CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

 

 SUNAN ABU DAWOOD

 

ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND GUIDE BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 

 

 

 VOLUME (1)

 

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

Hadith books were originally written in Arabic. Later these were translated into other languages.  The  need for authentic Ahle Sunnah English translations and guides of Ahadith books explaining the facts in the light of Quran and Sunnah was felt for a longtime as the  English translations of Ahadith Books by deviant sects do not meet Sahih Iman requirement of Islam.
 
Currently, English Translations and Guides of the following 7 major books of Ahadith are being uploaded on our Network websites.  
(1) Sahih al-Bukhari (صحيح البخاري) 
(2) Sahih Muslim  (صحيح مسلم)
(3) Sahih al-Muatta (صحيح الموطأ)
(4) Sunan an-Nasa'i (سنن النسائي)
(5) Sunan Abi Dawud (سنن أبي داود)
(6) Jami at-Tirmidhi  (جامع الترمذي)
(7) Sunan Ibn Majah  (سنن ابن ماجه)
 
More Ahadith books will be added later. We aim at creating an Ahle Sunnah, multilingual  database of Ahadith. 

 

BOOKS OF AHADITH 

 

A brief account of books of Ahadith, classification of Ahadith and categories of the books of Ahadith is given below.

There are two main sources of Islamic Sharia, Quran and Sunnah. Quran is the word of God, while the Hadith is its translation into pragmatic terms, as exemplified by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  These two sources are inter related because it is not possible to understand  Qur’an without reference to Ahadith; and it is not possible to explain a Hadith without relating it to Qur’an. The words 'Sunnah' and 'Hadith' are synonymous. Sunnah means 'the way' or conduct of life'.  It refers to  statements, acts, approvals and character descriptions attributed to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

During the life of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), the emphasis was more on recording, memorizing and preserving Quran. However, some Sahabah used to write whatever the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said or did in their presence. It is reported that 1,060 Sahabah have narrated Ahadith from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

After the death of  Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Sahabah shared and collected Ahadith. This continued for a few decades.  Later, within the first two centuries, Hadith scholars conducted a thorough review of these Ahadith, tracing the origins of each Hadith along with the chain of narrators through whom the Hadith was related. The Ahadith which were verifiable were deemed authentic (Sahih) and other were either considered as weak or in some cases, concocted. 

During the time of Companions (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم اجمعين) and their Successors  (تابعين), Islam spread to a large area in the world.  It was this time when it became necessary to record Ahadith in a systematic way. During the era of  the 'Successors of the successors' (تبه  تابعين), Ahadith were systematically collected and written in a text format.  The first such book was compiled by Imam Malik bin Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) titled 'Muatta' (موطأ).  The period that followed,  witnessed critical research by Hadith scholars.  Ahadith were compiled systematically and were grouped under various headings.  The history of collection of Ahadith can be summed up as follows.
 
(i) First period (1st century AH) was the age of companions and their successor.  This is known as the age of 'Saheefah' (صحيفه), like the collections of Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) and others.  Among the well known manuscripts of Hadith collections of the first century Hijri are as follows.
(a) 'As-Sahifa as-Sadiqa' of Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-Aas (d 63 H)
 
(b) 'As-Sahifa as-Sahiha' of Hammam Ibn Munabbih (d 118 H), narrated from Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
 
(c) The collection of Aban Ibn Uthman (d 105 H) from whom Mohammad Ibn Ishaq narrated.
 
(d) The collection of Urwa bin az-Zubair Ibn al-Awwam. This collection was burnt during the sack of Madina by Yazid bin Muawiya in 63 H.
 
(e) Sira of Mohammad Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri  ( d 120 H). 
 
(f) 'Munaqib as-Sahabah' by Asim Ibn Umar Ibn Qatada Ibn al-Numan al-Ansari (d 120 H), etc.
 
(ii) The second period covers middle of second century AH that witnessed planned compilation of Ahadith, like  Imam Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) compilation titled 'Muatta' (موطأ).
 
(iii) The third stage began towards the end of  second century AH, in which classified and organized work on Ahadith was carried out, like Musnad of Imam Ahmad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
 
(iv) The fourth and most important period is known as 'the period of Sahih'.   It began at the beginning of third century AH, in which books like Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and others were compiled.  

One of the common accusations made by non-Muslims against Islamic sciences and the study of Hadith is that there is no way of verifying the Hadith and that they should not be used as a source of Fiqh. This argument is based on a very rudimentary and flawed understanding of how the Ahadith were collected and the incredible care and effort Hadith scholars (محدثين) have taken in verifying their authenticity. 

Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) used to judge the narration of every claimant of the tradition on the basis of the 'Principle of testimony.' Meaning, he would accept it only if two men, or one man and two women, would narrate the same thing.  Hadhrat Ali (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) used to ask the narration on oath and considered oath as one witness.  All authentic Ahadith have been collected and published by our Imams of Ahadith in voluminous books.  Every single Hadith has been investigated and it is clearly written the type of Hadith it is.  In the encyclopedia of narrators, particulars and circumstances are investigated.  All these books are elucidated and are pure from weak Ahadith. We are grateful and indebted to our Hadith scholars for their unparalleled work in the history of mankind.  With the monumental work of our Hadith scholars, we are able to know what words and actions can truly be attributed to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) even after 1400 years  of his life.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF AHADITH

 

Hadith is composed of three parts, viz., (i) Text (متن), (ii) Chain of narrators (اسناد) and (iii) 'Object' (طرف) - the text of the Hadith that refers to Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying, action, or concurrence of others' action. 

The primary Hadith terminology (مُصْطَلَحُ الحَدِيْث‎) that specifies the acceptability of Ahadith developed by Hadith scholars, is as follows. 

(i) As regards to the authority, there are 4 types of Ahadith, as follows.

(a) Divine (Qudsi - قدسي) Revelation of Allah relayed with the words of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

(b) Elevated (Murfu - مرفوع) Murfu Ahadith are narrated in the following manner, 'I heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying' -

(c) Stopped (Mauquf - موقوف)  A Hadith narrated by the companion (صحابي) - for example, 'we were commanded to -'

(d) Severed (Maqtu - مقطوع) A narration from the 'successors of Sahabah' (تابعين).

 

(ii) As regards to the Chain of Narrators, there are 6 types of Ahadith, as follows

(a) Supported (Musnad - مُسند)   A hadith which is reported by a Hadith scholar, based on what he learned from his teacher at a time of life suitable for learning.  In turn his teacher learned it from his teacher until the chain  reaches to a well known Sahabi and eventually to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Also Ahadith that are arranged in alphabetical order as per Sahaba names as narrators, are also included in this category. 

(b) Continuous (Muttasil - متصل) A Hadith with  an uninterrupted chain of narrators that goes back to a companion (صحابي) or a Successor (تابعي).

(c) Missing link (Mursal - مرسل)  The link of the Hadith missing between the 'Successor' (تابعي), and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Like the Successor (تابعي) says, 'the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - .

(d) Broken Link (Munqati - منقطع) A Hadith whose link is broken before the successor (تابعي). 

(e) Perplexed Link (Mu'dhal - معضل) A Hadith whose narrator omits two or more consecutive reporters in his Chain.

(f) Hanging Link (Mu'allaq - معلق) A Hadith whose narrator omits the entire chain of reporters and directly quotes the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

 

(iii) As regards to the number of reporters in the Chain of Narrators, there are 2 types of Ahadith, as follows.
(a) Continuous (Mutawatir - متواتر) A Hadith which is reported consecutively by a large number of people in different chains, and it is not possible that they all will agree upon a lie.  There are two kinds of Ahadith in this category, (1) Mutawatir in wording, and (2) Mutawatir in meaning.
(b) Infrequent (Ahaad - اَحاد) A Hadith which is narrated by people whose number does not reach to the state of 'Perpetual Narration' (حديثِ متواتر).
The 'Infrequent Hadith (حديثِ احد) is of three types, as follows.
(1) Famous (Mash'hur - مشهور) A Hadith reported by more than two reporters.
(2) Strong (Aziz - عزيز) A Hadith  reported by two narrators.
(3) Strange (Gharib - غريب) A Hadith reported by only one narrator. 
 
(iv) As regards to the nature of text and the chain of narration,  there are 2 types of Ahadith, as follows.
(a) Inconceivable (Munkar - منكر) A Hadith reported by a weak narrator and the text is against an authentic Hadith.
(b) Interpolated (Mudraj - مدرج) A Hadith in which addition has been made in the text of Hadith by the narrator. 
 
(v) As regards to the reliability, there are 4 types of Ahadith, as follows.
(a) Sound (Sahih - صحيح)  A Hadith whose narrators are trustworthy in religion.  Each narrator in the chain is truthful and understands how a different expression can alter the meanings of the Hadith.  The narrator reports the Hadith verbatim, not just in meaning.
(b) Good (Hassan - حسن) A Hadith whose source is known and the reporters are unambiguous.
(c) Weak (Dha'eef - ضعيف) A Hadith that does not reach to the status of Hassan Hadith. 
The weakness could be related in discontinuity in the chain of narrators or it could be related to one of the narrator making excessive mistakes, or he is a liar.  It could also be related to  ambiguity surrounding the narrator.
(d) Concocted (Maudu - موضوع) A Hadith whose text goes against the established norms of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) traditions or its reporters include known liars. Concocted Ahadith are also identified by external evidence related to a discrepancy found in the date and time of a particular incident.
 
CATEGORIES OF BOOKS OF AHADITH
 
 
The books of Ahadith are broadly divided into following categories.
 
(i) Sahifah (صحيفه)

Initial collections of Ahadith written down during the lifetime of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), like the Sahifah of Hadhrat Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

(ii) Ajza  (اجزا)

These books include Ahadith passed down on the authority of a Sahabi or a Taba'ee.  This category also includes Ahadith concerning a specific subject which are known as Rasa'il. 

(iii) Sunan (سنن)

Sunan are collections of Ahadith narrated to authors by their teachers; which were narrated to them by their teachers, and so on; until the chain reaches to Sahabah, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  In this category, Ahadith are generally related to specific subjects of  laws of Islamic Sharia.

(iv) Musannaf  (المصنف)

In this category, Ahadith are collected on various topics, like Bukhari, Muslim, etc.  

(v) Jami’  (جامع)

Jami is a comprehensive version of Musannaf. Sahih Muslim is considered a Musannaf,  not a Jami’ like that of Sahih Bukhari.  

(vi) Musnad (مسند)

In this category, Ahadith are collected alphabetically as per Sahaba's names as narrators. The famous book in this classification is Musnad of Imam Ahmad.  The Hadith scholars of such books, differ  in their method of arrangement.  In some, Ahadith are arranged as per their Isnad (chain of narrators) in alphabetical order. In others, these are arranged based on the reliability of the people in Isnad. 

(vii) Mu’jam  (معجم)

If Musnad is arranged in alphabetical order, it becomes Mu'jam.  In Mu'jam, Ahadith are taken in alphabetical order irrespective of their content, like  at-Tabarani. 

(viii)  Mustadrak  (المستدرك)

Mustadrak are those books that are written in continuation to the Ahadith books that were written by Hadith scholars earlier. This happens  when Ahadith that conform to the criteria of an earlier work were missed in the earlier work. Mustadrak al-Hakim is an example in this context.  It is said that Mustadrak al-Hakim (المستدرك على الصحيحين للحاكم) contains Ahadith that conform to the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim. 

