SAHIH AL- MU'ATTA
ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND GUIDE BY
SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين
Hadith books were originally written in Arabic. Later these were translated into other languages. The need for authentic Ahle Sunnah English translations and guides of Ahadith books explaining the facts in the light of Quran and Sunnah was felt for a longtime as the English translations of Ahadith Books by deviant sects do not meet Sahih Iman requirement of Islam.Currently, English Translations and Guides of the following 7 major books of Ahadith are being uploaded on our Network websites.More Ahadith books will be added later. We aim at creating an Ahle Sunnah, multilingual database of Ahadith.
BOOKS OF AHADITH
A brief account of books of Ahadith, classification of Ahadith and categories of the books of Ahadith is given below.
There are two main sources of Islamic Sharia, Quran and Sunnah. Quran is the word of God, while the Hadith is its translation into pragmatic terms, as exemplified by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). These two sources are inter related because it is not possible to understand Qur’an without reference to Ahadith; and it is not possible to explain a Hadith without relating it to Qur’an. The words 'Sunnah' and 'Hadith' are synonymous. Sunnah means 'the way' or conduct of life'. It refers to statements, acts, approvals and character descriptions attributed to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
During the life of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the emphasis was more on recording, memorizing and preserving Quran. However, some Sahabah used to write whatever the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said or did in their presence. It is reported that 1,060 Sahabah have narrated Ahadith from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
After the death of Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Sahabah shared and collected Ahadith. This continued for a few decades. Later, within the first two centuries, Hadith scholars conducted a thorough review of these Ahadith, tracing the origins of each Hadith along with the chain of narrators through whom the Hadith was related. The Ahadith which were verifiable were deemed authentic (Sahih) and other were either considered as weak or in some cases, concocted.During the time of Companions (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم اجمعين) and their Successors (تابعين), Islam spread to a large area in the world. It was this time when it became necessary to record Ahadith in a systematic way. During the era of the 'Successors of the successors' (تبه تابعين), Ahadith were systematically collected and written in a text format. The first such book was compiled by Imam Malik bin Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) titled 'Muatta' (موطأ). The period that followed, witnessed critical research by Hadith scholars. Ahadith were compiled systematically and were grouped under various headings. The history of collection of Ahadith can be summed up as follows.(i) First period (1st century AH) was the age of companions and their successor. This is known as the age of 'Saheefah' (صحيفه), like the collections of Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) and others. Among the well known manuscripts of Hadith collections of the first century Hijri are as follows.(a) 'As-Sahifa as-Sadiqa' of Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-Aas (d 63 H)(b) 'As-Sahifa as-Sahiha' of Hammam Ibn Munabbih (d 118 H), narrated from Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).(c) The collection of Aban Ibn Uthman (d 105 H) from whom Mohammad Ibn Ishaq narrated.(d) The collection of Urwa bin az-Zubair Ibn al-Awwam. This collection was burnt during the sack of Madina by Yazid bin Muawiya in 63 H.(e) Sira of Mohammad Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri ( d 120 H).(f) 'Munaqib as-Sahabah' by Asim Ibn Umar Ibn Qatada Ibn al-Numan al-Ansari (d 120 H), etc.(ii) The second period covers middle of second century AH that witnessed planned compilation of Ahadith, like Imam Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) compilation titled 'Muatta' (موطأ).(iii) The third stage began towards the end of second century AH, in which classified and organized work on Ahadith was carried out, like Musnad of Imam Ahmad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).(iv) The fourth and most important period is known as 'the period of Sahih'. It began at the beginning of third century AH, in which books like Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and others were compiled.
One of the common accusations made by non-Muslims against Islamic sciences and the study of Hadith is that there is no way of verifying the Hadith and that they should not be used as a source of Fiqh. This argument is based on a very rudimentary and flawed understanding of how the Ahadith were collected and the incredible care and effort Hadith scholars (محدثين) have taken in verifying their authenticity.
Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) used to judge the narration of every claimant of the tradition on the basis of the 'Principle of testimony.' Meaning, he would accept it only if two men, or one man and two women, would narrate the same thing. Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) used to ask the narration on oath and considered oath as one witness. All authentic Ahadith have been collected and published by our Imams of Ahadith in voluminous books. Every single Hadith has been investigated and it is clearly written the type of Hadith it is. In the encyclopedia of narrators, particulars and circumstances are investigated. All these books are elucidated and are pure from weak Ahadith. We are grateful and indebted to our Hadith scholars for their unparalleled work in the history of mankind. With the monumental work of our Hadith scholars, we are able to know what words and actions can truly be attributed to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) even after 1400 years of his life.
