are salient in 'knowledge'.(ii) The 'creatures archetypes' (Ayaan-e-Makhlooqaat - اعیان مخلوق) by means of 'consecrated beneficence (Faiz-e-Muqaddas - فیض مقدس) existing externally and becoming 'traces of intention' (Manshaa-e-Aasaar -منشاء آثار), this modulation in the meaning of 'creation' (khalq - خلق) and 'invention' (Eejaad - ایجاد) is 'compound modulation' (ja'al-e-Murakkab - جعل مرکب). As a result of flinging of refulgences of epithets and attributes on probate archetypes, traces and commandments (Aasaar wo Ahkaam - آثار و احکام) are drawn. That is why it is said that the 'refulgences' (tajalliyaat - تجلیات) will be in conformity with the 'facts'. In view of this, some pious elderly people said that the knowledge is subordinated to the 'known'. Meaning, as the thing will exist, so will be the knowledge about it.Consecrated Beneficence (Faiz-e-Muqaddas- فیض مقدس) is 'subordinated to the generic capabilities of the Archetypes' (tabe iste'dad-e-kullia ayan - تابع استعداد کلیہ اعیان) and the generic capabilities are the essentialness of archetypes (Lawazim-e-Ayan - لواذمِ اعیان). The archetypes are neither 'creatures nor their essentialness as the state of knowledge and known (ilm wa ma'loom - علم و معلوم) is before 'omnipotence (qudrat - قدرت) and creation (khalq - خلق).There are two types of capabilities of 'archetypes'; (i) Integral Reflectivity ( kulli - کلی), and (ii) Fractional Reflectivity (Juz'ee - جزئی).The 'integral reflective capability' (Iste'dad-e-Kulli - استعداد کلی) is evidenced along with the archetype in the divine knowledge and is non-creature and not related to any outside existing thing. The 'fractional reflective capability' (Iste'dad-e-Juz'ee - استعداد جزئی) in the 'world of creatures' is the detail of the 'integral reflective capability'. This detail is conditional to the stipulations (Mashroot ba Shara'et - مشروط شرائط) of creature and subjected to command of 'Be'.VIRTUE AND EVIL (Khair wo Shar - خیر و شر)Absolute Being (Wajood-e-Mahaz - وجود محض) is 'Absolute Virtue' (Khair-e-Mahaz - خیر محض) and 'Absolute Inexistencia' (Adm-e-Mahaz - عدم محض) is 'Absolute Evil (Sharr-e-Mahaz - شرمحض). From certain thing when some traces of being (Asar-e-wajood - آثار وجود) are evident and certain others are missing, this is 'Contingent Being' (Wajood-e-Izaafi - وجودِ اِضافی) on which 'virtue and evil will be drawn. A deed which has plentiful virtue and minimal evil is worthy of adoption. And the deed in which there is plentiful evil and minimal virtue should be relinquished.The cultural laws are founded on plentiful virtue or plentiful evil. Sharia (the Islamic Law) brings plentiful virtue to both the worlds.Still a thing could be virtuous for a certain thing and evil for another. That is the importunity of the 'contingent evil' (Sharr-e-Izaafi - شر اِضافی). But in context of the 'Being', everything is just virtuous, because the 'Being' is absolute virtue.The 'absolute being', 'Absolute entity' (hasti-e-Mutlaq - ہستیٔ مطلق) is rested in 'Divine Unity' (Zaat-e-Haq - ذات حق). And 'Absolute Inexistencia' ( Adam-e-Mahaz - عدم محض) is not existing. Thus apart from Almighty whatever things are there, they are 'contingent being' or 'contingent Inexistensia' (unfound) and therefore are not free from 'evil'. Thus, 'contingent evil' is from the essentialness of the confined (creatures) and therefore they are not free from evil. The 'confinement' (Ta'ayyun - تعین) indicates diversity, which in turn indicates exclusion of one or other thing, which is 'Inexistensia' ( unfound - عدم).The finiteness (confinement) of creatures is contingent and inexistencia. Allah's finiteness is 'unitary and existential' (Zaati wo Wajoodi - ذاتی و وجودی). From any 'possible' (mumkin - ممکن) and creature, inherent independence (wajoob-e-zaati - وجوبِ ذاتی) and inherent contentment (Istegna-e-Zaati - استغناء ذاتی) are not evident and manifested because, 'inconsistency, exigency and necessity are its embodiments.Shaikh says that he would like to draw the attention of the readers towards an important question. Is virtue and evil both from the servant (banda - بندہ) or from God, or the virtue is from God and evil is from the Servant?All the three stipulations are correct and right at their appropriate places.
(i) It is in Quran - لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ [The servant gets good of the virtue he earned and he suffers for the evil he earned".] (Al-Baqara - 286).
(ii) It is in Quran - قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ [Say O'Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم Everything is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).] (An-Nisa - 78).
(iii) It is in Quran - مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ [Evil is from servant and virtue is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)".] (An-Nisa - 79)
(i) It is evident that we perform 'Salah', we keep fasting, but we do get involve in back biting and we lie. Out of these, nothing is attributable to God, the Exalted and Glorious Almighty. We cannot consider the Glorious Almighty as the performer of these deeds. Thus the virtuous deed and evil deed concerns with the servant. This is the meaning of this verse - لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ [The servant gets good of the virtue he earned and he suffers for the evil he earned".] (Al-Baqara - 286).
(ii) This fact is also not hidden that the 'creation of the deed' and bestowal of the Being (Ata-e-Wajood - اعطاء وجود) is the work of the Sustainer of the worlds. Therefore, unless the Sustainer commands 'Be', neither the good deed of the servant could come into existence nor his bad deed. Thus, in the illustration of creation (ba-eitebaar-e-khalq - بہ اعتبارِ خلق) and bestowal of external being (Ata-e-wajood-ekhariji - اعطاء وجود ِ خارجی), everything, every deed and every attribute is dependent on God Almighty, and towards Him is our open hand of begging and prayer. This is the meaning of the verse - قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ [ Say O'Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم Everything is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).] (An-Nisa - 78).
(iii) This is also no secret that the sunlight is coming evenly to everything and there is no misery in the bestowal of the light. But the same light hitting at various things, is reflected in accordance with their capacities, in conformity with the exigencies of their nature and turns out to be sometimes blue, sometimes red, yellow, brown and green. You go to the laughing gallery, you will view yourself at some place lean, somewhere tall, somewhere fat, short and somewhere your head will be down and legs up and some other place you will look exactly the same. The problem is not of the sun or of your viewing, it is because of the mirrors which are showing you that way. Some show good as good and some of them shown good as bad.
God Almighty is 'Absolute Being' and is Absolutely virtuous. The evil has no facade towards Him. Therefore, all evils, veritably will be turned towards 'the possible' (creature) and its innate inexistencia (Adum-e-Zaati - عدمِ ذاتی). Precisely, the virtue is from Allah and evil is from the servant. The antecedent of virtue is from Allah and evil is from the servant. This is the meaning of the verse - مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ [Evil is from servant and virtue is from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)".] (An-Nisa - 79).