(ix) Mustakhraj  (المستخرج)

Mustakhraj is similar to Mustadrak.  These books are written when the Hadith scholar finds new chains to previously recorded Ahadith. Abu Nu’aym Isfahani's Mustakhraj is an example in this context that contains fresh isnad (chain of narrations) to Ahadith in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.

(x) Arba’in  (الأربعين

These books contain 40 Ahadith, the authors consider as important. Book of Imam Nawawi (أحاديث الأربعين النووية) is an example in this category.


The famous six major collections of Ahadith, 'Al-Kutub al-Sitta' (الكتب السته) are (i) Sahih al-Bukhari (صحيح البخاري), (ii) Sahih Muslim  (صحيح مسلم), (iii) Sunan an-Nasa'i (سنن النسائي), (iv) Sunan Abi Dawud (سنن أبي داود), (v) Jami at-Tirmidhi  (جامع الترمذي), (vi) Sunan Ibn Majah  (سنن ابن ماجه).

Three more Ahadith books, after the above six major collections are (vii) Al-Muwatta Imam Malik (الموطأ امام مالك), (viii) Musnad Imam Ahmad (مسند امام احمد), and (ix) Sunan al-Darimi (سنن الدارمي) or Musnad al-Darimi (مسند الدارمي). 

Some other important books of Ahadith are (i) Adab al-Mufrad, (ii) Mishkat al-Masabih, (iii) Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi, (iv) Sunan ad-Daraqutni, (v) Musannaf of Abdur Razzaq, (vi) Musannaf Ibn Jurayi, (vii) Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, (viii) Musannaf Ibn Khuzaymah, (ix) Sahih Ibn Hibban, (x) Mustadrak Al-Hakim, (xi) Mujma az-Zawa'id, (xii) Sahifah Hammam Ibn Munabbih, (xiii)  Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, (xiv) Bulugh al-Maram, (xv) Talkhis al-Mustadrak, (xvi) Tahdhib al-Athar, (xvii) Kitaab-ul-Aathaar, (xviii) At-Tareeq al-Islam Musnad Imam-ul-Azam, (xix) Musnad al-Shafi'i, (xx) Musnad al-Siraj, (xxi) Musnad al-Firdous, (xxii) Musnad Abu Ya'la, (xxiii) Musnad al-Tayalisi, (xxiv) Musnad Abu Awaanah, (xxv) Sunan Sa'id Ibn Mansur, (xxvi) Kanz-ul-Ummal (كنز العمال),  etc. 

 

SUNAN ABU DAWOOD  (سنن أبي داود)

 

Sunan Abu Dawood (سنن أبي داود) was compiled by  Imam Abu Dawood Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani ( أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني‎), 816–889/202-275 AH (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).
 

BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM  ABU DAWOOD (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

  

Imam Abu Dawood (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is one the distinguished scholars of Hadith in Islamic history.  Imam an-Nawawī said, all scholars are unanimous on the rank and virtue of Imam Abu Dawood. His book Sunan Abu Dawood is among the six major books of Ahadith. 

Imam Abu Dawood was born in  202 AH (816 AD). As his name shows, he belonged to Azdi Arab tribe. Though he was born in Sijistan, he spent most of life in Basra which was the seat of Islamic learning during that time.

ANCESTORS

Imam Abu Dawood's ancestors belong to Azdi tribe of Arabs. Since the Imam was father of Dawood, he was known as Abu Dawood (father of Dawood).   His name was Sulaiman. In the olden days, Arabs used to call eeach other with names along with paternity lineage. This lineage was stretched sometimes to include several generations. The birth place was also included in the name. Like Imam Abu Dawood Sulaiman, ibn Ash'ath, ibn Ishaq, ibn Bashir, ibn Shaddad, ibn Umar, ibn Imran al-Azdi Sijistani. 
 
EDUCATION

Right from his childhood, Imam Abu Dawood was praised for his exceptional memory, sound mind and intellect.  He would read a book just once for the contents to be recorded in his memory word by word for ever.  It is reported that he studied in the company of over 300 teachers.  Prominent among them were Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Min, Uthman ibn Abu Shaybah, Is-haq ibn Rahawayh, Sulayman ibn Harb, Abu Al-Walid At-Tayalisi, Qutaybah ibn Sa`ad, Said ibn Mansur, Abu Jafar An-Nufaili, Zuhayr ibn Harb, Abu Ismail Al-Bukhari, etc.  

Imam Abu Dawood accompanied Imam Ahmad for many years. This companionship  helped him acquire the knowledge of Fiqh in addition to Hadith. He compiled a book on the questions and replies from Imam Ahmad titled 'Masail Ahmad'. It is reported that after compilation of his book 'Sunan Abu Dawood', he presented it to Imam Ahmed, who praised it.   

Imam Abu Dawood visited Islamic learning centers in pursuit of collecting Ahadith.  In 220 AH he traveled to Baghdad when he was 18 years old.  Two  years later he moved to the Levant.  Then he went to other places like  Hijaz, Tarsus, Egypt, Basra, Syria, Nishapur, Marv, etc.

Many students learned Science of Hadith from Imam Abu Dawood. They include Abu Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abu Abdur-Rahman An Nasa’i, Ibn Arabi,  Abu Bakr Al-Khallal, Ismail ibn Muhammad As-Saffar, Abu Bakr ibn Dawud Al-Asfahani, Abu Uwanah Al-Asfarayini, Muhammad ibn Nasr Al-Mirwazi, Abu Bakr Yahya As-Suli, etc.

WORKS

Imam Abu Dawood has written many valuable books. These include, (i) Al Marasil, (ii) Masail al Iman Ahmad, (iii) An Nasikh wal Mansukh, (iv) Risalah fi wasf kitab as sunan, (v) Az Zuhd, (vi) Ijabatan Sawalat Al Ajurri, (vii) Asilahan Ahmad bin Hanbal, (viii) Tasmiyat al Akhwan, (ix) Kitab al Qadr, (x) Al Bath wan Nushur, (xi) Al Masail allati halafa alaiha al Imam Ahmad, (xii) Dalail an-Nubuwah, (xiii) Fadail al-Ansar, (xiv) Musnad Malik, (xv) Ad Dua, (xvi) Ibtida al-wahy, (xvii) Akhbar al Khawarij, (xviii) Alam an-Nubuwah, (xix) Sunan Abu Dawood, etc.

It is reported that he selected 4,800 Ahadith in his Sunan from over 500,000. It is a major source of knowledge about the legal points of views held by Imam Malik, Sufyan Al-Thawri and Al-Awza'i.  It serves as an arbiter for disagreement among jurists. 

Hadith Scholar Al-Khattabi said, 'Sunan Abu Dawud is an excellent book. No such parallel work has been produced so far in religious sciences.  It has gained popularity among people. It has a decisive position among various scholars and jurists. All have benefited equally from it. The people of Iraq, Eygpt, Maghrib and most of the countries depended upon it'.  Ibn al-Jawzi said, 'Abu Dawud was an eminent doctor of Hadith and an outstanding scholar. No one has compiled a book like his Sunan'.  Ibn Kathir wrote, 'Sunan Abu Dawud is considered to be a famous and popular work among scholars'.

Many scholars have written interpretive explanations of Sunan Abu Dawood; like (i) 'The landmarks of Sunan' by Abu Suleiman Al-Khattabi (d 388 AH), (ii)  'Explanations of Sunan' by Imam al-Suyuti (d 911 AH), (iii) 'Clarifications about Sunan' by Shaikh al-Sandi (d 1138 AH), etc.

DEATH

Imam Abu Dawood died on Friday 14th Shawwal 275 AH (February 18, 889 AD). at the age of 73 in Basra.  He was buried next to the grave of Sufyan al-Thawri.

Some scholars say that Imam Abu Dawood followed Hanbali school of thought, while some others say that he followed Shafii school of thought. It is reported that after his death, his son Abu Bakr Dawood walked on his fathers footsteps. Many scholars praised Imam Abu Dawood, as follows.

(i) Abu Bakr Al-Khallal said, 'Abu Dawood was a superior scholar of his time.  Nobody excelled in recognizing the verification of sciences as Abu Dawood did. He was an outstanding devout person'.

(ii) Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Yasin Al-Harawi said, 'Sulayman ibn Al-Ashath was one of the Huffaz of the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  Ahadith. He was at the peak of virtuousness, abstinence, rightness and devoutness.'

(iii) Ibrahim Al-Harbi said, 'The Hadith has been made pliable for Abu Dawud similarly as the iron was made pliable to Prophet Dawood (عليه السلام)'.

(iv) Musa ibn Harun Al-Hafiz said, Abu Dawud was created in this life for Hadith, and in the hereafter for Paradise. I have not seen someone better than him.'

(v) Abu Hatim ibn Hayyan said, 'He (Abu Dawud) was one of the leading persons of this world in matters of Fiqh, knowledge, memorization, asceticism, devoutness and proficiency. He compiled and defended the Sunan.'

(vi) Al-Hakim said, 'There is no disagreement that Abu Dawood was the among leaders of scholars of Hadith during his time.'

 

Sunan Abu Dawood    (سنن أبي داود)  is  one of the six major collection of Ahadith books  containing over 5000 Ahadith, mostly related to Islamic Jurisprudence. It is reported that these  Ahadith were selected from over 500,000 Ahadith. 

Abu Dawood was the first book among Sunan category that details the legal views held by Imam Malik, Sufyan Al-Thawri and Al-Awza'i (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم).    Imam Abu Dawood heard Ahadith from over 300 teachers, including Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahawaiy, Yahya ibn Ma'in, etc.  His students include  Abu`Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abu Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa'i, Imam Muslim, etc.

Sunan Abu Dawood consists of the following 43 books.  Its Translation and Guide consists of  5 Volumes.