CLASSIFICATION OF AHADITH
Hadith is composed of three parts, viz., (i) Text (متن), (ii) Chain of narrators (اسناد) and (iii) 'Object' (طرف) - the text of the Hadith that refers to Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying, action, or concurrence of others' action.
The primary Hadith terminology (مُصْطَلَحُ الحَدِيْث) that specifies the acceptability of Ahadith developed by Hadith scholars, is as follows.
(i) As regards to the authority, there are 4 types of Ahadith, as follows.
(a) Divine (Qudsi - قدسي) Revelation of Allah relayed with the words of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
(b) Elevated (Murfu - مرفوع) Murfu Ahadith are narrated in the following manner, 'I heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying' -
(c) Stopped (Mauquf - موقوف) A Hadith narrated by the companion (صحابي) - for example, 'we were commanded to -'
(d) Severed (Maqtu - مقطوع) A narration from the 'successors of Sahabah' (تابعين).
(ii) As regards to the Chain of Narrators, there are 6 types of Ahadith, as follows
(a) Supported (Musnad - مُسند) A hadith which is reported by a Hadith scholar, based on what he learned from his teacher at a time of life suitable for learning. In turn his teacher learned it from his teacher until the chain reaches to a well known Sahabi and eventually to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Also Ahadith that are arranged in alphabetical order as per Sahaba names as narrators, are also included in this category.(iii) As regards to the number of reporters in the Chain of Narrators, there are 2 types of Ahadith, as follows.
(b) Continuous (Muttasil - متصل) A Hadith with an uninterrupted chain of narrators that goes back to a companion (صحابي) or a Successor (تابعي).
(c) Missing link (Mursal - مرسل) The link of the Hadith missing between the 'Successor' (تابعي), and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Like the Successor (تابعي) says, 'the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - .
(d) Broken Link (Munqati - منقطع) A Hadith whose link is broken before the successor (تابعي).
(e) Perplexed Link (Mu'dhal - معضل) A Hadith whose narrator omits two or more consecutive reporters in his Chain.
(f) Hanging Link (Mu'allaq - معلق) A Hadith whose narrator omits the entire chain of reporters and directly quotes the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
(a) Continuous (Mutawatir - متواتر) A Hadith which is reported consecutively by a large number of people in different chains, and it is not possible that they all will agree upon a lie. There are two kinds of Ahadith in this category, (1) Mutawatir in wording, and (2) Mutawatir in meaning.(b) Infrequent (Ahaad - اَحاد) A Hadith which is narrated by people whose number does not reach to the state of 'Perpetual Narration' (حديثِ متواتر).The 'Infrequent Hadith (حديثِ احد) is of three types, as follows.(1) Famous (Mash'hur - مشهور) A Hadith reported by more than two reporters.(2) Strong (Aziz - عزيز) A Hadith reported by two narrators.(3) Strange (Gharib - غريب) A Hadith reported by only one narrator.(iv) As regards to the nature of text and the chain of narration, there are 2 types of Ahadith, as follows.(a) Inconceivable (Munkar - منكر) A Hadith reported by a weak narrator and the text is against an authentic Hadith.(b) Interpolated (Mudraj - مدرج) A Hadith in which addition has been made in the text of Hadith by the narrator.(v) As regards to the reliability, there are 4 types of Ahadith, as follows.(a) Sound (Sahih - صحيح) A Hadith whose narrators are trustworthy in religion. Each narrator in the chain is truthful and understands how a different expression can alter the meanings of the Hadith. The narrator reports the Hadith verbatim, not just in meaning.(b) Good (Hassan - حسن) A Hadith whose source is known and the reporters are unambiguous.(c) Weak (Dha'eef - ضعيف) A Hadith that does not reach to the status of Hassan Hadith.The weakness could be related in discontinuity in the chain of narrators or it could be related to one of the narrator making excessive mistakes, or he is a liar. It could also be related to ambiguity surrounding the narrator.(d) Concocted (Maudu - موضوع) A Hadith whose text goes against the established norms of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) traditions or its reporters include known liars. Concocted Ahadith are also identified by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the date and time of a particular incident.CATEGORIES OF BOOKS OF AHADITHThe books of Ahadith are broadly divided into following categories.(i) Sahifah (صحيفه)
Initial collections of Ahadith written down during the lifetime of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), like the Sahifah of Hadhrat Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
(ii) Ajza (اجزا)
These books include Ahadith passed down on the authority of a Sahabi or a Taba'ee. This category also includes Ahadith concerning a specific subject which are known as Rasa'il.