OMNIPOTENCE (Qudrat - قدرت)
Allah's awareness (Maloomat-e-Elahiya - معلوماتِ الٰہیہ), or 'probate archetypes (ayan-e-sabita - اعیانِ ثابتہ), or 'facets of knowledge' (soor-e-ilmiya - صور علمیہ) are of various categories, as follows:
(i) The divine epithets (asma-e-Elahiya - اسماء الٰہیہ) themselves that are derived from the Divine Unity's Self (Nafs-e-Zaat-e-Haq - نفس ذات حق) are precise divine unity (ain-e-Zaat-e-Haq - عین ذات حق) in the hypothesis of 'intention' (mansha - منشاء) and as old as the divine unity. Meaning, their innate (person - Zaat), which is the Divine Unity and which is the 'intention and derivative' (mansha wo muntaza unhu - منشاء و منتزع عنہ) is eternally antiquated. Therefore, they are also eternally antiquated.
(ii) Those 'awareness' (maloomat - معلوماتِ) which have no conflict with the 'external being' (wajood-e-khariji - وجودِ خارجی), which is 'precise divine unity' (ain-e-zaat-e-Haq - عین ذات حق), and those awareness' existence and non-existence is immaterial; when mixed with the external entity (Maujood-e-Khariji - موجودِ خارجی) and with the divine epithets (Asma-e-Elahiya - اسماء الٰہیہ), traces appear on them. Meaning, only then they become creatures (makhlooq - مخلوق) and modulates (ma'jool - مجعول) and otherwise no. These 'awareness', 'possibilities' are called creatures. In these, the 'integral reflectivities' (kulliyaat - کُلیات) are known as 'Integrated probate archetypes' (Mahiyaat - ماھیات) and 'posit natures' (taba-e-mursala - طبع مرسلہ). And 'fractional reflectivities (Juzziyaat - جزئیات) are known as 'Fractional probate archetypes' (Huvi-yaat - ھویات).
(iii) Those 'awareness' or 'facts of knowledge' which have conflict (mubayenat - مباینت), opposition (mua-nedat - معادنت) and contention (mu'arazat - معارضت) with the Divine Unity, 'primordial being (wajood-e-haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی) and 'divine epithets' (that are precise divine unity externally (ain-e-zaat-e-haq - عین ذات حق), can never come into existence. These facets of knowledge (Soor-e-ilmiya - صور علمیہ) are called 'forbidden' (Mumtina - ممتنع), 'impossible' (mahaal - محال) and 'baseless (mustaheel - مستحیل).
Do remember that 'divine omnipotence' ( qudrat-e-Elahi - قدرتِ اِلٰہی) becomes relevant with 'archetype' and the 'known' after the 'knowledge. And the 'divine will' (Iraada-e-Elahi - ارادہ اِلٰہی) is the major ramification of wisdom (fara-e-hikmat-e-baliga - فرع حکمت بالغہ). The thing which is contrary to wisdom is unfit for creation by the 'divine omnipotence' and 'will'. Thus, the command of 'Be' is not relevant to the issues contrary to wisdom, as they are 'not capable'. To consider impossibilities as possibilities, worthy of creative existence is ignorance. To consider Allah to perform unwise deeds is equal to not believing Him as 'Wise'.
The omnipotence of insane and mad is not subordinated to knowledge and wisdom. The omnipotence of sensible, intelligent and wise is subordinated to 'knowledge and wisdom'.
The irrelevance of 'omnipotence', 'will' and 'Be' to impossibilities does not indicate powerlessness. The powerlessness is indicated when the thing was possible in the first place. Is non-perpetration of fractional reflectivities (juzziyaat - جزئیات) bigger than 'integral reflectivities (kulliyaat - کُلیات) or non creation of of a comrade or non-creation of a beginning before the beginning and ending after the ending is powerlessness? No, never. All these things are impossibilities. And omnipotence not having relevance with impossibilities is not powerlessness. Not being able to create the possibilities when there is no hindrance is powerlessness which is contrary to omnipotence.
Can Allah create a 'resemble alike'? This question is meaningless as a look-alike God is impossible and has no relevance to omnipotence. Can Allah commit suicide the way a human being does? This question is also meaningless. Divine inexistencia' is impossible. Can Allah create deficiency in Himself? No, never. The possibilities are subordinated to omnipotence. The 'impossibilities' and also the divine unity is not subordinated to omnipotence. His being is so essential that He cannot make Himself non-entity (ma'doom - معدوم). He is so exalted that He is beyond His own omnipotence. In short, remember, only 'possibilities' are subordinated to omnipotence' and not the 'Independent Being' (Wajib - واجب) or the 'impossibilities'. Meaningless and useless is the talk which gives rise to suspicion of powerlessness for Almighty. These are the evidences of the minds that have gone crazy, mad.
SPEECH (Kalam - کلام)
On the issue of the 'word of God' (kalam-e-Elahi - کلامِ اِلٰہی), a great mischief was afflicted in Islam over a long period of time and even religious chiefs (a'imma - ائمہ) were killed in this context. The beginning of differences in religion and the religious conflicts started on this issue. Therefore, Islamic beliefs and philosophy of Islam was named as 'dogmatic theology' (ilm-e-kalam - علمِ کلام). I will go into it in a greater detail so that the wrong intention behind the differences of opinions becomes clear.
Let us consider here how plays are performed on stages and theaters. The play is based on some novel or drama, or a drama itself is performed on a stage. What is before that? The words of the play writer which he writes into a book and gets them printed. What precedes it? The same drama, but in imaginary words and in whichever language the writer would like to present them. He could put the sequence of his considerations and thoughts in any language of his choice, which could be Urdu, Arabic, English, etc.
He has not moved his tongue, did not raise his voice, and did not utter a word from his mouth. How come there is an Urdu or English novel in his heart? In his heart there may be the meaning of novel which he will utter by tongue in the shape of words. If you don't hear, English, Arabic, Urdu, all are same. Novel has the writers words which were there in his thought before he could utter them. The words and speech which is a thought is called 'innate speech' (kalam-e-nafsi - کلامِ نفسی).
قِفَا نَبکِی مِن ذِکرٰی حَبِیبٍ وَ مَنزِلِ
(The hemistich is of Imra-ul-Qais, one of the poets of seven golden odes of Arabian Peninsula in the times of illiteracy. The poet tells his two companions to stay back so that they could cry out remembering the beloved and the beloved's place).
Shaikh says that, when I read the above, does it mean that the meanings are of Imra-ul-Qais and the words are mine? No, the words are also of Imra-ul-Qais. The writing is the dress of words. The words are the dress of 'innate speech'. The innate speech is the dress of knowledge.
Does the staging of the play today also necessitates the birth of the play today? No. The drama is there from before. Its staging was carried out in the theater today.
Let Allah guide them to the right path. The play writer wrote it only once, but the actors staged it hundreds of time to rob the stupid viewers.
Does the printing of the drama today necessitates its birth also today? No, the drama was newly manifested in the 'world of books'. Before it, the printing press people also have given it newer appearance several times.
What is this? The ink is new, paper new, our reading is new, the printing press new, the press people are new but the novel is hundreds of years old. Their contract with the old novel is new. The newer connection does not alter the oldness of the novel.