 Imam Abu Dawood's letter to the people of Makka about his book

 (1) Book of Purification (كتاب الطهارة)

 (2) Book of Salah  (كتاب الصلاة)

 (3) Book of Salah for rain  (كتاب الاستسقاء)

 (4) Book of salah during travel (كتاب صلاة السفر)

 (5) Book of voluntary Salah   (كتاب التطوع)

 (6) Book of Ramadhan  (كتاب شهر رمضان)

 (7) Book of Prostration during Quran recitation   (كتاب سجود القرآن)

 (8) Book of Salat al-Witr  (كتاب الوتر)

 (9) Book of Zakat  (كتاب الزكاة)

(10) Book of lost and found items  (كتاب اللقطة)

(11) Book of Hajj  (كتاب المناسك)

(12) Book of  Marriage (كتاب النكاح)

(13) Book of Divorce (كتاب الطلاق)

(14) Book of fasting  (كتاب الصوم)

(15) Book of Jihad (كتاب الجهاد)

(16) Book of Sacrifice   (كتاب الضحايا)

(17) Book of Hunting  (كتاب الصيد)

(18) Book of Wills  (كتاب الوصايا)

19) Book of Inheritance  (كتاب الفرائض)

(20) Book of Governance and distribution of fay (كتاب الخراج والإمارة والفىء)

(21) Book of  Funerals  (كتاب الجنائز)

(22) Book of Oaths and vows  (كتاب الأيمان والنذور)

(23) Book of Trading (كتاب البيوع)

(24) Book of wages (كتاب الإجارة)

(25) Book of Judiciary (كتاب الأقضية)

(26) Book of knowledge  (كتاب العلم)

(27) Book of drinks  (كتاب الأشربة)

(28) Book of Foods (كتاب الأطعمة)

(29) Book of Medicine (كتاب الطب)

(30) Book of Divination of omen  (كتاب الكهانة و التطير)

(31) Book of  Manumission of slaves  (كتاب العتق)

(32) Book of dialects and reading of Quran (كتاب الحروف والقراءات)

(33) Book of Hot bath (كتاب الحمَّام)

(34) Book of Dress  (كتاب اللباس)

(35) Book of combing of hair  (كتاب الترجل)

(36) Book of Signet ring  (كتاب الخاتم)

(37) Book of Trials and battles (كتاب الفتن والملاحم)

(38) Book of Mahdi alai-his-salam  (كتاب المهدى)

(39) Book of Battles  (كتاب الملاحم)

(40) Book of Limitations and prescribed punishments  (كتاب الحدود)

(41) Book of Blood money  (كتاب الديات)

(42) Book of  Sunnah (كتاب السنة)

(43) Book of etiquette and good mannerism  (كتاب الأدب)

 

 

 

رسالة أبي داود لأهل مكة في وصف سننه

LETTER OF IMAM ABU DAWOOD WRITTEN TO THE PEOPLE OF MAKKA ABOUT HIS SUNAN


 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم

 

.أخبرنا الشيخ أبو الفتح محمد بن عبد الباقي بن أحمد بن سليمان المعروف بابن البطي إجازة إن لم أكن سمعته منه قال أنبأنا الشيخ أبو الفضل أحمد ابن الحسن بن خيرون المعدل قراءة عليه وأنا حاضر أسمع قيل له أقرأت على أبي عبد الله محمد بن علي بن عبد الله الصوري الحافظ قال سمعت أبا الحسين محمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن أحمد بن جميع الغساني بصيدا فأقر به قال سمعت أبا بكر محمد بن عبد العزيز بن محمد بن الفضل بن يحيى بن القاسم ابن عون بن عبد الله بن الحارث بن نوفل بن الحارث ابن عبد المطلب الهاشمي بمكة يقول سمعت أبا داود سليمان بن الأشعت بن إسحاق بن بشير بن شداد السجستاني وسئل عن رسالته التي كتبها إلى أهل مكة وغيرها جوابا لهم فأملى علينا

سلام عليكم فإني أحمد إليكم الله الذي لا إله إلا هو وأسأله أن يصلي على محمد عبده ورسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم كلما ذكر

أما بعد

عافانا الله وإياكم عافية لا مكروه معها ولا عقاب بعدها فإنكم سألتم أن أذكر لكم الأحاديث التي في كتاب السنن أهي أصح ما عرفت في الباب

اختياره أحد الحديثين الصحيحين لقدم حفظ صاحبه

ووقفت على جميع ما ذكرتم فاعلموا أنه كذلك كله إلا أن يكون قد روى من وجهين صحيحين فأحدهما أقوم اسنادا والآخر صاحبه أقدم في الحفظ فربما كتبت ذلك ولا أرى في كتابي من هذا عشرة أحاديثقلة أحاديث الأبواب

ولم أكتب في الباب إلا حديثا أو حديثين وإن كان في الباب أحاديث صحاح فإنه يكثر وإنما أردت قرب منفعته

إعادة الحديث

وإذا أعدت الحديث في الباب من وجهين أو ثلاثة فانما هو من زيادة كلام فيه وربما تكون فيه كلمة زيادة على الأحاديث

اختصار الحديث

وربما اختصرت الحديث الطويل لأني لو كتبته بطوله لم يعلم بعض من سمعه ولا يفهم موضع الفقه منه فاختصرت لذلك

والجواب والاحتجاج به

وأما المراسيل فقد كان يحتج بها العلماء فيما مضى مثل سفيان الثوري ومالك بن أنس والأوزاعي حتى جاء الشافعي فتكلم فيها وتابعه على ذلك أحمد بن حنبل وغيره رضوان الله عليهم

فإذا لم يكن المراسيل ولم يوجد المسند فالمرسل يحتج به وليس هو مثل المتصل في القوةليس في الكتاب حديث عن متروك

وليس في كتاب السنن الذي صنفته عن رجل متروك الحديث شيء يبين المنكر

وإذا كان فيه حديث منكر بينت أنه منكر وليس على نحوه في الباب غيره موازنة بينه وبين كتب ابن المبارك ووكيع ومالك وحماد

وهذه الأحاديث ليس منها في كتاب ابن المبارك ولا كتاب وكيع إلا الشيء اليسير وعامته في كتاب هؤلاء مراسيل

وفي كتاب السنن من موطأ مالك بن أنس شيء صالح وكذلك من مصنفات حماد بن سلمة وعبد الرزاقوليس ثلث هذه الكتب فيما أحسبه في كتب جميعهم أعني مصنفات مالك بن أنس وحماد بن سلمة وعبد الرزاق

كم السنن واستقصاؤه

وقد ألفته نسقا على ما وقع عندي فإن ذكر لك عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سنه ليس مما خرجته فاعلم أنه حديث واه إلا أن يكون في كتابي من طريق آخر فإني لم أخرج الطرق لأنه يكبرعلى المتعلم

ولا أعرف أحدا جمع على الاستقصاء غيري وكان الحسن بن علي الخلال قد جمع منه قدر تسعمائة حديث وذكر أن ابن المبارك قال السنن عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نحو تسعمائة حديث فقيل له إن أبا يوسف قال هي ألف ومائة قال ابن المبارك أبو يوسف يأخذ بتلك الهنات من هنا وهنا نحو الأحاديث الضعيفة

يبين ما فيه وهن شديد

وما كان في كتابي من حديث فيه وهن شديد فقد بينته ومنه مالا يصح سنده

المسكوت عنه صالح

ما لم أذكر فيه شيئا فهو صالح وبعضها أصح من بعض

وهذا لو وضعه غيري لقلت أنا فيه أكثر

استقصاؤه

وهو كتاب لا ترد عليك سنة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بإسناد صالح إلاوهي فيه إلا أن يكون كلام استخرج من الحديث ولا يكاد يكون هذاقيمته ومقداره

ولا أعلم شيئا بعد القرآن ألزم للناس أن يتعلموه من هذا الكتاب ولا يضر رجلا أن لا يكتب من العلم بعد ما يكتب هذه الكتب شيئا وإذا نظر فيه وتدبره وتفهمه حينئذ يعلم مقداره

أحاديث كتابه أصول المسائل الفقهية

وأما هذه المسائل مسائل الثوري ومالك والشافعي فهذه الأحاديث أصولها آراء الصحابة 

 ويعجبني أن يكتب الرجل مع هذه الكتب من رأي أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلمجامع سفيان

ويكتب أيضا مثل جامع سفيان الثوري فإنه أحسن ما وضع الناس في الجوامع

أحاديث السنن مشاهير ولا يحتج بالغريب

والأحاديث التي وضعتها في كتاب السنن أكثرها مشاهير وهي ثم كل من كتب شيئا من الحديث إلا أن تمييزها لا يقدر عليه كل الناس والفخر بها أنها مشاهير فإنه لا يحتج بحديث غريب ولو كان من رواية مالك ويحيى بن سعيد والثقات من أئمة العلم

ولو احتج رجل بحديث غريب وجدت من يطعن فيه ولا يحتج بالحديث الذي قد احتج به إذا كان الحديث غريبا شاذا

فأما الحديث المشهور المتصل الصحيح فليس يقدر أن يرده عليك أحد وقال إبراهيم النخعي كانوا يكرهون الغريب من الحديث

وقال يزيد بن أبي حبيب إذا سمعت الحديث فأنشده كما تنشد الضالة فإن عرف وإلا فدعهقد يوجد والجواب والمدلس ثم عدم وجود الصحاح

وإن من الأحاديث في كتابي السنن ما ليس بمتصل وهو مرسل ومدلس وهو إذا لم توجد الصحاح ثم عامة أهل الحديث على معنى أنه متصل وهو مثل الحسن عن جابر والحسن عن أبي هريرة والحكم عن مقسم وسماع الحكم من مقسم أربعة أحاديث

وأما أبو أسحاق عن الحارث عن علي فلم يسمع أبو إسحاق من الحارث إلا أربعة أحاديث ليس فيها مسند واحد وأما ما في كتاب السنن من هذا النحو فقليل ولعل ليس للحارث الأعور في كتاب السنن إلا حديث واحد فإنما كتبته بأخرة

وربما كان في الحديث ما تثبت صحة الحديث منه إذا كان يخفى ذلك علي فربما تركت الحديث إذا لم أفقهه وربما كتبته وبينته وربما لم صليت عليه وربما أتوقف عن مثل هذه لأنه ضرر على العامة أن يكشف لهم كل ما كان من هذا الباب فيما مضى من عيوب الحديث لأن علم العامة يقصر عن مثل هذاعدد أجزائها

وعدد كتب هذه السنن ثمانية عشر جزءا مع المراسيل منها جزء واحد مراسيل

حكم المراسيل

وما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من المراسيل منها ما لايصح ومنها ما هو مسند عن غيره وهو متصل صحيح

عدد أحاديث كتابه

ولعل عدد الذي في كتابي من الأحاديث قدر أربعة آلاف وثمانمائة حديث ونحو ستمائة حديث من المراسيل

منهجه في الاختيار

فمن أحب أن يميز هذه الأحاديث مع الألفاظ فربما يجيء حديث من طريق وهو ثم العامة من طريق الأئمة الذين هم أنه ربما طلبت اللفظة التي تكون لها معان كثيرة وممن عرفت نقل من جميع هذه الكتب

فربما يجيء الاسناد فيعلم من حديث غيره متصل ولا يتبينه السامع إلا بأن يعلم الأحاديث وتكون له فيه معرفة فيقف عليه مثل ما يروى عن ابن جريج قال أخبرت عن الزهري ويرويه البرساني عن ابن جريج عن الزهري

فالذي يسمع يظن أنه متصل ولا يصح بتة فإنما تركناه لذلك هذا لأن أصل متصل ولا يصح وهو حديث معلول ومثل هذا كثير

والذي لا يعلم يقول قد تركنا حديثا صحيحا من هذا وجاء بحديث معلولاقتصاره على الأحكام

وإنما لم أصنف في كتاب السنن إلا الأحكام ولم أصنف كتب الزهد وفضائل الأعمال وغيرها

فهذه الأربعة آلاف والثمانمائة كلها في الأحكام فأما أحاديث كثيرة في الزهد والفضائل وغيرها هذا لم أخرجه والسلام الله وبركاته وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وسلم تسليما وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل

 

 

 LETTER OF IMAM ABU DAWOOD WRITTEN TO THE PEOPLE OF MAKKA ABOUT HIS SUNAN

 

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم

 

Narrated by Abul-Husain ibn Jumay from Muhammad ibn Abdul Aziz al-Hashimi, from him : Shaykh Abul-Fath Muhammad ibn Abdul Baqi ibn Ahmad ibn Sulayman, known as ibnul-Bati, informed us by way of ijazah, if I did not in fact hear it from him, saying: Shaikh Abul-Fadhl Ahmad ibn al-Hasan ibn Khairun al-Mu'addal reported to us, by way of someone reading to him while I was present listening, it was said to him: You had it read upon Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah as-Suri al-Hafidh, saying: I heard Abul-Husain Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Jumay al-Ghassani at Sayda, and he confirmed it, saying: I heard Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn al-Fadhl ibn Yahya ibn al-Qasim ibn Awn ibn Abdillah ibn al-Harith ibn Nawfal ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul Muttalib al-Hashimi at Makkah saying:

I heard Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn al-Ash'ath ibn Ishaq ibn Bashir ibn Shaddad as-Sijistani at Basrah, and he was asked about his letter which he wrote to the people of Makkah in response to their request.   He (said fine and ) dictated to us (that letter, as follows).