(iii) Sunan (سنن)
Sunan are collections of Ahadith narrated to authors by their teachers; which were narrated to them by their teachers, and so on; until the chain reaches to Sahabah, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). In this category, Ahadith are generally related to specific subjects of laws of Islamic Sharia.
(iv) Musannaf (المصنف)
In this category, Ahadith are collected on various topics, like Bukhari, Muslim, etc.
(v) Jami’ (جامع)
Jami is a comprehensive version of Musannaf. Sahih Muslim is considered a Musannaf, not a Jami’ like that of Sahih Bukhari.
(vi) Musnad (مسند)
In this category, Ahadith are collected alphabetically as per Sahaba's names as narrators. The famous book in this classification is Musnad of Imam Ahmad. The Hadith scholars of such books, differ in their method of arrangement. In some, Ahadith are arranged as per their Isnad (chain of narrators) in alphabetical order. In others, these are arranged based on the reliability of the people in Isnad.
(vii) Mu’jam (معجم)
If Musnad is arranged in alphabetical order, it becomes Mu'jam. In Mu'jam, Ahadith are taken in alphabetical order irrespective of their content, like at-Tabarani.
(viii) Mustadrak (المستدرك)
Mustadrak are those books that are written in continuation to the Ahadith books that were written by Hadith scholars earlier. This happens when Ahadith that conform to the criteria of an earlier work were missed in the earlier work. Mustadrak al-Hakim is an example in this context. It is said that Mustadrak al-Hakim (المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم) contains Ahadith that conform to the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim.
(ix) Mustakhraj (المستخرج)
Mustakhraj is similar to Mustadrak. These books are written when the Hadith scholar finds new chains to previously recorded Ahadith. Abu Nu’aym Isfahani's Mustakhraj is an example in this context that contains fresh isnad (chain of narrations) to Ahadith in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
(x) Arba’in (الأربعين)
These books contain 40 Ahadith, the authors consider as important. Book of Imam Nawawi (أحاديث الأربعين النووية) is an example in this category.The famous six major collections of Ahadith, 'Al-Kutub al-Sitta' (الكتب السته) are (i) Sahih al-Bukhari (صحيح البخاري), (ii) Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم), (iii) Sunan an-Nasa'i (سنن النسائي), (iv) Sunan Abi Dawud (سنن أبي داود), (v) Jami at-Tirmidhi (جامع الترمذي), (vi) Sunan Ibn Majah (سنن ابن ماجه).
Three more Ahadith books, after the above six major collections are (vii) Al-Muwatta Imam Malik (الموطأ امام مالك), (viii) Musnad Imam Ahmad (مسند امام احمد), and (ix) Sunan al-Darimi (سنن الدارمي) or Musnad al-Darimi (مسند الدارمي).Some other important books of Ahadith are (i) Adab al-Mufrad, (ii) Mishkat al-Masabih, (iii) Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi, (iv) Sunan ad-Daraqutni, (v) Musannaf of Abdur Razzaq, (vi) Musannaf Ibn Jurayi, (vii) Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, (viii) Musannaf Ibn Khuzaymah, (ix) Sahih Ibn Hibban, (x) Mustadrak Al-Hakim, (xi) Mujma az-Zawa'id, (xii) Sahifah Hammam Ibn Munabbih, (xiii) Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, (xiv) Bulugh al-Maram, (xv) Talkhis al-Mustadrak, (xvi) Tahdhib al-Athar, (xvii) Kitaab-ul-Aathaar, (xviii) At-Tareeq al-Islam Musnad Imam-ul-Azam, (xix) Musnad al-Shafi'i, (xx) Musnad al-Siraj, (xxi) Musnad al-Firdous, (xxii) Musnad Abu Ya'la, (xxiii) Musnad al-Tayalisi, (xxiv) Musnad Abu Awaanah, (xxv) Sunan Sa'id Ibn Mansur, (xxvi) Kanz-ul-Ummal (كنز العمال), etc.