The dramas which are presented in theaters do have events, and news. When the events are new, does it mean that their information will also be new? No. In theaters, the events are also new and their presentation and the news is also new.
But the original drama is old. Because in view of the drama being staged in theaters, its newness in happening does not necessitates the newness of the original thing.
What connection speech has with knowledge? The speech is a medium of expression of knowledge.
How is novel's style of expression shown? Every novelist has a peculiar style. Let him write the language of the king, pauper, knowledgeable, illiterate, woman or man, it cannot be hidden that the novel belongs to that particular person. Because everybody's style of writing is different.
After this preface, it should be clear that the Quran is the word of God. Its style of expression from the onset to the end is miraculous. Even though Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), is the eloquent of Arabs and non-Arabs, the style of Quran is totally different from the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sayings (Ahadith). If a Quranic verse comes in between a Hadith, it becomes abundantly clear that it is distinct and never matches with the wordings of the Hadith. The entire Quran has absolute uniformity. The worst of the enemies also cannot deny this fact. Though Hadith also has an eloquent conformable style all along, but it is a way different from the Holy Quran.
When the Holy Quran is the 'word of God', then it is an attribute and since all divine attributes are antiquated, the word of God is also antiquated.
There is question here. Since Arabic language is of newer appearance, and the Holy Quran was revealed in Arabic, then the holy Quran should also be new?
The Arabic language is new in the 'world of manifestation, but with respect to the divine knowledge and divine word, it is antiquated.
There is another question. Whatever is being said in this world, is all there in the divine knowledge. Therefore, all speeches in the world are antiquated. Then what is special significance of the holy Quran?
Also, there are other scriptures which are also revelations. The pious sayings (Ahadis-e-Qudsi) of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are also the word of God. Then what is distinctive feature in the holy Quran.
In other scriptures as also the pious sayings of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) the meanings are inspirational but the style of expression is Prophetic. The words, meanings and style of Quran is all from Allah. The knowledge and the means (the words) are all antiquated.
We see from our eyes that the Holy Quran is an assemblage of words. The words are from the voice gender (Jins-e-aswaat - جنسِ اصوات), videlicet (in plane English) from sound. And words and sounds are of newer appearance. Therefore, the Holy Quran is also new.
First of all you are ignorant of the 'innate speech' (kalam-e-nafsi - کلامِ نفسی). Secondly, you are new, your tongue is new, the ink, pen, paper all which are coming into contact with the word of God are new. All these contacts are new. But the word of God is not new. Because all these are manifestations. The neoteric of manifestations (hudoos-e-zahooraat - حُدوثِ ظہورات) does not necessitates incipience (newness - hudoos - حُدوث) of the original thing.
In the Holy Quran, the events of ancient prophets have been described. It is evident that the events take place before and their expression and stories are described later. When the events are new, their expression which is after the event is also new.
All these are annotations of manifestations. In consideration of the divine knowledge, and innate speech, the word of God is antiquated. To which you are calling expression is actually a manifestation.
In the beginning a program is decided and then based on it, all the speeches are delivered. The newer appearances of the speeches do not necessitate the newness of the original program. The sequence is decided much earlier. These are the manifestations of the events already decided.
The human being and all his attributes and deeds are new. The Unity of God (Zaat-e-Khuda - ذاتِ خدا), His attributes and deeds all are antiquated. The suspicion of obvious newness is because of the contacts, because of the manifestation. Hadhrat Imam Ahmed bin Hunbal (رضي الله تعالى عنه) was beated by the tyrants to force him to say that the Holy Quran is of newer appearance. But he said, the Holy Quran is antiquated. All these are its newer instruments. Their newness does not warrant newness of the Quran. All these are dresses, manifestations and are therefore of newer appearance. What effect they could have on the essence of Quran?
OVERBEARANCE AND DESTINY (Jabar wo Qadr - جبرو قدر)
One person has shaking palsy (Ra'asha - رعشہ) from whose hand the dagger fell down and caused injury to the hand of a certain person. Another person attacked his enemy and slashed his head from the body. The first person wielding no authority and the second person wielding authority is obvious and undeniable. But tell, is human independent in his 'will' or his 'will' is subordinated to the 'will' of Allah? Human 'will' and his deeds are subordinated to the divine 'omnipotence' and 'will'. This is because, servant's 'will' is the deed of the 'possible' and is from the 'possibilities'. One 'possible' cannot create another 'possible'. And 'bestowal of the Being' (ata-e-wajood - اعطاء وجود) is from the 'magnificence of the Independent' (Shaan-e-Wajib - شانِ واجب). A dark object, cannot illuminate another dark object. One dead cannot put life into another dead body. Is this 'over bearance' or 'destiny'? It is neither over bearance nor destiny. It is a middle course of the two. In case of over bearance, Allah will be considered as an oppressor. (Astaghfirullah). Destiny means when the servant has independent authority and 'will' and this in the case of difference with the divine authority and 'will', if subordinated to divine 'authority' and 'will', it will be again the same 'over bearance. Or if all human beings' 'will' is independent, then there won't be an order in the universe and servants' 'will' will not be the creation of God.
If some things turn out to be non-creatures, and also if all the things become non-creatures, what is wrong about it? Then the belief in God becomes unnecessary.
In consideration of a 'deficient cause' (illat-e-Naqisa - علّتِ ناقصہ), the creatures have authority. In consideration of 'constant cause' (illat-e-tamma - علّتِ تامّہ), they have helplessness.
As per Islamic theologians (mutakallimeen - مُتکلمین), the servant has an authority and is responsible for his actions. With Sufis (people of obligatory excellence), the servant has no authority. Sufi's vision is on the 'Sustainer of the Worlds'. Remember 'over bearance' stops others' functions from external power. Here it is not 'over bearance'. It is a necessity. It is the major ramification of wisdom that after the grandfather, there will be son and after the son, there will be grandson. Here the anklets of chain are joined with each other and are in sequence, in order. Here, in the proposition of the series of causes and effect, servants deed and 'will' also has a link. In short, it is [neither over bearance nor destiny].
In the eyes of the magistrate the offender is having free 'will'. In the eyes of the philosopher, whose vision is on the series of causes, or on the constant cause, the offender is helpless and wields no authority. Because with the existence of a constant cause, non-existence of effect is impossible.
Whatever deeds are there after the 'will', these wield power. The 'will' itself and before the 'will' whatever deeds are there, these do not wield power.
If the 'will' is not without 'will', but with 'will', then for the 'will', there is a 'will', for which a 'will' is indispensable which is necessary for the continuity.
مقصد میرا وہی ہے جو مطلب ہے یارکا
میں اپنے اختیار میں بے اختیار ہوں
(My intent is the purport of my Friend (Allah). In my authority, I wield no power.).
The servant has partial authority, not total. He has authority with respect to his deeds. With respect to 'Cosmic Administration, destiny, and divine knowledge, he does not have authority. The authority is manifested and perceivable. Weiling no authority is plausible and is a limit on it.
In short, the one who does not have 'will', who does not wield power, is an insane person and he is not responsible for abiding the law also.