 

 سلام عليكم فإني أحمد إليكم الله الذي لا إله إلا هو وأسأله أن يصلي على محمد عبده ورسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم كلما ذكر

 

Peace be on you. And I seek blessings of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) who is only worthy of worship; there is no god but He.  And I pray Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to send His blessings and praise on Apostle Muhammad  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), wherever he is mentioned.  

And then - May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) grant us pardon which is not accompanied by anything displeasing, and after which there is no punishment.

You asked me to write Ahadith, in a book, which are mostly authentic.  You also asked me to write whatever I know about the topics that are covered in that book.  

Thus, I have compiled a comprehensive book.  Most of these Ahadith mentioned in this book are related by two chains; one is Sahih, and the other consists of narrators who are strong in memorization.   The book is divided into several chapters.  I have written one or two Ahadith  in each chapter,  even if there were many related Ahadith.  If I had added all these Ahadith, it would have become difficult for you to grasp the content. Therefore, I made sure that the book is easy for you to follow so that you benefit from it fully.

When I repeated a Hadith in any chapter from two or three routes, it is because of the additional information contained therein. Sometimes I have summarized a Hadith in order that people understand the issue of fiqh in it.  If I had provided the entire Hadith, this aspect would have been hidden.  

As far as the 'Mursal' Ahadith are concerned, these were used  earlier by Hadith scholars like Sufyan ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas and al-Awzi to provide proof for fiqh rulings.  But the scholars who followed them, like Shafii, Ahmad bin Hanbal and others, criticized this practice.  May Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) be pleased with them all.  

When I did not find a musnad Hadith in opposition to a Mursal Hadith, I used it as a proof for fiqh issues.  In addition, when there is no Musnad Hadith on the subject, except a Mursal,  it was used as proof.  No doubt,  Mursal Ahadith are not as strong as  Muttasil Ahadith.

My Sunan does not contain Ahadith from persons who are not reliable and are 'Matruk al-Ahadith'.  As far as Munkar Ahadith are concerned, if I mentioned it in the book, I clarified that it was Munkar.  The works of Ibn al-Mubarak and Waki, we find a small number of such Ahadith.  Also, their books mostly contain Mursal Ahadith.

My Sunan contains  a small number of Ahadith from Muawatta of Malik bin Anas, Hammad bin Salamah and Abdur Razzaq. However, a major portion of my Sunan contains Ahadith not found in their works. 

I have tried to cover everything related on the authority of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  If you find a report from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) not mentioned in my book, then I may have excluded it because of its weakness.  Or else, it may have been reported from a different chain by others.  (As I have already mentioned) I did not mention Ahadith from all chains because that kind of detailed work would have becomes difficult for people's comprehension. 

I do not know if anyone has gathered reports as comprehensive as I did in this book.  Hasan Ibn Ali al-Khallal had gathered about nine hundred Ahadith and mentioned that Ibn al-Mubarak said that sunan from Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) contains nine hundred Ahadith. Abu Yusuf said that these are one thousand and one hundred.  Ibn al-Mubarak said, 'Abu Yusuf has accepted weak and defective Ahadith from unknown sources.

If any Hadith in my book contained a severe weakness, I have  mentioned about it explicitly, detailing that the Hadith does not have authentic chain.  When I did not mention anything about a Hadith, it means that it is 'Salih' (Hasan).  Indeed, some Ahadith are more 'Salih' (Sahih) than others.

My book has a distinction. You will not find anywhere else, other than this book, the Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) with Salih Isnad, with which you can extract legal points.  And I do not know any issue, after Quran, that has not been covered in this book.  People who contemplate will realize the importance of this book. As far as fiqh issues are concerned, after Sufyan ath-Thowri and Shafii, you can definitely count on this book.

If someone wants to write the opinions of Sahabah in his Hadith compilation, he should write a book like that of Jami of Sufyan ath-Thawri because it is the best of all compilations. 

Most of the Ahadith I have covered  are famous (Mash'hoor) Ahadith.  Most of the Hadith scholars who have written books of Ahadith agree that these are famous Ahadith.  Of course, there are some people who cannot differentiate between the categories of Ahadith.  Know that I have not used a gharib Hadith as a proof even if it was narrated by Malik, Yahya ibn Said or other reliable scholars.  If someone uses a Gharib Hadith as proof, he will be criticized by a lot many scholars because we cannot rely on this type of Ahadith. 

As for the famous (mash'hoor), muttasil, and sahih Ahadith are concerned, no one can reject them.  Ibrahim an-Nakha'i said, they detest gharib Ahadith. Yazid ibn Abi Habib said, 'When you hear a Hadith, then announce it loudly, like someone calls for his lost animal. When you tell openly about this Hadith, scholars will recognize it to be authentic.  If it is not recognized by them, leave it.  

Some Ahadith in my book are not Muttasil.  These are either Mursal or Mudallas.  The reason is Muttasil Hadith was not found on that subject. Like the narrations of al-Hasan from Jabir or al-Hasan from Abu Hurairah, and of al-Hakam from Miqsam from ibn ‘Abbas. As for the narrations of Abu Ishaq from al-Harith are concerned, Abu Ishaq heard only four Ahadith from al-Harith.  Among  them there is no musnad Hadith.  In my Sunan, Ahadith like these are very very few and whenever they are mentioned, I have clarified about them. 

I have left all such Ahadith that are not authentic or I could not find anything that establishes their authenticity. Whatever it is,  I refrained from mentioning minute issues about every single Hadith because this kind of detailed work cannot be understood by people.   

The narrations on the authority of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) contain all type of Ahadith, musnad, muttasil, Sahih and Mursal. The number of Ahadith in my book are 4,800.  About 600 of them are Mursal. 

The common people cannot differentiate between  Ahadith, therefore, they play safe and refer to the works of Imams who are well known.  But it should be known that Ahadith come from different routes and with different wordings. You will find these details, when you read different works.  Sometimes there will come a Sanad of a different kind while it is known from another narration that the narration is not Muttasil. The work of Hadith scholars is not easy.  In their detailed study, they  know all the sources and on the basis of that they come to a conclusion.  Like a person comes across a Hadith narrated from  ibn Juraij. He is also informed of it from az-Zuhri, while  al-Barsani narrates it from ibn Juraij, from az-Zuhri, and the like.

So the one who hears would think it is Muttasil, while the fact is completely different from it.  We have left all such Ahadith whose authenticity could not be established as Muttasil and Sahih.  All these are deficient Ahadith.  There were many cases like this where we had to leave all such Ahadith.  One who does not know these details will say, he has left a Sahih Hadith on this fiqh issue and has brought a Ma'lul Hadith.  

And I did not gather anything except the Fiqh rulings in my Sunan.  My book does not cover subjects like Zuhd,  Fadha'il al-A'mal (virtues of deeds), etc.

As I have mentioned, there are four thousand and eight hundred Ahadith in this book, all concerned with fiqh issues. 

 

والسلام الله وبركاته وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وسلم تسليما وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل

 

And peace be upon you, and the Mercy of Allah and Allah's blessings and praise be upon our master,  Mohammad  and on his family.   May He grant complete peace. And Allah, the disposer of all affairs, is Sufficient for us.

 

 

BOOK # 1 - PURIFICATION

كتاب الطهارة

 

The translation of Ahadith and their explanations, in the light of Quran and Sunnah, are provided below.  First, the content of the Hadith is provided in Arabic,  followed by its translation in English and then, wherever necessary,  explanation has been provided to help readers understand the Hadith in its proper perspective.

 

 

CHAPTER (1)

باب التَّخَلِّي عِنْدَ قَضَاءِ الْحَاجَةِ

Seclusion While Relieving Oneself

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 001

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ بْنِ قَعْنَبٍ الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ - عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَمْرٍو - عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا ذَهَبَ الْمَذْهَبَ أَبْعَدَ ‏.‏ 

Narrated Mughirah ibn Shu'bah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went (outside) to relieve himself, he went to a far-off place.

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدُ بْنُ مُسَرْهَدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا أَرَادَ الْبَرَازَ انْطَلَقَ حَتَّى لاَ يَرَاهُ أَحَدٌ ‏.‏

Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) felt the need of relieving himself, he went far off where no one could see him.

 
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو التَّيَّاحِ، حَدَّثَنِي شَيْخٌ، قَالَ لَمَّا قَدِمَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبَّاسٍ الْبَصْرَةَ فَكَانَ يُحَدَّثُ عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، فَكَتَبَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ إِلَى أَبِي مُوسَى يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ، فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو مُوسَى إِنِّي كُنْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَبُولَ فَأَتَى دَمِثًا فِي أَصْلِ جِدَارٍ فَبَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِذَا أَرَادَ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَبُولَ فَلْيَرْتَدْ لِبَوْلِهِ مَوْضِعًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abu al-Tayyah reported on the authority of a shaykh (an old man) : When Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to Basrah, people narrated to him traditions from Abu Musa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). Therefore Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote to him asking him about certain things. In reply Abu Musa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) wrote to him saying : One day I was in the company of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He wanted to urinate. Then he came to a soft ground at the foot of a wall and urinated. He (the Prophet ﷺ) then said : If any of you wants to urinate, he should look for a place (like this) for urination.

In consideration of other authentic Ahadith in this context, some Hadith scholars have graded this Hadith as weak. 


 

CHAPTER (3)

باب مَا يَقُولُ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلاَءَ

What a person should say when he enters the area wherein he relieves himself

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 004

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدُ بْنُ مُسَرْهَدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، وَعَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ صُهَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلاَءَ - قَالَ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ قَالَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْوَارِثِ - قَالَ ‏"‏ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏  قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُد رَوَاهُ شُعْبَةُ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ وَقَالَ مَرَّةً أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ و قَالَ وُهَيْبٌ فَلْيَتَعَوَّذْ بِاللَّهِ
 
Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported,  when the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) entered the toilet, he used to say (before entering) : 'O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee.' This is according to the version of Hammad.  Abdul Warith has another version : 'I seek refuge in Allah from male and female devils.'
 
 

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، - يَعْنِي السَّدُوسِيَّ - حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، - هُوَ ابْنُ صُهَيْبٍ - عَنْ أَنَسٍ، بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ شُعْبَةُ وَقَالَ مَرَّةً ‏"‏ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Another tradition on the authority of Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) has : 'O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee.'  Shu'bah said : Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) sometimes reported the words : "I take refuge in Allah."


حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ مَرْزُوقٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ أَنَسٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْحُشُوشَ مُحْتَضَرَةٌ فَإِذَا أَتَى أَحَدُكُمُ الْخَلاَءَ فَلْيَقُلْ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Zayd ibn Arqam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : These privies are frequented by jinns and devils. So when anyone among you goes there, he should say : 'I seek refuge in Allah from male and female devils.'