SAHIH AL-MUATTA (صحيح الموطأ)
Sahih al-Muatta (صحيح الموطأ) was compiled by Imam Abu Abdullah Maalik Ibn Anas bin Malik bin Abi Amir Al-Asbahi al-Humairi al-Madani (أبو عبد الله مالك بن أنس بن مالك بن أبي عامر الأصبحي الحميري المدني) 179- 93 /795 - 711 AH, (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM MALIK (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)
Imam Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is one of 4 major Fiqh scholars and founder of Maliki school of thought in Islamic Jurisprudence. Maliki school of thought is popular in North Africa, Egypt and in some parts of Yemen, Syria and other places. He is also one of the greatest scholars of prophetic traditions. His book titled 'Muatta' (الموطأ) is the pioneering work in Sahih Hadith collection. He was born in Madina in 93 AH (711 AD). His father was Anas bin Malik (not the Sahabi) and his mother's name was Aaliyah bint Shurayk al-Azdiyya.
Imam Malik belonged to al-Asbahi tribe of Yemen. His great grandfather Abu Amir relocated from Yemen to Madina after accepting Islam in 2nd Hijri (623 AD). His grandfather Malik bin Abi Amir was a student of Khalifa-e-Rashid, Amir al-Momineen Hadhrat Umar bin al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). It is reported that he was part of the team under Hadhrat Uthaman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), responsible for collecting the parchments upon which Quranic texts were originally written.
Imam Malik memorized Quran in his youth. He learned recitation of Quran from Abu Suhail Nafi bin Abdur Rahman, from whom he also received Ijaza. It is reported that both Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik were the students of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
Imam Malik learned from many teachers. Some of his teachers are : (i) Nafi' bin Abdur Rahman, (ii) Abul-Zanaad Adbullah bin Zakwaan, (iii) Hishaam bin Urwah bin Zubair, (iv) Yahya bin Sa'eed al-Ansaari, (v) Abdullah bin Dinaar, (vi) Zaid bin Aslam, (vii) Muhammad bin Muslim bin Shihaab al-Zhuhri, (viii) Abdullah bin Abu Bakr bin Hazm, (ix) Sa'eed bin Abu Sa'eed al-Maqbari, (x) Sumayy, (xi) Ayyub Sakhtiyaani, (xii) Abdur-Rahman bin al-Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr, (xiii) Thawr bin Zaid Dabli, (xiv) Ibrahim bin Abi Ablah al-Maqdisi, (xv) Rabi'ah bin Abu Abdur-Rahman, (xvi) Humayd Taweel, etc.
Imam Malik's memory was extraordinary. He said, 'anything I would record in my memory would never be forgotten again'.
After an extensive study during his 20s and 30s, the Imam became a famous teacher in Madina. He started teaching in the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) mosque. It is reported that he used to sit on the pulpit of the mosque with Quran in one hand and his collection of Ahadith in another hand and he used to give fiqh rulings based on these sources. He considered that after Quran and Sunnah, the practices of the people of Madina during the first century AH (his life time) should be seen as an important third source for Islamic fiqh.
Imam Malik's students were in thousands who related Ahadith from him. Ibn Kathir, Dhahabi and Qazi Iyadh mentioned that over 1,300 students narrated Ahadith from Imam Malik. Dar Qutni, Abu Bakr Khateeb al-Baghdadi and others mentioned that over 1000 students have narrated Ahadith from him.
His prominent students include, (i) Imam Muhammad, (ii) Imam Shaf'ii, (iii) Abdullah bin Mubarak (iv) Laith bin Sa'ad, (v) Shu'bah, (vi) Sufyan ath-Thawri, (vii) Ibn Juraij, (viii) Ibn Uyainah, (ix) Yahya al-Qattan, (x) Ibn Mahdi, (xi) Abu Aasim al-nabeel, (xii) Abdur-Rahman Auwzaa'ee, (xiii) Zhuhri Abul-Aswad, (xiv) Ayyub Sakhtiyaani, (xv) Rabi'ah al-Ra'ii, (xvi) Yahya bin Sa'eed Ansari (xvii) Muhammad bin Abi Zi'ab, (xviii) Ibn Jareeh, (xix) A'amash, (xx) Abu Suhail, (xxi) Nafi' bin Malik, etc.