Since the 'possible' cannot create another 'possible', let this be his person or deed, the creatures are not the creators of their deeds, but are the perpetrators of deed.
If someone is made responsible to do something, the action to be accomplished by him is not necessary unless the action itself is commanded 'Be' in order for the action to appear in certainty.
If some action is commended and that action is in conformity wit the 'comprehensive capacity' and 'factual exigency' of the commanded, then first its will is given, then the action is commnded 'Be' for it to appear.
If somebody is commanded for certain action and if his nature and veracity does not accept it and the action is contrary to his 'probate archetype' and exigency of his facts, then neither the action is commanded 'Be', nor the action appears from him. But even in this case also, he is commanded through the 'divine universal law'. The objective is to expose the inability of that person and also his nature. His temperament unequivocally declines the exposition of the action from his state even though theoretically he seeks to perform that action. Thus, 'Absolutely Wise' (Allah) gives consideration to the factual exigencies.
THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE NEOTERIC AND ETERNALLY ANTIQUATED (Rabt-e-Haadis bi-Qadeen - ربطِ حادِث بقدیم)
THE STATE OF MODULATION AND CREATION (Kaifiyat-e-Ja'al wo Khalq - کیفیتِ جعل و خلق)
What type of relation is there between Allah and Servant? Is it similar to the relation between a table and a carpenter that are different from each other? The carpenter cleared the wooden planks, joined them with nails and fixed the legs after tuning them on lathe. Made drawers and fixed handles to them and covered the table with decolam. No, never. The Being (Wajood - وجود) is 'Precise Divine Unity' (ain-e-Zaat-e-khudawandi - عین ذاتِ خداوندی). Nothing is emerged out of it. Occe the table is made, it is not dependent on the carpenter. Every moment 'the possible' is indigent on the 'Independent' (Allah). The 'Absolute exigency of dependence of the 'possible' can never part from it.
Is the relation between the 'possible' and the 'Independent' similar to the relation between the egg and the chic, meaning the egg has become chic, so to say, God has become Servant. Astaghfirullahal Azeem. This is revolution of facts. Allah is الآن کما کان - [not subject to change]. He is pure from imperfections and deficiencies.
Is Allah 'integral' (kul - کُل) and the things are 'His fragments' (Ajza - اجزا)? [I seek refuge from Allah from this kind of understanding]. Existence of 'integral' (whole/full) is dependent on the existence of the fragments. The 'integral' is dependent on the fragments in its ascertainment and existence. First are parts, then comes the whole. Let a thousand worlds be annihilated, it does not affect 'His exalted Unity (Zaat-e-saami-e-samaat - ذاتِ سامی سمات). On 'Independent' (Wajib - واجب), everything is dependent. The 'Independent' is not dependent on anything.
ممکن بود امکاں کہ ہمہ عجز و نیازست
سرمایۂ دولت چہ سلاطیں چہ خدم را
(This Persian couplet is from poet Urfi's encomium he wrote in praise of Khankhana. Meaning, the servant always remains a servant, whether it is King or pauper. The money is required by both of them for their necessities of life)
Is 'Independent' a state, and the possible, a place? God forbid. When the place is divided, then the 'state' also gets divided. Thus state's dependence is on the place.
Is the making or the unmaking of possibilities makes any difference to the 'Independent'. The 'Independent' is absolutely adept. His sobriety is eternally antiquated.
Is the 'possible' and the 'Independent' like the river and the wave? Never. The waves in the river appear because of the movements of air. Here what is there outside Allah to come to meet and create that hypothesis?
Is the 'Independent' and 'possible' like spider and its cobweb? The spider makes a network of threads spun from a liquid secreted by it. Never. Nothing can emerge out of 'His Unity' His Unity is precise being. Also, when the spider dies, the cobweb remains. The existence of 'possible' without 'Independent' is impossible.
Is it like a seed which was in abstract form before becoming tree? Never. There is a change in the seed to become tree. When it became tree, where is the seed? Also when soil, water and carbonic acid gasses mixed, the tree has come into being. What is there other than Allah which could mix with Him to make 'servant'? Allah is neither a part of anything nor anything is a part of Allah.
Is Allah 'Integral' and things His fractions? Never. The totality is derivative and conjecture which is derived from the parts. Allah's existence is 'absolute entity' (maujood bizzaat - موجود باالذات). His is 'Primordial Being' (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی). Allah and derivative? (God forbid).
Is Allah body and servant His image? Never. Here what is absolute excepting Allah which could become the mirror and reflect the image.
The 'Being' is the body, Himself is the image, Himself is the mirror; neither body is the image nor mirror is the body or is contrary.
Am I something, or simply nothing? If you are there, then it will amount to 'polytheism of the Being' (shirk fil wajood - شرک فی الوجود). 'Credible fractional reflective existence' (wajood-e-Juzwi Haqeeqi - وجودِ جزوی حقیقی) is not dividable and is dependent in 'Divine Unity. Rather it is 'Precise Unity (ain-e-Zaat-e-Haq - عین ذات حق). If I am not there, then who is this talking? And the faults and defects are manifested from whose person? Are these from 'divine Unity? (God forbid). The Almighty is complete and perfect. He is the 'Precise Being' (ain-e-wajood - عینِ وجود) which is 'absolutely virtuous' (khair-e-mahaz - خیر محض).
Has the 'Being' (wajood - وجود) become 'Unfound' (Adum - عدم)? This is revolution of facts (Inqilab-e-Haqeeqat - انقلابِ حقیقت).
Is there a manifestation of the 'Being' in 'Unfound'? What is 'Unfound' in which the 'Being' could manifest. ثَبِّتِ العَرشَ ثُمَّ انقُش [An Arabic idiom, meaning, first you prove the empyrean (arsh - عرش), then its embellishments].
An explanation is required here. There is a Quranic verse - [The Compassionate is sitting on the Empyrean] (Ta Ha - 5). Some deviant sects like Salafis/Ikhwan/Deobandis and their like minded incarnate Allah in their minds and try to prove a physical body for Him.
Sufia-e-Karam and Muslim theologians have made this idiom to alert people not to incarnate and try to prove a physical body for Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) imagining the empyrean (arsh - عرش) as a King's throne.
I am neither non-existent nor existent? This is the height of contraries. Then what is the make out of this puzzle and this enigma?
This is known that the 'probate archetypes' (ayaan-e-thabita - اعیانِ ثابتہ) are the 'Divine awareness' (ma'aloomat-e-Elahiya - معلوماتِ الٰہیہ) and they do not exist outside, as there is nothing outside except 'Divine Unity'. Now two questions arise. Firstly, are 'probate archetypes modulated and creatures? Secondly, can these be subjected to external commands? And what is the status of this?
The answers for these questions is, in order for traces to appear on the probate archetypes, it is not just sufficient that they are known to allah, but it is important that there is a contact between 'the facts and archetypes (Haqa'eq aur ayaan - حقائق واعیان) and the 'Divine epithets' (Asma-e-Elahiya - اسماء الٰہیہ). Or we can say that the epithets and attributes of Allah joined in a specific ratio and fling the refulgence (tajalli - تجلی) on the probate archetypes.