 
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدُ بْنُ مُسَرْهَدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ سَلْمَانَ، قَالَ قِيلَ لَهُ لَقَدْ عَلَّمَكُمْ نَبِيُّكُمْ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ حَتَّى الْخِرَاءَةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَجَلْ لَقَدْ نَهَانَا صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ نَسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةَ بِغَائِطٍ أَوْ بَوْلٍ وَأَنْ لاَ نَسْتَنْجِيَ بِالْيَمِينِ وَأَنْ لاَ يَسْتَنْجِيَ أَحَدُنَا بِأَقَلَّ مِنْ ثَلاَثَةِ أَحْجَارٍ أَوْ يَسْتَنْجِيَ بِرَجِيعٍ أَوْ عَظْمٍ ‏.‏

Narrated Salman al-Farsi (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). It was said to Salman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  : Your Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) teaches you everything, even about excrement. He replied : Yes. He has forbidden us to face  Qiblah at the time of easing or urinating; cleansing with right hand; and cleansing with less than three stones, or cleansing with dung or bone.

 
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : I am like father to you. When any of you goes to privy, he should not face or turn his back towards Qiblah. He should not cleanse with his right hand. He (the Prophet ﷺ) also commanded Muslims to use three stones and forbade them to use dung or decayed bone.

 
Narrated Abu Ayyub (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : that  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'When you go to the privy, neither turn your face nor your back towards Qiblah at the time of excretion or urination, but turn towards the east or the west. (Abu Ayyubؓ   said) : When we came to Syria, we found that the toilets, already built there,  were facing  the Qiblah, We turned our faces away from them and begged pardon of Allah.
 

Narrated Ma'qil ibn Abu Ma'qil al-Asadi : the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has forbidden us to face the two qiblahs at the time of urination or excretion.

 

Explanation

It is in Hadith - Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), 'I ascended the roof of the house and saw the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sitting on two bricks facing Jerusalem (Bait al-Maqdis) for relieving himself. (Abu Dawood, Kitab at-Tahara, Hadith 12)

In consideration of above and many other  authentic Ahadith in this context, Hadith scholars have graded above Hadith # 10   as weak.

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ، حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَانُ بْنُ عِيسَى، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ ذَكْوَانَ، عَنْ مَرْوَانَ الأَصْفَرِ، قَالَ رَأَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ أَنَاخَ رَاحِلَتَهُ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ ثُمَّ جَلَسَ يَبُولُ إِلَيْهَا فَقُلْتُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ نُهِيَ عَنْ هَذَا قَالَ بَلَى إِنَّمَا نُهِيَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فِي الْفَضَاءِ فَإِذَا كَانَ بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الْقِبْلَةِ شَىْءٌ يَسْتُرُكَ فَلاَ بَأْسَ ‏.‏

Marwan al-Asfar said : I saw Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) make his camel kneel down facing the Qiblah, then he sat down urinating in its direction. So I said: Abu Abdur Rahman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), has this not been forbidden? He replied: Why not, that was forbidden only in open country; but when there is something between you and the Qiblah that conceals you , then there is no harm.

CHAPTER (5)

باب الرُّخْصَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ

Concession in this regard

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 012

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى بْنِ حَبَّانَ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ، وَاسِعِ بْنِ حَبَّانَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ لَقَدِ ارْتَقَيْتُ عَلَى ظَهْرِ الْبَيْتِ فَرَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى لَبِنَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ لِحَاجَتِهِ
 
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), 'I ascended the roof of the house and saw the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sitting on two bricks facing Jerusalem (Bait al-Maqdis) for relieving himself.
 
 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا وَهْبُ بْنُ جَرِيرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي قَالَ، سَمِعْتُ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ إِسْحَاقَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبَانَ بْنِ صَالِحٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ نَهَى نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ نَسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةَ بِبَوْلٍ فَرَأَيْتُهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُقْبَضَ بِعَامٍ يَسْتَقْبِلُهَا ‏.‏

Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade us to face the Qiblah at the time of making water. Then I saw him facing it (Qiblah) urinating or easing himself one year before his death.

 

حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ رَجُلٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا أَرَادَ حَاجَةً لاَ يَرْفَعُ ثَوْبَهُ حَتَّى يَدْنُوَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ رَوَاهُ عَبْدُ السَّلاَمِ بْنُ حَرْبٍ عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ وَهُوَ ضَعِيفٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى الرَّمْلِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَوْنٍ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ السَّلاَمِ بِهِ ‏.‏

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) wanted to relieve himself, he would not raise his garment, until he lowered himself near the ground.

Imam Abu Dawood said,  this tradition has been transmitted by Abdul Salam bin Harb on the authority of al-Amash from Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). This chain of narrators is weak (because Amash's hearing tradition from Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is not established).

 
حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عِكْرِمَةُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ هِلاَلِ بْنِ عِيَاضٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَخْرُجُ الرَّجُلاَنِ يَضْرِبَانِ الْغَائِطَ كَاشِفَيْنِ عَنْ عَوْرَتِهِمَا يَتَحَدَّثَانِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَمْقُتُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ هَذَا لَمْ يُسْنِدْهُ إِلاَّ عِكْرِمَةُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), I heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : When two persons go together for relieving themselves uncovering their private parts and talking together, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) becomes wrathful on this (action).

Imam Abu Dawud said, this tradition has been narrated only by 'Ikrimah bin Ammar.

 
 
حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ، وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ ابْنَا أَبِي شَيْبَةَ قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عُمَرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ الضَّحَّاكِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ مَرَّ رَجُلٌ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَبُولُ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمْ يَرُدَّ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَرُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ وَغَيْرِهِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم تَيَمَّمَ ثُمَّ رَدَّ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ السَّلاَمَ ‏.‏ 
 
Narrated Ibn 'Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), a man passed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) while he was urinating, and saluted him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not return the salutation to him.

Imam Abu Dawood said : It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) performed dry ablution (tayammum), then he returned the salutation to the man.

 
 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدٌ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ حُضَيْنِ بْنِ الْمُنْذِرِ أَبِي سَاسَانَ، عَنِ الْمُهَاجِرِ بْنِ قُنْفُذٍ، أَنَّهُ أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَبُولُ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمْ يَرُدَّ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى تَوَضَّأَ ثُمَّ اعْتَذَرَ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ إِنِّي كَرِهْتُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلاَّ عَلَى طُهْرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ أَوْ قَالَ ‏"‏ عَلَى طَهَارَةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Muhajir ibn Qunfudh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Muhajir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) while he was urinating. He saluted him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not return the salutation to him until he performed ablution. He then apologized to him, saying : 'I disliked remembering Allah except in the state of purification'.

 

CHAPTER (9)

باب فِي الرَّجُلِ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى عَلَى غَيْرِ طُهْرٍ

The permissibility of remembering Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), while not in a state of purity

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 018 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي زَائِدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ، - يَعْنِي الْفَأْفَاءَ - عَنِ الْبَهِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى كُلِّ أَحْيَانِهِ ‏.‏
 
Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to remember Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) at all moments. 
 
حَدَّثَنَا نَصْرُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَلِيٍّ الْحَنَفِيِّ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلاَءَ وَضَعَ خَاتَمَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ مُنْكَرٌ وَإِنَّمَا يُعْرَفُ عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ عَنْ زِيَادِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ أَنَسٍ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم اتَّخَذَ خَاتَمًا مِنْ وَرِقٍ ثُمَّ أَلْقَاهُ ‏.‏ وَالْوَهَمُ فِيهِ مِنْ هَمَّامٍ وَلَمْ يَرْوِهِ إِلاَّ هَمَّامٌ ‏.‏

Narrated Anas ibn Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) entered the privy, he removed his ring.

Imam Abu Dawud said,  this is a Munkar Hadith, as it contradicts the well-known version reported by reliable narrators. On the authority of Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) the well-known version says : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had a silver ring made for him. Then he cast it off. The misunderstanding is on the part of Hammam (narrator). This is transmitted only by Hammam.

 
حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَهَنَّادُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ مُجَاهِدًا، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ طَاوُسٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ مَرَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى قَبْرَيْنِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ إِنَّهُمَا يُعَذَّبَانِ وَمَا يُعَذَّبَانِ فِي كَبِيرٍ أَمَّا هَذَا فَكَانَ لاَ يَسْتَنْزِهُ مِنَ الْبَوْلِ وَأَمَّا هَذَا فَكَانَ يَمْشِي بِالنَّمِيمَةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِعَسِيبٍ رَطْبٍ فَشَقَّهُ بِاثْنَيْنِ ثُمَّ غَرَسَ عَلَى هَذَا وَاحِدًا وَعَلَى هَذَا وَاحِدًا وَقَالَ ‏"‏ لَعَلَّهُ يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمَا مَا لَمْ يَيْبَسَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ هَنَّادٌ ‏"‏ يَسْتَتِرُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ مَكَانَ ‏"‏ يَسْتَنْزِهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) passed by two graves. He said : Both (the dead) are being punished, but they are not being punished for a major (sin). One did not safeguard himself from urine. The other carried tales (gossip). He then called for a fresh twig and split it into two parts and planted one part on each grave and said : Perhaps their punishment may be mitigated as long as the twigs remain fresh.

Imam Abu Dawood said, another version of Hannad has : 'One of them did not cover himself while urinating.' This version does not have the words : 'He did not safeguard himself from urine.'

 
حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِمَعْنَاهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ كَانَ لاَ يَسْتَتِرُ مِنْ بَوْلِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ ‏"‏ يَسْتَنْزِهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : A tradition from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) conveying similar meaning. The version of Jarir has the wording : 'he did not cover himself while urinating.' The version of Abu Mu'awiyah has the wording : 'he did not safeguard himself (from urine).'

 حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ بْنُ زِيَادٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ وَهْبٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ ابْنِ حَسَنَةَ، قَالَ انْطَلَقْتُ أَنَا وَعَمْرُو بْنُ الْعَاصِ، إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَخَرَجَ وَمَعَهُ دَرَقَةٌ ثُمَّ اسْتَتَرَ بِهَا ثُمَّ بَالَ فَقُلْنَا انْظُرُوا إِلَيْهِ يَبُولُ كَمَا تَبُولُ الْمَرْأَةُ ‏.‏ فَسَمِعَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمُوا مَا لَقِيَ صَاحِبُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَانُوا إِذَا أَصَابَهُمُ الْبَوْلُ قَطَعُوا مَا أَصَابَهُ الْبَوْلُ مِنْهُمْ فَنَهَاهُمْ فَعُذِّبَ فِي قَبْرِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ قَالَ مَنْصُورٌ عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ ‏"‏ جِلْدَ أَحَدِهِمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ عَاصِمٌ عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ جَسَدَ أَحَدِهِمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Amr ibn al-'Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Abdur Rahman ibn Hasanah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported : I and Amr ibn al-'As (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) went to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He came out with a leather shield (in his hand). He covered himself with it and urinated. Then we said : Look at him. He is urinating as a woman does. The Prophet (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), heard this and said : Do you not know what befell a person from among Banu Isra'il? When urine fell on them, they would cut off the place where the urine fell; but he (that person) forbade them (to do so), and was punished in his grave.

Imam Abu Dawud said : One version of Abu Musa has the wording: 'he cut off his skin'. Another version of Abu Musa goes : 'he cut off (part of) his body.'

