CIF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

العقيدة الإسلامية الصحيحة

 

 

 

 

 

 SUNAN ABU DAWOOD

 

VOLUME (1.7)

 

BOOK # 2 - PRAYER

كتاب الصلاة

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith #189
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كَامِلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حُسَيْنٌ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، - يَعْنِي مَوْلَى مَيْمُونَةَ - قَالَ أَتَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ عَلَى الْبَلاَطِ وَهُمْ يُصَلُّونَ فَقُلْتُ أَلاَ تُصَلِّي مَعَهُمْ قَالَ قَدْ صَلَّيْتُ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لاَ تُصَلُّوا صَلاَةً فِي يَوْمٍ مَرَّتَيْنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abdullah Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that Sulayman, the freed slave of Umul Momineen Maymuna (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), said : I came to Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) at Bilat (a place in Medina) while the people were praying. I said : Do you not pray along with them? He said : I heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say: Do not say a prayer twice in a day.

 

 

CHAPTER (59)

باب فِي جِمَاعِ الإِمَامَةِ وَفَضْلِهَا

Concerning the position of the Imam and its virtue

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith #190

حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الْمَهْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ حَرْمَلَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي عَلِيٍّ الْهَمْدَانِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عُقْبَةَ بْنَ عَامِرٍ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ أَمَّ النَّاسَ فَأَصَابَ الْوَقْتَ فَلَهُ وَلَهُمْ وَمَنِ انْتَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَعَلَيْهِ وَلاَ عَلَيْهِمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Uqbah ibn Amir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that he heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : He who leads the people in prayer, and he does so at the right time, will receive, as well as those who are led (in prayer) will get (the reward). He who delays (prayer) from the appointed time will be responsible (for this delay) and not those who are led in prayer.


 

CHAPTER (60)

باب فِي كَرَاهِيَةِ التَّدَافُعِ عَلَى الإِمَامَةِ

It is disliked to refuse the position of the Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith #191
حَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ عَبَّادٍ الأَزْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مَرْوَانُ، حَدَّثَتْنِي طَلْحَةُ أُمُّ غُرَابٍ، عَنْ عَقِيلَةَ، - امْرَأَةٌ مِنْ بَنِي فَزَارَةَ مَوْلاَةٌ لَهُمْ - عَنْ سَلاَمَةَ بِنْتِ الْحُرِّ، أُخْتِ خَرَشَةَ بْنِ الْحُرِّ الْفَزَارِيِّ قَالَتْ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِ السَّاعَةِ أَنْ يَتَدَافَعَ أَهْلُ الْمَسْجِدِ لاَ يَجِدُونَ إِمَامًا يُصَلِّي بِهِمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Sulama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) daughter of al-Hurr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that she heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : One of the signs of the Last Hour will be that people in a mosque will refuse to act as Imam and will not find an Imam to lead them in prayer.

 

CHAPTER (61)

باب مَنْ أَحَقُّ بِالإِمَامَةِ

Who has more right to be Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith #192

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ الطَّيَالِسِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، أَخْبَرَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ رَجَاءٍ، سَمِعْتُ أَوْسَ بْنَ ضَمْعَجٍ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الْبَدْرِيِّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ يَؤُمُّ الْقَوْمَ أَقْرَؤُهُمْ لِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَأَقْدَمُهُمْ قِرَاءَةً فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ سَوَاءً فَلْيَؤُمَّهُمْ أَقْدَمُهُمْ هِجْرَةً فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي الْهِجْرَةِ سَوَاءً فَلْيَؤُمَّهُمْ أَكْبَرُهُمْ سِنًّا وَلاَ يُؤَمُّ الرَّجُلُ فِي بَيْتِهِ وَلاَ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ وَلاَ يُجْلَسُ عَلَى تَكْرِمَتِهِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ فَقُلْتُ لإِسْمَاعِيلَ مَا تَكْرِمَتُهُ قَالَ فِرَاشُهُ ‏.‏

Abu Mas’ud al-Badri (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : The one of you who is well versed in the Book of Allah should act as Imam for the people,  and the one who is the earliest of them in reciting (the Qur’an), if they are equally well versed in reciting it, then the earliest of them to emigrate (to Medina), if they emigrated at the same time, then the oldest of them. No man must lead another in prayer in his house (in the house of a latter) or where the latter has authority, or sit in his place of honor without his permission. Shu’bah said : I asked Isma’il : what is the meaning of his place of honor? He replied : his throne.
 