It is evident that for appearance of 'probate archetype', refulgence of a divine epithet is required. If the probate archetype is integral, the epithet of Allah will also be integral. When probate archetype is fractional, the divine epithet will also be fractional. If it is common, then the divine epithet will also be common and if it is specific, then the divine epithet will also be specific. The Probate archetype is known as 'sustainable' (marboob - مربوب) and the divine epithet is its 'Sustainer (rab - رب). The probate archetype is called 'phenomenon (Mazhar - مظہر) and the Divine epithet is called its 'manifestation'. This divine epithet is a compound made out of the mother epithets and attributes. The mother attributes mix up among themselves in varied ratios as a result of which various compound epithets and attributes are born and manifested. The epithets have different 'natures and traces'. When probate archetype join with divine epithet, phenomenon with manifestation, and the sustainable with the sustainer, the creature is born. Or we say that the probate archetype comes into being when it gets the refulgence of the epithets of 'life, knowledge, hearing, seeing, omnipotence, will and speech in a specific ratio. From this explanation do not get the impression that when these epithets are 'sustainers', they have independent innate of their own. No, there is only one divine unity. All His epithets and attributes are derivable. In reality, there is only one 'Absolute Unity which is divine unity. Excepting it, there is nothing which is absolute. Divine Unity envelops everything, including probate archetypes. It is in Quran - أَلَا إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّحِيطٌ [He encircles everything] (Fussilat - 54).
COMPOUND, NEOTERIC AND CONJECTURAL (Murakkab, Haadis and Eitebaari - مرکب، حادث اور اعتباری)
Look, the elements, when compounded in a specific ratio, become the fact of the tree, and on them the 'traces and commands' (Aasaar wo Ahkaam - آثار و احکام) of tree are drawn. In trees also, there are thousands of kinds and species. Wood is distinct, leaf is distinct, flower is distinct, and fruit is distinct. Then color is different, smell is different, shape and form is different, properties and advantages are different. Is not mango tree and mango itself and Guava tree and Guava itself real? Definitely, they are sensed, witnessed and are in existence outside and subjected to draw commands on. From literate to illiterate, young or old, no one can deny these facts. Now ask the chemist, what does he say? He will say that Mango, Guava and their trees are nothing. The compounds of elements of a specific ratio are known as mango and Guava trees or mango and guava. The analysis of the chemist ends with elements. The analysis of Sufis reach to the epithets of Allah. To them, the divine epithets compounded in a specific ratio when flinge specific refulgence on the facts of mango and guava, these are born or become manifested.
Where are the elements? They are concealed in mango and guava. Where are the divine epithets? They are hidden in all the things.
Let the mango or guava be there or not there, but they are not permanent and absolute. Permanent and absolute are the elements. Similarly, we are there but not permanent and absolute.
Ask the philosopher, what does he say? These elements are also not permanent things. The amorphous (Hayula - ہیولیٰ) and form ( soorat - صورت) are permanent. Or the particles of ether are real. Or the matter is real. Are these the different aspects of the matter? Ask the obligacellent of Testimony (Shuhoodi Sufi - شھودی صوفی), what does he say? He will say 'divine epithets and attributes' are the real things. Or the 'divine knowledge and omnipotence' is the real thing. Or it is the reflection of the veracity of epithets (haqeeqat-e-Asma - حقائق اسماء) on 'Unfound' (Adum - عدم). Ask the 'Existential Obligacellent (Wajoodi Sufi - وجودِی صوفی), what does he say? He will say, only one Divine Unity is real, factual, permanent and absolute. The Universe and whatever is there in the Universe are all the manifestations of the Divine Unity which are derivable and conjectural (Inteza-ee wo Eitebaari - انتزاعی واعتباری).
FORMATION OF TRACES ON CONJECTURAL REALITY (Eitebari Haqeeqat per tarteeb-e-Aasaar (اعتباری حقیقت پر ترتیبِ آثار )Is there anyone among chemist, philosopher, Testimonial Sufi (Shuhoodi Sufi - شھودی صوفی), and 'Existential Sufi' (Wajoodi Sufi - وجودِی صوفی), who says guava is mango, branch is stem, flower is fruit. No one. Thoroughly ignorant and rarest dumpsters are those who talk like this. Every meaning, every fact is a truth and correct at its place. It is required to honor the obligations of everything. If you do not honor its right, it will itself attain its right forcibly. Eat arsenic calling it edible lime and see how does it relish. Women call snakes as 'rope' in the night. But touch this rope and watch the show. This rope becomes the garland of poison around neck. Even a small, innocent kid runs after the sweet mango and runs away from the sour, distasteful medicine.Very ill mannered is the person who does not acknowledge these facts. Before opposing the religious laws he should be first courageous to resist the governmental and natural laws. The opposition to the statutory laws will result in physical punishment and rigorous imprisonment to remove the viel of ill mannerism from his eyes. The resistence of the law of nature will either drown him or burn him to death.Believe it, whoever will oppose the laws of Sharia, he will be doomed in accordance with this Quranic verse خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةَ [He will be looser in this world and in Hereafter.] (Al-Hajj - 11). Everything has a fact and every fact has different traces and every trace has a different command. To deny the previleges to deserving is oppression, a gloomy oppression and cruel tyranny.ہرمرتبہ از وجود حکمے دارد
گر حفظ مراتب نہ کنی ذندیقی(Every state of the 'Being' has its own commands. If we do not honor the rights of every state, it is hypocrisy.)THE EXTERNAL ENTITY (Maujood fil Kharij - موجود فی الخارج)When there is none in external existence except Allah, then are not all of us in existence outside? Don't you see the things around you? Without doubt you see them and all these things are outside your knowledge and thought. Therefore, they are existing externally. But you and whatever is around you is in existence in the knowledge of Allah. They are not outside His knowledge, and are not existing by themselves. Therefore, all these things are things in thought. Yes, without doubt, they are the things in thought, rather things in knowledge. But this thought or knowledge is not yours. This is Allah's thought which cannot be set aside by anyone. You may have control on your thought, but you have no control on yourself. Because you are Allah's thought or knowledge.تماشہ گاہ ہے عالم کسی اُستادِ کامل کا