 

حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، وَمُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، - وَهَذَا لَفْظُ حَفْصٍ - عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ، قَالَ أَتَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سُبَاطَةَ قَوْمٍ فَبَالَ قَائِمًا ثُمَّ دَعَا بِمَاءٍ فَمَسَحَ عَلَى خُفَّيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ قَالَ مُسَدَّدٌ قَالَ فَذَهَبْتُ أَتَبَاعَدُ فَدَعَانِي حَتَّى كُنْتُ عِنْدَ عَقِبِهِ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Hudhaifah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came to a midden of some people and urinated while standing. He then asked for water and wiped his shoes.

Imam Abu Dawud said : Musaddad, a narrator, reported : (Hudhaifah said) I went far away from him. He then called me and I reached just near his heals.

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عِيسَى، حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، عَنْ حُكَيْمَةَ بِنْتِ أُمَيْمَةَ بِنْتِ رُقَيْقَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّهَا، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدَحٌ مِنْ عَيْدَانٍ تَحْتَ سَرِيرِهِ يَبُولُ فِيهِ بِاللَّيْلِ ‏.‏

Narrated Umaymah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) daughter of Ruqayqah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had a wooden vessel under his bed in which he would urinate at night.

 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 025 
 
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ اتَّقُوا اللاَّعِنَيْنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَمَا اللاَّعِنَانِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ‏"‏ الَّذِي يَتَخَلَّى فِي طَرِيقِ النَّاسِ أَوْ ظِلِّهِمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Be on your guard against two things which provoke cursing. They (the hearers) said : Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), what are these things which provoke cursing : easing (urinating) in the watering places and on the thoroughfares, and in the shade (of the tree) (where they take shelter and rest).
 
 

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ سُوَيْدٍ الرَّمْلِيُّ، وَعُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَبُو حَفْصٍ، وَحَدِيثُهُ، أَتَمُّ أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، حَدَّثَهُمْ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا نَافِعُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، حَدَّثَنِي حَيْوَةُ بْنُ شُرَيْحٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ الْحِمْيَرِيَّ، حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ مُعَاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ اتَّقُوا الْمَلاَعِنَ الثَّلاَثَ الْبَرَازَ فِي الْمَوَارِدِ وَقَارِعَةِ الطَّرِيقِ وَالظِّلِّ ‏

Narrated Mu'adh ibn Jabal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Be on your guard against three things which provoke cursing : easing (urinating) in the watering places and on the thoroughfares, and in the shade (of the tree).


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ، وَالْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالَ أَحْمَدُ حَدَّثَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، أَخْبَرَنِي أَشْعَثُ، وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ، عَنْ أَشْعَثَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُغَفَّلٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لاَ يَبُولَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي مُسْتَحَمِّهِ ثُمَّ يَغْتَسِلُ فِيهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ ‏"‏ ثُمَّ يَتَوَضَّأُ فِيهِ فَإِنَّ عَامَّةَ الْوَسْوَاسِ مِنْهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mughaffal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : No one from you should make water in his bath and then wash himself there (after urination). The version of Ahmad has : Then performs ablution there, for evil thoughts come from it.

 

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرٌ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ الْحِمْيَرِيِّ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ - قَالَ لَقِيتُ رَجُلاً صَحِبَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَمَا صَحِبَهُ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ يَمْتَشِطَ أَحَدُنَا كُلَّ يَوْمٍ أَوْ يَبُولَ فِي مُغْتَسَلِهِ ‏.‏

Narrated a person  from the Companions : Humayd al-Himyari said : I met a man (Sahabi) who remained in the company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) just as Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) remained in his company. He then added : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade that anyone among us should comb (his hair) every day or urinate in the place where he takes bath.

 

حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سَرْجِسَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى أَنْ يُبَالَ فِي الْجُحْرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ قَالُوا لِقَتَادَةَ مَا يُكْرَهُ مِنَ الْبَوْلِ فِي الْجُحْرِ قَالَ كَانَ يُقَالُ إِنَّهَا مَسَاكِنُ الْجِنِّ ‏.‏

Narrated Abdullah ibn Sarjis (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prohibited to urinate in a hole. Qatadahؓ (narrator) was asked about the reason for the disapproval of urinating in a hole. He replied: It is said that these (holes) are the habitats of the jinn.

 
حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ النَّاقِدُ، حَدَّثَنَا هَاشِمُ بْنُ الْقَاسِمِ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، حَدَّثَتْنِي عَائِشَةُ، رضى الله عنها أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا خَرَجَ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ قَالَ ‏ "‏ غُفْرَانَكَ ‏"‏ ‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came out of the privy, he used to say : 'Forgive me my Lord' (غُفْرَانَكَ).

حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَمُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانُ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِذَا بَالَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَلاَ يَمَسَّ ذَكَرَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ وَإِذَا أَتَى الْخَلاَءَ فَلاَ يَتَمَسَّحْ بِيَمِينِهِ وَإِذَا شَرِبَ فَلاَ يَشْرَبْ نَفَسًا وَاحِدًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Qatadah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : When any one of you urinates, he must not touch his penis with his right hand, and when he goes to relieve himself he must not wipe himself with his right hand (in the privy), and when he drinks, he must not drink in one breath.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 032
 

Narrated Ummul Momineen Hafsah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used his right hand for taking his food and drink and used his left hand for other purposes.

 

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used his right hand for getting water for ablution and taking food, and his left hand for his evacuation and for anything repugnant.

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 034

 
There is another tradition bearing similar meaning reported by Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) transmitted by another chain of Narrators. 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 035
 
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى الرَّازِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ ثَوْرٍ، عَنِ الْحُصَيْنِ الْحُبْرَانِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنِ اكْتَحَلَ فَلْيُوتِرْ مَنْ فَعَلَ فَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ وَمَنْ لاَ فَلاَ حَرَجَ وَمَنِ اسْتَجْمَرَ فَلْيُوتِرْ مَنْ فَعَلَ فَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ وَمَنْ لاَ فَلاَ حَرَجَ وَمَنْ أَكَلَ فَمَا تَخَلَّلَ فَلْيَلْفِظْ وَمَا لاَكَ بِلِسَانِهِ فَلْيَبْتَلِعْ مَنْ فَعَلَ فَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ وَمَنْ لاَ فَلاَ حَرَجَ وَمَنْ أَتَى الْغَائِطَ فَلْيَسْتَتِرْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَجْمَعَ كَثِيبًا مِنْ رَمْلٍ فَلْيَسْتَدْبِرْهُ فَإِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَلْعَبُ بِمَقَاعِدِ بَنِي آدَمَ مَنْ فَعَلَ فَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ وَمَنْ لاَ فَلاَ حَرَجَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ رَوَاهُ أَبُو عَاصِمٍ عَنْ ثَوْرٍ قَالَ حُصَيْنٌ الْحِمْيَرِيُّ وَرَوَاهُ عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ عَنْ ثَوْرٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخَيْرُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخَيْرُ هُوَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : If anyone applies kohl, he should do it an odd number of times. If he does so, he has done well; but if not, there is no harm. If anyone cleanses himself with pebbles, he should use an odd number. If he does so, he has done well; but if not, there is no harm.

If anyone eats, he should throw away what he removes with a toothpick and swallow what sticks to his tongue. If he does so, he has done well; if not, there is no harm. If anyone goes to relieve himself, he should conceal himself, and if all he can do is to collect a heap of sand, he should sit with his back to it, for the devil makes sport with the posteriors of the children of Adam. If he does so, he has done well; but if not, there is no harm.

 


Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 036
حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ خَالِدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ الْهَمْدَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْمُفَضَّلُ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ فَضَالَةَ الْمِصْرِيَّ - عَنْ عَيَّاشِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ الْقِتْبَانِيِّ، أَنَّ شُيَيْمَ بْنَ بَيْتَانَ، أَخْبَرَهُ عَنْ شَيْبَانَ الْقِتْبَانِيِّ، قَالَ إِنَّ مَسْلَمَةَ بْنَ مُخَلَّدٍ اسْتَعْمَلَ رُوَيْفِعَ بْنَ ثَابِتٍ، عَلَى أَسْفَلِ الأَرْضِ ‏.‏ قَالَ شَيْبَانُ فَسِرْنَا مَعَهُ مِنْ كُومِ شَرِيكٍ إِلَى عَلْقَمَاءَ أَوْ مِنْ عَلْقَمَاءَ إِلَى كُومِ شَرِيكٍ - يُرِيدُ عَلْقَامَ - فَقَالَ رُوَيْفِعٌ إِنْ كَانَ أَحَدُنَا فِي زَمَنِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيَأْخُذُ نِضْوَ أَخِيهِ عَلَى أَنَّ لَهُ النِّصْفَ مِمَّا يَغْنَمُ وَلَنَا النِّصْفُ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَحَدُنَا لَيَطِيرُ لَهُ النَّصْلُ وَالرِّيشُ وَلِلآخَرِ الْقَدَحُ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ يَا رُوَيْفِعُ لَعَلَّ الْحَيَاةَ سَتَطُولُ بِكَ بَعْدِي فَأَخْبِرِ النَّاسَ أَنَّهُ مَنْ عَقَدَ لِحْيَتَهُ أَوْ تَقَلَّدَ وَتَرًا أَوِ اسْتَنْجَى بِرَجِيعِ دَابَّةٍ أَوْ عَظْمٍ فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْهُ بَرِيءٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Ruwayfi' ibn Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Shayban al-Qatbani reported that Maslamah ibn Mukhallad made Ruwayfi' ibn Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) the governor of the lower parts (of Egypt). He added : We traveled with him from Kum Sharik to Alqamah or from Alqamah to Kum Sharik (the narrator doubts) for Alqam.  Ruwayfi' (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : Any one of us would borrow a camel during the lifetime of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from the other, on condition that he would give him half the booty, and the other half he would retain himself.  Further, one of us received an arrowhead and a feather, and the other an arrow-shaft as a share from the booty.

He then reported: The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : You may live for a long time after I am gone, Ruwayfi (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), so, tell people that if anyone ties his beard or wears round his neck a string to ward off the evil eye, or cleanses himself with animal dung or bone, Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has nothing to do with him.


The above tradition has also been narrated by Abu Salim al-Jaishani  on the authority of 'Abdullah bin 'Amr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). He narrated it at the time when he besieged the fort at the gate of Alyun.

Imam Abu Dawud said the fort of Alyun lies at the mountain in Fustat. And the kunyah (surname) of Shaiban bin Umayyah is Abu Hudhaifah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

 
 
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade us to use a bone or dung for wiping.
 
 

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : A deputation of the jinn came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and said : O' Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), forbid your community to cleans themselves with a bone or dung or charcoal, for in them Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has provided sustenance for us. So the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade them to do so.

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، عَنْ مُسْلِمِ بْنِ قُرْطٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِذَا ذَهَبَ أَحَدُكُمْ إِلَى الْغَائِطِ فَلْيَذْهَبْ مَعَهُ بِثَلاَثَةِ أَحْجَارٍ يَسْتَطِيبُ بِهِنَّ فَإِنَّهَا تُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : When any of you goes to relieve himself, he should take with him three stones to cleans himself, for they will be enough for him.