Imam Malik compiled a Hadith collection titled al-Muwatta (الموطأ). This was the first book in the category of 'Sahih'. Imam Malik stated that he showed his book to seventy scholars in Madinah, all of whom approved it. Thus he gave it the name al-Muwatta, (الموطأ), meaning 'The Approved'.
Imam Malik fell ill when he was 86 years old. The illness continued for three weeks, at the end of which he died on 11 Rabia I, 179 AH (June 3, 795 AD). He was buried in Jannatul-Baqi.
Following are some of the scholars' opinions about Imam Malik.
(i) Imam Abu Hanifah said, 'I have never seen anyone more fast understanding, correct answering, and test-taking than Imam Malik'.
(ii) Imam Shaf'ii said, 'Knowledge is encircled by three men: Malik bin Anas, Sufyaan bin Uyainah, and Laith bin Sa'ad'.
(iii) Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said, 'I was asked whose Hadith should be memorized by heart, if from anyone? I replied Malik bin Anas'.
(iv) Imam Bukhari said, 'I was asked what is the most authentic chain of narrators. I replied from Malik from Nafi' from Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم)'.
(v) Imam Nasai said, 'after the Tabi'een, the most understanding, reliable, trustworthy, person in Hadith is Imam Malik.
SAHIH AL-MUATTA (صحيح الموطأ) was the first book in the category of 'Sahih'. It comes right after the two Sahihs in strength, but is not generally included among the Six Books of Ahadith (صحاح سته). It is one of the earliest collections of Ahadith covering issues related to Islamic Fiqh. Imam Malik selected for inclusion into the Muatta just about 1900 narrations, from the 100,000 narrations he had with him.
Muatta was a landmark book that helped establish the science of Ahadith, particularly the judging of chains of narrations. It is regarded as Sahih, like that Sahihain of Imams Bukhari and Muslim. Imam Malik's chain of narrators was referred as golden chain of narrators (Silsila ad-Dhahab) by Imam Bukhari and others. The 'Golden Chain' consisted of Imam Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who narrated from Nafi‘ Mawla ibn ‘Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who narrated from Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who narrated from the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
Sahih al-Muatta consists of the following 61 books. Its Translation and Guide consists of 2 Volumes.
BOOK # 1 - TIMES OF PRAYER
كتاب وقوت الصلاة
The translation of Ahadith and their explanations, in the light of Quran and Sunnah, are provided below. First, the content of the Hadith is provided in Arabic, followed by its translation in English and then, wherever necessary, explanation has been provided to help readers understand Hadith in the proper perspective.
باب وقوت الصلاة
The times of Prayer
Sahih al-Muatta Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 001قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى اللَّيْثِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، أَخَّرَ الصَّلاَةَ يَوْمًا فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ فَأَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ الْمُغِيرَةَ بْنَ شُعْبَةَ أَخَّرَ الصَّلاَةَ يَوْمًا وَهُوَ بِالْكُوفَةِ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ أَبُو مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا يَا مُغِيرَةُ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّ جِبْرِيلَ نَزَلَ فَصَلَّى فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ صَلَّى فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ صَلَّى فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ صَلَّى فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ صَلَّى فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ قَالَ " بِهَذَا أُمِرْتُ " . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ اعْلَمْ مَا تُحَدِّثُ بِهِ يَا عُرْوَةُ أَوَ إِنَّ جِبْرِيلَ هُوَ الَّذِي أَقَامَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَقْتَ الصَّلاَةِ قَالَ عُرْوَةُ كَذَلِكَ كَانَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ .
He said, "Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi related to me from Malik ibn Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) from Ibn Shihab that one day Umar ibn Abdal-Aziz delayed the prayer. Urwa ibn az-Zubayr came and told him that al-Mughira ibn Shuba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had delayed the prayer one day while he was in Kufa and Abu Masud al-Ansari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had come to him and said, 'What's this, Mughira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)? Don't you know that the angel Jibril (عليه السلام) came down and prayed and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed.' Then he prayed again, and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed. Then he prayed again, and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed. Then Jibril (عليه السلام) said, 'This is what you have been commanded to do (by Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).' Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz said, 'Be sure of what you relate, Urwa. Was it definitely Jibril (عليه السلام) who established the time of the prayer for the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?' " Urwa said, "That's how it was related to Bashir ibn Abi Masud al-Ansari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) by his father."