یہ ہم تم کیا ہیں گویا سینما کی چند تصویریں(This world is a theater of a perfect director. You and me are mere a few pictures of the cinema.)Shaikh says that he had written an article titled 'thought of mine' in 'Al-Noor' Urdu Magazine where he had described this issue in detail.TRINITY (Taslees - تثلیث)It is considered appropriate to discuss briefly about the 'basics of trinity or the genesis of the origins of trinity; ie., Father - Son - Holy Ghost in the understanding of which hundreds of millions of minds are confused and bewildered. Shaikh interprets and explains the issue as follows:The Father is purported for the 'Unity of God' from whose 'sanctified beneficence (Faiz-e-Aqdas - فیض اقدس) son, meaning, the Probate archetype (Ain-e-sabita - عینِ ثابتہ) emerged in the 'Divine Knowledge'. Since for every probate archetype, there is a specific refulgence which is flinging as a result of the specific combination and knotting of the divine epithets and attributes; this specific refulgence without which the traces of being; life, knowledge and omnipotence, do not appear, is called 'the holy ghost (Roohul Qudus - روح القدس).If these people (Christians) were aware of these facts, they would not have understood 'trinity' as permanent, neither would have considered 'son' in the sense of a son with human body and Jesus (عليه السلام) as specifically connected with the son ship. They would have also understood the meaning of the utterance O'our Heavenly Father.This also is the basis of the religion of those who believe in Geo (Atma - آتما), matter (prakriti - پرکرتی) and God. The meaning of Atma (rooh - روح) is the refulgence of specific epithet. The matter means probate archetype and God means Almighty only. Some people also believe in 'Aakaash', meaning outer space, which means the expanse of the divine knowledge in which probate archetype emerges.All worlds are the deportments (appearances) of Divine knowledge. The way we were in the knowledge of Allah, we still remain the same. The knowledge of Allah has different deportments (Atwaar - اطوار) and their natives (each of them) have different commandments. Every state has different traces.نُمودِ جُنبِشِ نوکِ قلم ہیں ساری تحریریں
عوالم کیا ہیں عِلمِ ذات کی ہیں چند تفسیریں(All writings are the appearances resulting from the movement of the nib of the pen. All worlds are merely a few images of Allah's knowledge.)INCREDULITY, PRESUMPTION AND CONJECTURE (Wahem, Farz wo Eitebaar - وہم ، فرض و اعتبار)It should be clear that the words 'incredulity (وہم), presumption (فرض) and conjecture (اعتبار) are used in two meanings, as follows:(i) In the meaning of absolute contrivance, self fabricated, without head and tail, and devoid of intention. Like the teeth of jack o lantern or the horn on the head of donkey or wings of the horse.(ii) In the meaning of such an incredulous thing which does not have a permanent external existence, but there is an 'intention' and 'derivative' for it. Meaning, there will be something permanently existing externally with which we derive this non-permanent 'thing' for understanding. Like looking at earth and sky, we derive the meanings of below and above and consider sky to be up and earth to be down. As a matter of fact, both sky and earth have external existence. But it is also a fact that the meaning of up and down have been derived from them. This type of thing is known as 'incredible fact of the matter' (Wahmi Nafsul-amri - وہمی نفس الامری) and 'factually conjectural' (Eitebaari Waqqa'ee - اعتباری واقعی) . It is not 'incredible contrivance' (Wahmi Iqtira'ee - وہمی اِختراعی).
Is there a person in this world who does not regard day as bright and night as dark; or fire as hot and ice as cold; or son to be younger than father and part to be smaller than whole. All these are conjectural, derivatives and incredulous things but are not self fabricated, absurd and lie. There is a lot of difference between the ‘ignorant non-Muslim sophists’ (Sofasta-ee Naadaan - سوفسطائی نادان) and Muslim Sufis who are on the right path of Islam. There is a big difference between the two even though both say that the existence of things is ‘incredulous and presumptive’. As the non-Muslim Sophist’s vision does not reach 'Almighty’s intention', he considers everything as incredulous in the sense of ‘contraption’. The vision of the Muslim Sufi does not deviate from Unity and Intention. Therefore, he considers incredulous in the meaning of ‘factual derivative’ (intezaa-ee Haqeedi - انتزاعی حقیقی). Muslim Sufis are on the right path of truth.
سوفسطائی کہ از خرد بے خبراست
گوید عالم خیالے اندر گزر است
آرے عالم ہمہ خیال است ولے
پیوستہ درو حقیقتے جلوہ گراست
(The Non-Muslim Sophist’s mind is ignorant. Therefore, he says the world is fictitious and self fabricated. Yes, it is a fact that the world is a thought, but this thought is the manifestation of the truth (of Almighty Allah) - Jami.
With students-like verbal fights, the fun of conversation and emotions is ruined. لِکُلِّ مَقَالٍ مَجَال [There is an expression for every occasion]. There is a style of expression which is distinct from the discussion of hindrance about the limitations of logical expression’s comprehensive ascertainment.]
GRACE FOR EXIGENCY (Ri'aa-yet-e-Iqtedha - رعایتِ اِقتضاء)
It should be clear that to avoid conflict of conjecture of one state with the other, taking care of the obligations of the distinctive features at the time of exposition of commonality with the ‘common features’ to serve every ‘fact’ as per its exigency is the specialty of Islamic Sufism. Slightest negligence will amount to either ‘polytheism’ or ‘hypocrisy or atheism. On one hand there is a moat, the other side is the ditch. This path is sharper than the edge of the sword. With Allah’s beneficence only one can get across it. The books of all religious venerable are full of teachings of ‘freedom from confinements’, ‘revelations about the divine’ and requirement of ‘attention towards the Absolute Being. All skilled teachers, the people of knowledge and intelligence (not illiterates and foolish), stress upon the importance of ‘monotheism’ (Tauheed - توحید).
The reason is people’s attention is towards the ‘perceptive’, and it is so strong that if it is not considered a denial of the ‘unperceptive’, it is definitely a gross ignorance. In such circumstances, the Muslim Sufis’ attempt to divert your attention towards ‘unperceptive’ and ‘Absolute’, and monotheism of the 'Primodial Being' (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی) is not unwarranted. The one who is frozen in ice, has to be soaked in heat, which is precise wisdom. Let this person be left alone in the sun the whole day. When he becomes alright, he will walk back on his own feet.
Also, keep one thing in mind. When you are alone, when there are no obligations connected with ‘confinements’ (creatures), total attention towards the 'Absolute' (Allah) is our duty. When you see people, when you deal with them, then without negligence towards divinity, without eschewal of Almighty, carryout the obligations of the creatures, keeping your attention towards the epithets of Allah. The one who keeps both pans of the scale in balance, whose weight and measurement is absolutely harmonious and who is not one among the people described in this verse of Quran - وَيْلٌ لِّلْمُطَفِّفِينَ [There is grief fro those who indulge in fraud in weight and measurement.] (Al-Mutaffifin – 1); what praise can be described for them. They are the true followers of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Shaikh says that he also considers that person better who, in the heat of affection and emotional attachment, has become insane (and has become reflection of this Hadith اُذكرو اللهَ حتى يقولوا مجنون [You invocate Allah to an extent that people call you insane] (Hadith Ahmed, Baihaqi, Tabarani, etc.). He has made the pan for the love of Almighty heavier than the pan of creatures.
Those oppressors, on whose tongue neither the word of Allah finds a place, nor the word God is there in their dictionaries and who consider Allah and the religion as religious teachers’ babble, are indeed deplorable. These unfortunate people present Quranic verses in the parables of delusions and in the arguments of the rights of justice, in spite of their keeping Muslim names, show their preference to be Non-Muslims. Motions are forwarded in conferences urging religious education to be discontinued from the Government Schools. Allah save Islam and Muslims from such people.
Since the issue of ‘Refulgent Name’ (Ism-e-Mutajallah - اِسمِ مُتجلی) and ‘probate archetype’ (Ain-e-saabita - عینِ ثابتہ) is very delicate, I once again would provide you divergent detail which may probably help in the understanding of some servant of God.