 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 041
 

Narrated Khuzaymah ibn Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked about cleansing (after relieving oneself). He said, (One should cleanse oneself) with three stones which should be free from dung.

Imam Abu Dawud said : A similar tradition has been narrated by Abu Usamah and Ibn Numair from Hisham.

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، وَخَلَفُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ الْمُقْرِئُ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يَحْيَى التَّوْأَمُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عَوْنٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو يَعْقُوبَ التَّوْأَمُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ بَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَامَ عُمَرُ خَلْفَهُ بِكُوزٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَا هَذَا يَا عُمَرُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ هَذَا مَاءٌ تَتَوَضَّأُ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا أُمِرْتُ كُلَّمَا بُلْتُ أَنْ أَتَوَضَّأَ وَلَوْ فَعَلْتُ لَكَانَتْ سُنَّةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) urinated and Hadhrat Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was standing behind him with a jug of water. He said : What is this, Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)? He replied : Water for you to perform ablution with. He said : I have not been commanded to perform ablution every time I urinate. If I were to do so, it would become a Sunnah.

 
حَدَّثَنَا وَهْبُ بْنُ بَقِيَّةَ، عَنْ خَالِدٍ، - يَعْنِي الْوَاسِطِيَّ - عَنْ خَالِدٍ، - يَعْنِي الْحَذَّاءَ - عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ أَبِي مَيْمُونَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم دَخَلَ حَائِطًا وَمَعَهُ غُلاَمٌ مَعَهُ مِيضَأَةٌ وَهُوَ أَصْغَرُنَا فَوَضَعَهَا عِنْدَ السِّدْرَةِ فَقَضَى حَاجَتَهُ فَخَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا وَقَدِ اسْتَنْجَى بِالْمَاءِ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) entered a park. He was accompanied by a boy who had a jug of water with him. He was the youngest of us.  He placed it near the lot tree. He (the Prophet ﷺ), relieved himself. He came to us after he had cleansed himself with water.
 
 

Narrated Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The following verse was revealed in connection with the people of Quba' :  فِيهِ رِجَالٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَتَطَهَّرُوا  [ In it are men who love to be purified.] (At-Tauba -108). He (Abu Hurayrahؓ ) said : They used to cleanse themselves with water after easing.  So the verse was revealed in connection with them.

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَسْوَدُ بْنُ عَامِرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شَرِيكٌ، وَهَذَا، لَفْظُهُ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، - يَعْنِي الْمُخَرِّمِيَّ - حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ شَرِيكٍ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ، عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ، عَنْ أَبِي زُرْعَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا أَتَى الْخَلاَءَ أَتَيْتُهُ بِمَاءٍ فِي تَوْرٍ أَوْ رَكْوَةٍ فَاسْتَنْجَى ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ فِي حَدِيثِ وَكِيعٍ ثُمَّ مَسَحَ يَدَهُ عَلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ أَتَيْتُهُ بِإِنَاءٍ آخَرَ فَتَوَضَّأَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَحَدِيثُ الأَسْوَدِ بْنِ عَامِرٍ أَتَمُّ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went to the privy, I took to him water in a small vessel or a skin, and he cleansed himself. He then wiped his hand on the ground. I then took to him another vessel and he performed ablution.

Imam Abu Dawud said : The tradition is transmitted by al-Aswad bin Amir is more perfect.

 
 
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، يَرْفَعُهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ لَوْلاَ أَنْ أَشُقَّ، عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لأَمَرْتُهُمْ بِتَأْخِيرِ الْعِشَاءِ وَبِالسِّوَاكِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ صَلاَةٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying  : 'Were it not that I might over burden the believers, I would order them to delay the night (Isha) prayer and use  tooth stick at the time of every prayer.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 047
 

Narrated Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhani (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  I heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : Were it not hard on my Ummah, I would order them to use the tooth-stick at the time of every prayer. Abu Salamah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : Zayd ibn Khalid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to attend the prayers in the mosque with his tooth stick on his ear where a clerk carries a pen, and whenever he got up for prayer he used it.


Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 048
 

Narrated Abdullah bin Abd Allah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Habban (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked Abdullah ibn Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) about the reason for Ibn Umar's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) performing ablution for every prayer, whether he was with or without ablution.

He replied : Asma (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), daughter of Zayd ibn al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), reported to me that Abdullah ibn Hanzalah ibn Abu Amir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated to her that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was earlier commanded to perform ablution for every prayer whether or not he was with ablution.

When it became a burden for him, he was ordered to use tooth stick for every prayer. As Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) thought that he had the strength (to perform the ablution for every prayer), he did not give up performing ablution for every prayer.

Imam Abu Dawud said : Ibrahim bin Sa'd narrated this tradition on the authority of Muhammad bin Ishaq, and there he mentions the name of 'Ubaid Allah bin Abdullah (instead of Abdullah bin Abdullah bin 'Umar)

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، وَسُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الْعَتَكِيُّ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ غَيْلاَنَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ مُسَدَّدٌ قَالَ أَتَيْنَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَسْتَحْمِلُهُ فَرَأَيْتُهُ يَسْتَاكُ عَلَى لِسَانِهِ - قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَقَالَ سُلَيْمَانُ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَسْتَاكُ وَقَدْ وَضَعَ السِّوَاكَ عَلَى طَرَفِ لِسَانِهِ - وَهُوَ يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ إِهْ إِهْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي يَتَهَوَّعُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ قَالَ مُسَدَّدٌ فَكَانَ حَدِيثًا طَوِيلاً اخْتَصَرْتُهُ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Burdah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on the authority of his father (Abu Musa al-Ash'ariؓ ), reported (according to the version of Musaddad) : We came to the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to provide us with a mount, and found him using the tooth stick, its one end being at his tongue (he was rinsing his mouth).

According to the version of Sulaiman it goes : I entered upon the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) who was using the tooth stick, and had it placed at one side of his tongue producing a gurgling sound.

Imam Abu Dawud said : Musaddad said that the tradition was a lengthy but he shortened it.


حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عِيسَى، حَدَّثَنَا عَنْبَسَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْوَاحِدِ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْتَنُّ وَعِنْدَهُ رَجُلاَنِ أَحَدُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الآخَرِ فَأُوحِيَ إِلَيْهِ فِي فَضْلِ السِّوَاكِ ‏ "‏ أَنْ كَبِّرْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ أَعْطِ السِّوَاكَ أَكْبَرَهُمَا ‏.‏ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ - هُوَ ابْنُ حَزْمٍ - قَالَ لَنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ هُوَ ابْنُ الأَعْرَابِيِّ هَذَا مِمَّا تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ أَهْلُ الْمَدِينَةِ ‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was using the tooth stick, when two men, one older than the other, were with him. A revelation came to him about the merit of using the tooth stick. He was asked to show proper respect and give it to the elder of the two.

 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 051
 
حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى الرَّازِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ مِسْعَرٍ، عَنِ الْمِقْدَامِ بْنِ شُرَيْحٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ قُلْتُ لِعَائِشَةَ بِأَىِّ شَىْءٍ كَانَ يَبْدَأُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا دَخَلَ بَيْتَهُ قَالَتْ بِالسِّوَاكِ ‏.‏
 
Shuraih (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked  Ummul Momineen Aishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : "What would the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) do as soon as he entered the house?" She replied : "(He would use) the siwak."
 

CHAPTER (28)

باب غَسْلِ السِّوَاكِ

Washing the Siwak

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 052
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَنْبَسَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْكُوفِيُّ الْحَاسِبُ، حَدَّثَنِي كَثِيرٌ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْتَاكُ فَيُعْطِينِي السِّوَاكَ لأَغْسِلَهُ فَأَبْدَأُ بِهِ فَأَسْتَاكُ ثُمَّ أَغْسِلُهُ وَأَدْفَعُهُ إِلَيْهِ ‏.‏

Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated : "The Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) would clean his teeth with the Siwak, then he would give me the Siwak in order to wash it. So I would first use it myself, then wash it and return it.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 053

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مَعِينٍ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ أَبِي زَائِدَةَ، عَنْ مُصْعَبِ بْنِ شَيْبَةَ، عَنْ طَلْقِ بْنِ حَبِيبٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ عَشْرٌ مِنَ الْفِطْرَةِ قَصُّ الشَّارِبِ وَإِعْفَاءُ اللِّحْيَةِ وَالسِّوَاكُ وَالاِسْتِنْشَاقُ بِالْمَاءِ وَقَصُّ الأَظْفَارِ وَغَسْلُ الْبَرَاجِمِ وَنَتْفُ الإِبِطِ وَحَلْقُ الْعَانَةِ وَانْتِقَاصُ الْمَاءِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي الاِسْتِنْجَاءَ بِالْمَاءِ ‏.‏ قَالَ زَكَرِيَّا قَالَ مُصْعَبٌ وَنَسِيتُ الْعَاشِرَةَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونَ الْمَضْمَضَةَ ‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : There are 10 acts of nature (الْفِطْرَةِ) : clipping the moustache, letting the beard grow, using the tooth-stick, cleansing the nose with water, cutting the nails, washing the finger joints, plucking the armpit hairs, shaving the pubes, and cleansing one's private parts (after easing or urinating) with water. The narrator said : I have forgotten the tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth.


 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 055

دَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، وَحُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ أَبِي وَائِلٍ، عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا قَامَ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ يَشُوصُ فَاهُ بِالسِّوَاكِ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Hudhaifah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that when the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) got up during the night (to pray), he cleansed his mouth with the tooth-stick.
 

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا بَهْزُ بْنُ حَكِيمٍ، عَنْ زُرَارَةَ بْنِ أَوْفَى، عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يُوضَعُ لَهُ وَضُوءُهُ وَسِوَاكُهُ فَإِذَا قَامَ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ تَخَلَّى ثُمَّ اسْتَاكَ ‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) that Wudu water and tooth-stick were placed by the side of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When he got up during the night (for prayer), he relieved himself, then he used the tooth-stick.


حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هَمَّامٌ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ أُمِّ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ لاَ يَرْقُدُ مِنْ لَيْلٍ وَلاَ نَهَارٍ فَيَسْتَيْقِظُ إِلاَّ تَسَوَّكَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَوَضَّأَ ‏.‏

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not get up after sleeping by night or by day without using the tooth-stick before performing ablution.

 
Narrated Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : I spent a night with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When he woke up from his sleep (in the latter part of the night for prayer) he came to his ablution water. He took the tooth-stick and used it. He then recited the verse  إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لأُولِي الأَلْبَابِ [Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are tokens  for men of understanding.] (Aal-e-Imran - 190). He recited these verses up to the end of the chapter or he finished the whole chapter. He then performed ablution and came to the place of prayer. He then did two rak'ah. And then lay down on the bed and slept as much as Allah wished. He then got up and did the same. He then lay down and slept. He then got up and did the same. Every time he used the tooth-stick and offered two rak'ah of prayer. He then offered the prayer known as witr.

Abu Dawud said : Fudail on the authority of Husain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the wording : He then used the tooth-stick and performed ablution while he was reciting the verses  إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لأُولِي الأَلْبَابِ [Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are tokens  for men of understanding.] (Aal-e-Imran - 190). until he finished the chapter.

