CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

MUAWIYA'S (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) REIGN AS HEAD OF  STATE

 


 

It is in Hadith Bukhari - Ibn 'Abbas ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said to me and to his son Ali, "Go to Abu Sa'id ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and listen to what he narrates." So we went and found him in a garden looking after it.  He picked up his Rida', wore it and sat down and started narrating till the topic of the construction of the mosque reached. He said, "We were carrying one adobe at a time while 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was carrying two. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw him and started removing the dust from his body and said, "May Allah be Merciful to 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ). He will be killed by a rebellious, aggressive group. He will be inviting them to Paradise and they will invite him to Hell-fire." 'Ammaar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said, "I seek refuge with Allah from affliction." (Bukhari)


The opinions of Ahle Sunnah scholars on this issue is provided below:  
(i) Imam Abu Bakr al-Razi al-Jassas (d 992) wrote in his book "Ahkaam al-Quran: 


تقتلك الفئة الباغية وهذا خبر مقبول من طريق التواتر حتى إن معاوية لم يقدر على جحده لما قال له عبد الله بن عمر ، فقال: إنما قتله من جاء به فطرحه بين أسنتنا

(Meaning - "Ammar  ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) you will be killed by the rebellious group" This Hadith is a continuous Narration  (Hadith-e-Mutawatir) so much so that even Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) could not deny it when Abdullah Ibn Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) mentioned it to him. Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) replied : He was killed by those who brought him to our swords.").

 

(ii) Following Hadith is reported twice in Musnad Imam Ahmed with a sound chain:
قال عمرو : سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : تقتله الفئة الباغية ، فقال له معاوية : دحضت في بولك أي زللت و زلقت - أو نحن قتلناه ، إنما قتله علي و أصحابه جاءوا به حتى ألقوه بين رماحنا (Meaning - "Amru said that I heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying Ammar Yaasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) will be killed by the rebellious group". Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) replied: 'Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions killed him because they brought him to our spears!)

When this news reached Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), he said that on this logic,  then Hadhrat Ameer Hamza ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was killed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) because he took him to the kuffar in the battle of Uhud! Watch the following video clip, the Salafi terrorists have bombed and destroyed the mausoleum  of Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Syria in 2013.  He was killed by the rebellious group and his mausoleum was destroyed by Salafi Sky Idol God worshipers.  

 

 

 

(iii) Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) said - "I do not regret anything more than the fact that I did not fight against the rebel Group (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (Ibn Abdul Barr  in  Al-Istiab ) (iv) Imam Shafi'i said - " I derived the rulings about Rebels from the battles of Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) with Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) (Ibn Hajr Makki in Tatheer al-Janan, page 30) (v) Imam Mohammed Ibn Ismail al-Sana'ani said - "The Hadith of Ammar Yasir ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) is a proof that rebel party is Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and those in his party;  and the Party of truth is Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his companions and there is Ijma of ahl al-sunna on this position". (Sharah Subul as-Salam upon bulugh al-maram of Imam Ibn Hajar Makki  V3, P 358).

(vi) Imam abd al-Rauf al-Manawi said - "It (Rebels) is the party of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) (Fath al-Qadeer)

(vii) Imam Mohammed Shaybani the student of Imam Abu Hanifa wrote - "If Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) had not fought with Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) whilst He (Muawiya - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )  was a Dhalim, Unjust and Rebel,  who transgressed,  then we would not have known the rulings for fighting with Rebels. (Hanafi Tabqat, al-Jawahirn al-Mudiya) (viii) Hanafi Fiqh book 'Al-Hidaya' mentions under Chapter titled "Adab al-Qadhi" as follows: "To be appointed as Judge by an unjust ruler is allowed, like from a just ruler, because Sahaba became judges under Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) whilst the truth was with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ )."

(ix) Mulla Ali Qari al-Hanafi wrote - "Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and his supporters can be called in khata, rebellion, khuruj and fasaad but to send la'nah upon them is not allowed" ( Sharah Shifa, volume 2, page 556). There are a number of other similar references, like Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas al Hanafi, Imam Shawkani, Imam al-Jurjani, and others.