Sahih al-Muatta Vol 1, Bk 1, Hadith # 002
Urwa said that Ummul Momineen A'isha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) used to pray Asr while the sunlight was pouring into her room, before the sun itself had become visible.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that Ata ibn Yasar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "A man came to the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and asked him about the time of the Fajr prayer. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not answer him, but in the morning he prayed Fajr at first light. The following morning he prayed Fajr when it was much lighter, and then said, 'Where is the man who was asking about the time of the prayer?' The man replied, 'Here I am, Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).' He said,'The time is between these two.' "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) that Ummul Momineen A'isha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) said, "The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to pray subh (Fajr) and the women would leave wrapped in their garments and they could not yet be recognized in the darkness."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar and from Busr ibn Said and from al-Araj; all of whom related it from Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "Whoever manages to do a Raka of subh (Fajr) before the sun has risen has done subh (Fajr) in time, and whoever manages to do a Raka of Asr before the sun has set, has done Asr in time."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi', the Mawla of Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), that Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote to his governors saying, "the most important of your affairs in my view is the prayer. Whoever protects it and observes it carefully, is protecting his Deen; while whoever is negligent about it, will be even more negligent about other things." Then he added, "Pray Dhuhr any time from when the afternoon shade is the length of your forearm until the length of your shadow matches your height. Pray Asr when the sun is still pure white, so that a rider can travel two or three farsakhs (before Maghrib) (one farsakh is equal to 5.76 Kilometers) before the sun sets. Pray Maghrib when the sun has set. Pray Isha any time from when the redness in the western sky has disappeared until a third of the night has passed - and a person who sleeps, may he have no rest, a person who sleeps, may he have no rest. And pray Subh (Fajr) when all the stars are visible and like a haze in the sky."
Yahya related to me from Malik, from his uncle Abu Suhayl from his father that Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote to Abu Musa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) saying that he should pray Dhuhr when the sun had started to decline; Asr when the sun was still pure white before any yellowness had entered it; Maghrib when the sun had set, and to delay Isha as long as he did not sleep, and to pray Subh (Fajr) when the stars were all visible and like a haze in the sky and to read in it two long (Quranic) Sura in detail.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote to Abu Musa al-Ashari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that he should pray Asr when the sun was still pure white so that a man could ride three farsakhs (before maghrib) ( one farsakh is equal to 5.76 Kilometers) and that he should pray Isha during the first third of the night, or, if he delayed it, then up until the middle of the night, and he warned him not to be forgetful.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha that Anas ibn Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "We would pray Asr and anyone who then went to the Bani Amr ibn Awf would find them praying Asr."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Anas ibn Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "We would pray Asr and anyone who then went to Quba would arrive there while the sun was still high."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman that al Qasim ibn Muhammad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "None of the companions that I met prayed Dhuhr until well after noon.
باب وقت الجمعة
The time of Juma' Prayer
Yahya related to me from Malik from his uncle Abu Suhayl ibn Malik that his father said, "I used to see a carpet belonging to Aqil ibn Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) spread out on the day of Jum'a up to the west wall of the Mosque. When the shadow of the wall covered the whole carpet, Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) would come out and pray the Juma prayer." Malik, Abu Suhayl's father, added, "We would then return after the Jum'a prayer and take our midday sleep."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Amr ibn Yahya ibn Yahya al- Mazini from Ibn Abi Salit that Uthman ibn Affan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) prayed Jum'a in Madina and Asr in Malal (a place seventeen miles from Madina).
Imam Malik said, that was by praying Jum'a just past midday and then traveling fast."
باب من أدرك ركعة من الصلاة
Catching a Raka of the Prayer
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abu Salama ibn Abdar-Rahman from Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said "Whoever catches a Raka of the prayer has caught the prayer."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, "If the Ruku has passed you by, so has the Sajda."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar and Zayd ibn Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) used to say, "Whoever catches the Raka`a has caught the Sajda."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, "Whoever catches the Ruku has caught the Sajda and whoever misses the recitation of the Umm al-Qur'an has missed much good."
باب ما جاء في دلوك الشمس وغسق الليلWhat has come in regard to 'Afternoon Sunrise' and 'dusk of the night'
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, the (afternoon) sunrise begins from when the sun passes the meridian."