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 059

حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الْمَلِيحِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ صَدَقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ وَلاَ صَلاَةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Abul Malih (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) does not accept charity from goods acquired by embezzlement as He does not accept prayer without purification.

 
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) does not accept the prayer of any of you when you are defiled until you performed ablution.
 

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ ابْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلاَةِ الطُّهُورُ وَتَحْرِيمُهَا التَّكْبِيرُ وَتَحْلِيلُهَا التَّسْلِيمُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The key to prayer is purification; its beginning is takbir and its end is taslim.


CHAPTER (32)

باب الرَّجُلِ يُجَدِّدُ الْوُضُوءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ حَدَثٍ

The permissbility for a person to renew Wudu' without braking it
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يَزِيدَ الْمُقْرِئُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ زِيَادٍ، - قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَأَنَا لِحَدِيثِ ابْنِ يَحْيَى، أَتْقَنُ - عَنْ غُطَيْفٍ، - وَقَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ عَنْ أَبِي غُطَيْفٍ الْهُذَلِيِّ، - قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ فَلَمَّا نُودِيَ بِالظُّهْرِ تَوَضَّأَ فَصَلَّى فَلَمَّا نُودِيَ بِالْعَصْرِ تَوَضَّأَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فَقَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ عَلَى طُهْرٍ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ عَشْرَ حَسَنَاتٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَهَذَا حَدِيثُ مُسَدَّدٍ وَهُوَ أَتَمُّ ‏.‏

Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrataed that Abu Ghutayf al-Hudhali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported : I was in the company of Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When the call was made for the noon (Zuhr) prayer, he performed ablution and did  the prayer. When the call for the afternoon (Asr) prayer was made, he again performed ablution. Thus I asked him (about the reason of performing ablution). He replied : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : For a man who performs ablution in a state of purity, ten virtuous deeds will be recorded for him.

Imam Abu Dawud said this traditio is narrated by Musaddad, and it is more perfect.


 
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، وَعُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَالْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، وَغَيْرُهُمْ، قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ سُئِلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنِ الْمَاءِ وَمَا يَنُوبُهُ مِنَ الدَّوَابِّ وَالسِّبَاعِ فَقَالَ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِذَا كَانَ الْمَاءُ قُلَّتَيْنِ لَمْ يَحْمِلِ الْخَبَثَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَهَذَا لَفْظُ ابْنِ الْعَلاَءِ وَقَالَ عُثْمَانُ وَالْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبَّادِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَهُوَ الصَّوَابُ ‏.‏

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), was asked about (usefulness of) the water (of a well in a desert) that my be frequented by animals and wild beasts. He replied : When there is enough water to fill two pitchers, it bears no impurity.

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 064
 
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked about the water (well) in desert. He then narrated a similar tradition (as mentioned above).
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 065
 
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : When there is enough water to fill two pitchers, it does not become impure.

Imam Abu Dawud said Hammad bin Zaid has narrated this tradition on the authority of Asim ( without any reference to the Prophet ﷺ)


Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 066
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، وَالْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ الأَنْبَارِيُّ، قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ رَافِعِ بْنِ خَدِيجٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، أَنَّهُ قِيلَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَتَوَضَّأُ مِنْ بِئْرِ بُضَاعَةَ وَهِيَ بِئْرٌ يُطْرَحُ فِيهَا الْحِيَضُ وَلَحْمُ الْكِلاَبِ وَالنَّتْنُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ الْمَاءُ طَهُورٌ لاَ يُنَجِّسُهُ شَىْءٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ رَافِعٍ ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The people asked the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) : Can we perform ablution from the water of the well of Buda'ah, in which menstrual clothes, dead dogs and stinking things are thrown? He replied : Water is pure and is not defiled by anything.

 

Explanation

It is in Hadith - Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : None among you should urinate in stagnant water, and then take bath in it. (Abu Dawood, Book 1, Hadith # 69).

The well of Buda'ah was  located at a slope and water used to flow out of it all the time. Sometimes during heavy rains, some items were flown from top houses down towards the well.  Since the water used to flow during rains, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) allowed people to use it for ablution (Wudu). 

It is unthinkable that the Sahabah or even non-Muslims will throw garbage or dead animals  into the well those days as the water was an scarce commodity for them. However, something used to be flown towards the well accidentally, particularly during heavy rains flooding.  In view of it, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) described that if well is large and the water is in huge quantity in the well and in some corner something accidentally has fallen, it does not impure the entire water. 

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 067

Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ),  I heard the people asked the Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) : Water is brought for you from the well of Buda'ah. It is a well in which dead dogs, menstrual clothes and excrement of people are thrown. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) replied: Verily water is pure and is not defiled by anything.

Imam Abu Dawud said I heard Qutaibah bin Sa'id say : I asked the person in charge of the well of Bud'ah about the depth of the well. He replied : At most the water reaches pubes. Then I asked: Where does it reach when its level goes down ? He replied : Below the private part of the body.

Imam Abu Dawud said : I measured the breadth of the well of Buda'ah with my sheet which I stretched over it. I then measured it with the hand. It measured six cubits in breadth. I then asked the man who opened the door of garden for me and admitted me to it : Has the condition of this well changed from what it had originally been in the past ? He replied : No. I saw the color of water in this well had changed.


 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 068
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الأَحْوَصِ، حَدَّثَنَا سِمَاكٌ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ اغْتَسَلَ بَعْضُ أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي جَفْنَةٍ فَجَاءَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِيَتَوَضَّأَ مِنْهَا - أَوْ يَغْتَسِلَ - فَقَالَتْ لَهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي كُنْتُ جُنُبًا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِنَّ الْمَاءَ لاَ يَجْنُبُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : One of the Ummahatul Momineen took a bath from a large bowl. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) wanted to perform ablution or take from the water left over. She said to him : O Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), verily I was Junub (and took bath from that water). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Water is not Junub.

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 069
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا زَائِدَةُ، فِي حَدِيثِ هِشَامٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ يَبُولَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي الْمَاءِ الدَّائِمِ ثُمَّ يَغْتَسِلُ مِنْهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : None among you should urinate in stagnant water, and then take bath in it.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 070

Narrated Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : None among you should urinate in standing water, then take a bath for Junub. 


 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 071
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا زَائِدَةُ، - فِي حَدِيثِ هِشَامٍ - عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ طُهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذَا وَلَغَ فِيهِ الْكَلْبُ أَنْ يُغْسَلَ سَبْعَ مِرَارٍ أُولاَهُنَّ بِتُرَابٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَكَذَلِكَ قَالَ أَيُّوبُ وَحَبِيبُ بْنُ الشَّهِيدِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: The purification of the utensil belonging to any one of you, after it has been licked by a dog, consists of washing it seven times, using sand in the first instance.

Abu Dawud said : A similar tradition has been narrated by Abu Ayyub and Habib bin al-Shahid on the authority of Muhammad.


 
A similar tradition has been transmitted by Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) through a different chain of narrators. But this version has been narrated as a statement of Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) himself and not attributed to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). The version has the addition of the words : "If the cat licks (a utensil), it should be washed once."
 
 
 
Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : When a dog licks a (thing contained in a) utensil you must wash it seven times, using earth (sand) for the seventh time.

Imam Abu Dawud said : This tradition has been transmitted by another chain of narrators in which there is no mention of earth.

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 074
 
Narrated Ibn Mughaffal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered the killing of dogs, and then said : Why are they (people) after them (dogs)? and then granted permission (to keep) for hunting and for (the security) of the herd, and said : When the dog licks the utensil, wash it seven times, and rub it with earth the eighth time.

Imam Abu Dawud said : Ibn Mughaffal narrated in this way.

 

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 1, Hadith # 075
 
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ حُمَيْدَةَ بِنْتِ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ رِفَاعَةَ، عَنْ كَبْشَةَ بِنْتِ كَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، - وَكَانَتْ تَحْتَ ابْنِ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ - أَنَّ أَبَا قَتَادَةَ، دَخَلَ فَسَكَبَتْ لَهُ وَضُوءًا فَجَاءَتْ هِرَّةٌ فَشَرِبَتْ مِنْهُ فَأَصْغَى لَهَا الإِنَاءَ حَتَّى شَرِبَتْ قَالَتْ كَبْشَةُ فَرَآنِي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَتَعْجَبِينَ يَا ابْنَةَ أَخِي فَقُلْتُ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّهَا لَيْسَتْ بِنَجَسٍ إِنَّهَا مِنَ الطَّوَّافِينَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَالطَّوَّافَاتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Qatadah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : Kabshah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), daughter of Ka'b ibn Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and wife of Ibn Abu Qatadah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), reported : Abu Qatadah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) visited (me) and I poured out water for him for ablution. A cat came and drank some of it and he tilted the vessel for it until it drank some of it. Kabshah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) said : He saw me looking at him; he asked me : Are you surprised, my niece? I said : Yes. He then reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : It is not unclean; it is one of those (males or females) who go round among you.


Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : Dawud ibn Salih ibn Dinar at-Tammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) quoted his mother as saying that her mistress sent her with some pudding (harisah) to Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) who was offering prayer. She made a sign to me to place it down. A cat came and ate some of it, but when Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) finished her prayer, she ate from the place where the cat had eaten. She stated : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: It is not unclean : it is one of those who go round among you. She added : I saw the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) performing ablution from the water left over by the cat.

 

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، حَدَّثَنِي مَنْصُورٌ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كُنْتُ أَغْتَسِلُ أَنَا وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ، صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْ إِنَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنَحْنُ جُنُبَانِ ‏.‏
 
Narrated Ummul Momineen Aishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : I and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took a bath from one vessel while we were Junub.
 
 

Narrated Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) : My hands and the hands of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) alternated into one vessel while we performed ablution.

 
 
Narrated Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The males and females during the time of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to perform the ablution from one vessel together. The wordings "from one vessel" occur in the version of Musaddad.
 
 
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : We (men) and women during the life-time of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to perform ablution from one vessel. We all put our hands in it.
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرٌ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ حُمَيْدٍ الْحِمْيَرِيِّ، قَالَ لَقِيتُ رَجُلاً صَحِبَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ كَمَا صَحِبَهُ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ تَغْتَسِلَ الْمَرْأَةُ بِفَضْلِ الرَّجُلِ أَوْ يَغْتَسِلَ الرَّجُلُ بِفَضْلِ الْمَرْأَةِ - زَادَ مُسَدَّدٌ - وَلْيَغْتَرِفَا جَمِيعًا ‏.‏

Humayd al-Himyari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that I met a person (among Sahabah) who remained in the company of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for four years as Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) remained in his company. He reported : The Apostle  of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade that the female should wash with the water left over by the male, and that the male should wash with the left-over of the female. The version of Musaddad adds : "That they both take the handful of water together."

حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو دَاوُدَ، - يَعْنِي الطَّيَالِسِيَّ - حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ عَاصِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي حَاجِبٍ، عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، وَهُوَ الأَقْرَعُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى أَنْ يَتَوَضَّأَ الرَّجُلُ بِفَضْلِ طَهُورِ الْمَرْأَةِ ‏

Narrated Hakam ibn Amr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) forbade that the male should perform ablution with the water left over by the female.

 

 

 

RELATED READING

 

(i) Sunan Abu Dawood Volume 1.1

(ii) Sunan Abu Dawood Volume 1.2

(iii) Sunan Abu Dawood Volume 1.3