(x) Imam al-Manawi (1545 - 1621), known for his works on 'Early History of Islam' and 'History of Sufism' wrote in his book  Fayd al-Qadeer  with reference to Imam Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani's (1007-1078) Aqeeda:

وقال الإمام عبد القاهر الجرجاني في كتاب الإمامة: أجمع فقهاء الحجاز والعراق من فريقي الحديث والرأي ، منهم مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة والأوزاعي والجمهور الأعظم من المتكلمين والمسلمين ، أن علياً مصيب في قتاله لأهل صفين كما هو مصيب في أهل الجمل ، وأن الذين قاتلوه بغاة ظالمون له ، لكن لا يكفَّرون ببغيهم

(Meaning - There is Ijma of Jurists of Hijaz (Makka and Madina) and Iraq (Kufa and Basra), amongst them Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Awzai and majority of theologians and Muslims that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) was on Haq in his fight against the people of Siffeen and those who fought him were Oppressive Mutineers (Zaalim Baghis) but were not kafir for their rebellion.)

(xi) The famous Ahle Sunnah Imam al-Barzanji (1640-1703), the Chief Mufti of Madinah (buried in Jannat ul Baqi) wrote in his book "Ishrat al-Sa'a" as follows: 

"It was a false pretext of Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) to justify his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) under the guise of revenge for the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) because when he completely attained the power and became ruler of the whole State, he never opened the case of the murder of Hadhrat Uthman ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) and did not arrest the murderers though he claimed earlier that the killers were still around. This  proves that all his fight was for worldly rule under the deceit of revenge for the murder."

Needless to say that we, the Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a, respect all Sahabah.  However, distinction among the status of Sahabah is an established fact from Quran and Sunnah. If you do not keep this distinction in mind, you have strayed, you have lost the right path of Islam.  There is consensus (Ijma) of Ahle Sunnah Ulema about the merits of Sahabah in the following order.   

 
(i)  Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعین).
 
(ii) The Ten Companions who were promised paradise. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Ibn Maja).
 
(iii) The Senior Companions  who fought at Badr.
 
(iv) The Companions who gave Bay'at al-Ridwân under the Tree.
 
(v) The Companions who accepted Islam after the fall of Makka.  Muawiya ( رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ) belongs to this category.

As we have described above, Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has been a subject of debate among Muslims for about 1400 years. He is praised by some people and condemned by others. Also there are differences of opinion among Ahle Sunnah Ulema about him.

There are 2 distinct groups among Muslims in this context.  

(i) Those who claim love of Ahle Baite-at-haar but accuse and abuse Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Sahabah.  Like Shia Ithna Ashari, Zaidi and other groups who also hate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for his fight against Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه).  In their blind hate, they shower choicest abuses on Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). Needless to say that they have lost the right path of Islam.    

(ii) Those  who single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and  spend their lives in his over-glorification knowing fully well that their behavior undermines the importance and sacrifices made by Khulafa-e-Rashideen and Ahle Baite At Haar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنهم اجمعين ) in the eyes of people.   

Every Muslim respects Sahabah and praises them individually and collectively. But Muawiyeen behave strangely. They praise one to undermine other Sahabah. They single out Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) among Sahabah and shower excessive praises and place him equal in status with Khulafa-e-Rashideen.  In order to justify their behavior, they give references from Quran and Sunnah about generalized praise of Sahabah, and taking it as a  cover,  they write books, conduct seminars, sing encomiums over-glorifying Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in their choicest terms

There are two sub groups of this category. 

(a) Salafis, Ikhwan, Deobandis, and their like minded groups claim Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was on Haq in his fight with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They claim that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) should have surrendered to Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه  ) as was done by his son Imam Hassan ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They also claim that  Yazid was a pious Khalifa.  They add   رضئ الله تعالی عنه with Yazid's name and claim that Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was at fault. They say Karbala was a political episode. They blame Imam Hussain ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) to be a Mutineer who revolted against a just Khalifa. (Astaghfirullahal azeem).

(b) Muawiyeen and their like minded claim that both Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) were right in their fight with each other. They equate Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in spite of the fact that Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was the Khalifa-e-Rashid and Head of Islamic nation and Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) was a Governor of a Province under him. There were 12 provinces of Islamic State at that time. They choose Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) for their over-praise and keep their mouth shut about Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ).  They write books, conduct Seminars, Conferences, shower accolades, sing  praises and  scream slogans and emphasize Muawiya's (رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) importance and greatness among Sahabah. They claim Muawiya (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) was Khalifa-e-Rashid and Amir-ul-Momineen on par with Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and other  Khulafa-e-Rashideen.   They proudly say that they are the defenders of Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). They cite references from Quran and Sunnah about the praise of Sahabah in general, and taking it as a cover,  over glorify Muawiya ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) in the choicest terms possible. 
 

Read more about Muawiyeen and their beliefs