Yahya related to me from Malik that Da'ud ibn al-Husayn said that someone had told him Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to say, (afternoon) sunrise begins from when the sun passes the meridian. Dusk of the night (غَسَقُ اللَّيْلِ) is the gathering of the night and its darkness."
باب جَامَعِ الْوُقُوتِThe times of prayers in general
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "If someone misses the Asr prayer, it is as if he has suffered a great misfortune in his family and wealth ."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that once Umar ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) left after the Asr prayer and met a man who had not been there (during Asr congregation prayer). Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked him what had kept him from the prayer and even though the man gave a good reason, Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "You have given yourself short measure." Yahya added that Malik commented, "It is said that everything has a short measure and a full measure."
Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Said used to say, "Even if someone manages to pray before the time of the prayer has passed, the time that has passed him by is more important, or better, than his family and wealth."
Yahya said that Malik said, "If the time for a prayer comes and a traveller delays a prayer through neglect or forgetfulness until he reaches his family, he should do that prayer in full if he arrives within the time. But if he arrives when the time has passed, he should do the travelling prayer. That way he only repays what he owes."
Malik said, "this is what I have found the people and men of knowledge doing in our community." Malik explained that shafaq was the redness in the sky after the sun had set, and said, "When the redness has gone then the Isha prayer is due and you have left the time of Maghrib."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that one time Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) fainted and lost his senses and he did not make up the prayer. Malik commented, "We consider that, it was because, and Allah knows best, the time had passed. Someone who recovers within the time has to pray."
باب النوم عن الصلاةSleeping through the prayer
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al- Musayyab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) traveled by night on the way back from Khaybar. Towards the end of the night he stopped for a rest and told Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to stay awake to keep watch for the subh (Fajr) prayer. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his companions slept. Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) stayed on guard as long as was decreed for him and then he leaned against his riding camel facing the direction of the dawn and sleep overcame him and neither he nor the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) nor any of the party woke up until the sun's rays had struck them. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was alarmed. Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) excused himself, saying, "Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)! the One who took yourself was the One who took myself. "The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered the party to move on and so they roused their mounts and rode on a short distance. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to give the Iqama and then led them in the subh (Fajr) prayer. When he had finished he said, "Anyone who forgets a prayer should pray it when he remembers. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says in His book - أَقِمِ الصَّلاَةَ لِذِكْرِي [Establish prayer to remember Me.] (Taa Haa - 14)
Yahya related to me from Malik that Zayd ibn Aslam said, "the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stopped for rest one night on the way to Makka and appointed Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to wake them up for the prayer. Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) slept and everyone else slept and none of them woke up until the sun had risen. When they did wake up they were all alarmed. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered them to ride out of the valley saying that there was a devil in it. So they rode out of the valley and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered them to dismount and do Wudu and he told Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) either to give call for prayer or to give the Iqama. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then led them in the prayer. Noticing their uneasiness, he went to them and said, 'O people! Allah seized our spirits and if He had wished He would have returned them to us at a time other than this. So if you sleep through the time for a prayer or forget it and then are anxious about it, pray it as if you were praying it in its time.' The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) turned to Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and said, 'Davil came to Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) when he was standing and made him lie down and lulled him to sleep like a small boy.' The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then called Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and told him the same as he had told Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) declared, 'I bear witness that you are the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).' "
باب النهي عن الصلاة بالهاجرةProhibition of doing the prayer at the hottest hour of the day
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "scorching heat is a part of the blast of Jahannam. So, when the heat is fierce, delay the prayer until it gets cooler."
He added in explanation, "The Fire complained to its Lord and said, 'My Lord, part of me has eaten another part,' so He allowed it two breaths in every year, a breath in winter and a breath in summer."
Malik related to us from Abdullah ibn Yazid the Mawla of al-Aswad ibn Sufyan, from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Muhammad ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Thawban from Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "when the heat is fierce delay the prayer until it gets cooler, for scorching heat is a part of the blast of Jahannam."
He added, "The Fire complained to its Lord, so He allowed it two breaths in each year, a breath in winter and a breath in summer."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "when the heat is fierce, wait until it gets cooler before you do the prayer, for scorching heat is from the blast of Jahannam."
باب النهي عن دخول المسجد بريح الثوم وتغطية الفمProhibition of entering the mosque smelling of garlic and prohibition of covering the mouth in prayer
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al- Musayyab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "Anyone who eats this plant should not come near our Mosques. The smell of the garlic will offend us."