In Unity and Divine Being (zaat wo wajood-e-Haq - ذات و وجودِ حق), and Divine names (epithets) and attributes, absoluteness and permanence is regarded as ‘primal' (fundamental) for the state of ‘Indefinity’. In innate (zaat - ذات), ‘being’ (wajood - وجود) and capabilities of the possible, its impermanence, conjecture and multiplicity is kept in view.
It should be clear that by the mixture and assemblage of attributes and epithets of Allah, when the ‘affinities’ (liaisons/ratios) are born, two conjectures are associated with them.
With the mixture of specific ratios, the uniqueness of a fact’s nature and essence is known which is termed as the ‘fact of the possibility’ and 'probate archetype'. This specific ratio and mode on whom is the dependence of the fact of the possible, is termed as ‘fact of Allah’ and divine epithet. And as per the ‘fact and archetype’ of the possible, the divine fact or specific epithet appears and takes command, a conjectural thing is accepted to be existing outside, and on it, traces appear and commands employed.We can understand it from the following example.
Water is a hypothetical fact and is ‘contingent entity'. The water is existent upon a specific ratio of hydrogen and oxygen, which is two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen. The chemist knows the fact of the things which are born as a result of combination of various ratios of hydrogen and oxygen. Like water, hydrogen per oxide, etc. This is the example of ‘probate archetypes’ of creatures and facts of possibilities. And the affinities on which the dependence of the ‘facts of things rests, are the example of the divine facts, specific epithet or specific refulgence (Tajalli - تجلی). When chemist joins two parts of hydrogen with one part of oxygen, then the water which was an imaginative or the thing in knowledge, becomes real and actual thing. And at this stage it is called external water. And the attributes of satisfying thirst, and vegetation are associated with it. See in chemist’s knowledge the fact of the water is there. He has the molecular ratio of H2O in mind. Oxygen and hydrogen are there outside. When they together appear outside, the water also appears to be existing outside. The example of the epithets of Allah is like hydrogen and oxygen. The affinity between them is the example of the specific divine name or the divine fact. And the water is the example of the external archetype.
Look outside it appears as water, whose dependence is on the specific ratio of hydrogen and oxygen .
Is water a real thing? The general people will say that, yes definitely it is. We drink it and use it in various needs. Ask the chemist, he will say that the real thing is only hydrogen and oxygen. Ask a philosopher, he will say it is matter. Ask ‘Testimonial Sufi (Shuhoodi Sufi - شھودی صوفی), he will say they are only ‘divine epithets. Ask an Existential Sufi (Wajoodi Sufi - وجودِی صوفی), he will say it is only divine unity.
Here a question arises. Among hydrogen, oxygen and water which is plausible and cognitive (ma’qool wo ilmi - معقول و علمی) and which is manifest and perceptible (mash-hood wo mahsoos - مشھود ومحسوس)? It is a fact that water is a derivative and an exhibitive/designative thing. Hydrogen and oxygen are the real external things. Therefore, the water is ‘plausible’ and its elements are ‘perceptible’. Similarly, creatures are ‘plausible and divine epithets are perceptible. You consider further. The divine epithets are also derivable and plausible and divine Unity is manifest and perceptible. But the veil of ignorance has covered our vision and we are understanding a plausible thing to be perceptible and manifest, and to the real manifest thing to be non-manifest. اللهمَّ اَرِنَا حَقَايقِ الاشْيَاءِ كَمَا هِيَ [ O’Our Lord, kindly reveal us the facts of things as they are.] (Supplication of Hadith).
There is a subtlety here. The ‘Primordial Being’ (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi - وجودِ حقیقی) is colorless, beyond dimensional/spatial considerations and above human mind’s comprehensiveness of why and wherefore. But is existing outside. Therefore, whatever form / shape emerges in it will be known to be existing outside.
Some birds looking at their image in the mirror fight with it considering there is a bird in there. Some infants looking at their faces in mirror cuddle with it thinking there is a child in it. Some intelligent kids watch in the mirror and when somebody from behind comes and puts his image in the mirror, they turn back to see that person. Because they know that this is not the face in the mirror, it is coming from somewhere. Similar is the situation of the ignorant. When he looks a shape outside, he considers that the face has independent external existence. But the Gnostic (Aarif - عارف) understands that the face does not exist outside, but has come from the divine knowledge rather it is there in the divine knowledge and its external existence is visible outside. The spectacle is, neither I can see myself, nor the mirror. If the mirror is visible, it is not a mirror, it will be a piece of glass. In short, first the mirror is visible and then, through it the face is visible. But Barvo the mirror, O’mirror, you are visible, but not seen. What is this?
یا وجود ' انت الموجود ' وما سِواکَ مفقود
(O’Being, you are only existent. Other than you is non-existent.)
جو نہ ہو اسی کی نمود ہو، نہ نمود اصلِ وجود ہو
کوئی کیا بتائے کمال جو ، ہے خیالِ شعبدہ باز میں
(The non-appearance is His appearance, and the appearance is not the real existence. Who can express the dexterity in Allah’s deliberations).
خود نہاں اور عیاں اس سے نہا نہائے جہاں
حیرت انگیز ہے پیدائی کا پنہاں ہونا
(He Himself is latent, and Himself is divulged and the World’s concealment is because of Him. The shrouding of existence is a great astonishment.)
Shaikh says that he will now describe a few issues which have great diversity of opinions. However, after research, when their factual reality becomes obvious, these prove to be verbal dispute. Remember always that some people greatly enjoy denying the utterances of others. If you interpret it to the factual meaning, the conflicts disappear.
This often happens that two individuals’ visions are focused on two different aspects of the same thing and each denies the other. As a matter of fact, except for their deniel of each other, both are research scholars and both are correct and sincere in their resolve.
UNITY AND EXISTENCE ( Zaat wo Wajood - ذات و وجود)
Some people say that the ‘Independent Unity’ and ‘Innaty of the possibility’; and ‘Independent Being’ and the ‘Being of possible’ are completely different from each other. They consider ‘Absolute Being’ for Allah, and for ‘possible’, it is ‘contingent Being’ (dependent being). The divine unity is the ‘antecedent of virtue’ and the person or innate of possible is considered as ‘antecedent of evil. This doctrine is also correct and any truthful Sufi will not deny it. It’s place is the ‘world of creatures’ whether they are ‘corporeal beings’ (mujarridaat - مجرّدات), or ‘Similitudes' (Imsaal - اِمثال) or ‘perceptables’ (Mahsoosaat - محسوسات).
Shaikh says that, look, I am older than my children and have born earlier than them. Is not the happening of taking birth ‘coming to being’? My person/innate is different from my children’s innate/person/essence. Different traces are appearing on them. I am older, they are younger. I am father, they are children. Is not the person antecedent of attributes? Then how come possible’s dependent being, its inexistencia and conjectural person/essence be equated with ‘Independent’s Absolute Being and Divine Unity?
Some people say that the Unity of Independent and the person of possible are two different issues but the Being is one. The purport of these people is that the ‘antecedent of laudable qualities’ is the divine unity and the antecedent of deficiencies is the person of possible. Defects and deficiencies should not be associated with the divine Unity. These people refer 'Being' as the 'Absolute Primordial Being' (Wajood-e-Haqeeqi Biz Zaat - وجودِ حقیقی باالذات). This is the state of ‘Actiplicity’ (Wahidiyyat - واحدیت) and detailed knowledge. In the detailed divine knowledge of activity, all facts have distinction among themselves. But they do not have ‘external existence’ and are not subjected to traces. The Sufis call external existence as 'Being' and existence in knowledge as 'Evidence' (Suboot - ثبوت). The Being to be evidenced in Allah’s knowledge does not necessitates its external entity and subjected to traces . Something is there, is there in existence means it is externally existent and not in mind or knowledge. Can any meaning which is in the knowledge of Allah and having the being in knowledge can claim that it is an entity (Maujood - موجود). Never. This is the reason that the ‘Being/existence in knowledge' or mind is called 'Evidence' and 'external existence' is called 'the Being'.
Some Shuyookh believe in only one Unity which is Precise Being. Their ‘elevated vision is reaching the ‘Exalted State of Infinity’. By Unity they mean the Divine Unity and by existence of Being they mean the ‘Absolute Being'. It is evident that the Absolute Being is the precise Independent Unity. Their realistic vision is neither focused on the ‘contingent person' nor 'contingent being'. The possible does not have access in their focus. Their objective is on Unity which is Self Affirmed Being, which is Self Existent, which neither has a partner nor contrariety or look alike.وحدت میں تیری حرف دوئی کا نہ آسکے
آئینہ کیا مجال جو صورت دکھا سکے
(In the state of ‘indefinity’, there cannot be even a word of duality. The mirror cannot even show an image in it.)
Always remember that in discrepancies, only one supposition is inevitable. If one man perceives in view of one conjecture and the other denies it in view of a different perception, then matter of fact, both do not have a conflict or discrepancy. Like Zaid is in house and not in the market. Or Zaid is the son of Bakr. Or Zaid is the brother in law of Khaled and is the husband of the sister of Walid. What is the discrepancy in it.
ISSUES OF DIVERSITY OF OPINIONS (Ma’arekatul aa’raa masaa-yel - معرکۃُ الآرا مسائل)Whoever says that the 'probate archetypes (ayaan-e-sabita - اعیانِ ثابتہ) in knowledge and outside are modulated (maj'ool - مجعول), he takes 'modulation' (ja'al - جعل) in the meaning of 'Indigence (Ehtiyaaj - احتیاج). The probate archetypes, in knowledge and in outside existence, are dependent upon 'independent Almighty'. The knowledge (the sum of what is known) and awareness (subject knowledge) both of which are in knowledge, both are definitely dependent on 'the person of knowledgeable'. The derivatives are always dependent on the 'derived' (the person) and his intention.When someone says, the probate archetypes are not modulated in knowledge, but are modulated outside, he considers the awareness which are in knowledge and prior to the command of 'Be', are not modulated. When 'Be' is associated with the probate archetypes, then he considers them to have been modulated. In fact he considers the meaning of 'modulation' (جعل) as 'creation' (خلق). It is evident that after 'Be', the traces will appear and the 'external existence' will be bestowed and creatures will be born.When someone says that archetypes are absolutely not modulated. He also does not say it wrong. It is a fact that the 'divine knowledge' and 'divine awareness' are not neoteric (newer) (Haadis - حادث), rather the combination of knowledge and omnipotence, which is a conjectural aspect, is 'neoteric'. In his opinion, the 'possible' in its present existence has not emerged out of its 'original inexistencia' (adamiet-e-Asli - عدمیتِ اصلی), did not come into existence, or came into external being, otherwise it will result in 'revolution of facts (Inqilab-e-Haqaa'eq - انقلابِ حقائق).The one who believes in 'principle modulation' (ja'al-e-baseet - جعلِ بسیط), his attention is towards the appearance of the probate archetypes from sanctified beneficence (faiz-e-aqdas - فیضِ اقدس) into 'divine knowledge'.The one who is convinced of 'compound modulation' (ja'al-e-murakkab - جعلِ مرکب) and considers modulation in the meaning of the process from 'essence' (mahiyyet - ماھیت) to 'existence' (wajood - وجود), his vision is at the 'consecrated beneficence' (Faiz-e-Muqaddas - فیضِ مقدس) as everything which is known to Allah does not necessarily need to come into existence and to get 'traces of intention'. Rather to come into existence and get traces of intention, the probate archetype needs to meet with the primordial existence (wajood-e-Haqqa - وجودِ حقہ).The one who is not convinced of the 'divine attributes', in fact is denying the 'divine attributes' as contiguous or their permanent self existence. Because, the contiguous attributes has an independent existence other than the existence of the 'person', though feeble and insulated, but is there in reality. Like the white wash of the wall. And when the 'Being' is the 'precise Independent Self' (ain-e-zaat-e-wajib - عینِ ذاتِ واجب), then nothing can remain outside; neither permanent, nor associated. Thus divine attributes cannot be contiguous, these are derivable and are understood from the 'divine unity'.The one who is convinced of 'divine attributes' he considers them 'derivable'. The one who considers 'servant' (banda - بندہ) as authorized and empowered, his vision is inferior. He sees the 'world of manifestation' but does not see the divine reflectivity on the probate archetype.The one who considers 'possible' as powerless and un-authorized, he sees the archetype of the possible as 'absolute inexistencia' (adamiyet-e-zaati - عدمیتِ ذاتی). His vision is 'the vision of deliverance/annihilation (fanaa'eeyet - فنائیت).The one who considers 'possible' neither helpless nor empowered, he is in the 'state of collective endurance' (Jamaa wo baqaa - جمع و بقاء). His vision is on 'absolute' and 'confined' (itlaaq wo taq'eed - اِطلاق و تقعید) both. And he is the 'Soberiet/adept' (akmal - اکمل) and he only relishes the divine wisdom.Similarly, who is convinced of the 'divine vision' (ru'eeyat-e-Elahi - روئیتِ اِلہی), he looks at the 'similitude refulgences' (tajalliyaat-e-Misaali - تجلیاتِ مِثالی). It is in Quran - فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَجَلَ وَسَارَ بِأَهْلِهِ آنَسَ مِن جَانِبِ الطُّورِ نَارًا قَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوا إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا [And when Moses (عليه السلام) fulfilled the term and traveled with his wife, he perceived a fire in the direction of Mount Tur.] (Qasas - 29).The one whose vision is on Allah's purgative magnificence (Shaan-e-Tanzia - شانِ تنزیہ), his focus is on this. It is in Quran - لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ [There is nothing like Him.] (Ash-shura - 11), and لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ [No eyes can encircle Him.] (Al-An'aam - 103). Whatever be the case, the denial of refulgences (tajalliyaat) and their taking shape is indeed wrong.The person who is convinced of both 'simile (tashbeeha - تشبیہ) and 'purgation' (tanzeeha - تنزیہ) is a research scholar. He is the friend of divinity. He considers every refulgence as factual and also considers 'divine unity' as absolute.