 

حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مُعَاذٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ فِيهِ ‏"‏ وَلاَ يَؤُمُّ الرَّجُلُ الرَّجُلَ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ كَذَا قَالَ يَحْيَى الْقَطَّانُ عَنْ شُعْبَةَ ‏"‏ أَقْدَمُهُمْ قِرَاءَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏

The version of this tradition narrated through a different chain by Shu’bah has the words : “A man should not lead the another man in prayer.

Imam Abu Dawud said, Yahya Al-Qattan narrated from Shu’bah in a similar way, ie., the earliest of them in recitation.

 

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ نُمَيْرٍ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ رَجَاءٍ، عَنْ أَوْسِ بْنِ ضَمْعَجٍ الْحَضْرَمِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ سَوَاءً فَأَعْلَمُهُمْ بِالسُّنَّةِ فَإِنْ كَانُوا فِي السُّنَّةِ سَوَاءً فَأَقْدَمُهُمْ هِجْرَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ ‏"‏ فَأَقْدَمُهُمْ قِرَاءَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ رَوَاهُ حَجَّاجُ بْنُ أَرْطَاةَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ قَالَ ‏"‏ وَلاَ تَقْعُدْ عَلَى تَكْرِمَةِ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

This tradition has been transmitted through a different chain by Abu Mas’ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). This version has words  - 'If they are equally versed in recitation, then the one who has most knowledge of the Sunnah; if they are equal with regard to (the knowledge of) Sunnah, then the earliest of them to emigrate (to medina). He did not narrate the words - 'the earliest of them in recitation.

Imam Abu Dawud said: Hajjaj bin Artata reported from Isma’il : Do not sit in the place of honor of anyone except with his permission.

 

Amr bin Salama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said,  we lived at a place where the people would pass by us when they came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When they returned they would again pass by us. And they used to inform us that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said such and such. I was a boy with a good memory. From this (process) I memorized a large portion of the Qur’an. Then my father went to the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) along with a group of his clan. He (the Prophet ﷺ) taught them prayer. And he said : The one of you who knows most of the Qur’an should act as your Imam. I knew the Quran better than most of them because I had memorized it. Thus, they put me in front of them and I would lead them in prayer. I wore a small yellow mantle which, when I prostrated, went up on me and a woman of the clan said : Cover the back side of your leader from us. So they bought an ‘Omani shirt for me, and I have never been so pleased about anything after embracing Islam as I was about that (shirt). I used to lead them in prayer and I was only seven or eight year old.
 
 
 
This tradition has also been transmitted through a different chain by Amr bin Salamah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). This version says : “I used to lead them in prayer with a sheet of cloth on me that was patched and torn. When I prostrated, my buttocks were visible.
 
 

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ مِسْعَرِ بْنِ حَبِيبٍ الْجَرْمِيِّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ سَلِمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُمْ وَفَدُوا إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمَّا أَرَادُوا أَنْ يَنْصَرِفُوا قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ يَؤُمُّنَا قَالَ ‏"‏ أَكْثَرُكُمْ جَمْعًا لِلْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ أَوْ ‏"‏ أَخْذًا لِلْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ جَمَعَ مَا جَمَعْتُهُ - قَالَ - فَقَدَّمُونِي وَأَنَا غُلاَمٌ وَعَلَىَّ شَمْلَةٌ لِي فَمَا شَهِدْتُ مَجْمَعًا مِنْ جَرْمٍ إِلاَّ كُنْتُ إِمَامَهُمْ وَكُنْتُ أُصَلِّي عَلَى جَنَائِزِهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِي هَذَا ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَرَوَاهُ يَزِيدُ بْنُ هَارُونَ عَنْ مِسْعَرِ بْنِ حَبِيبٍ الْجَرْمِيِّ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ سَلِمَةَ قَالَ لَمَّا وَفَدَ قَوْمِي إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَقُلْ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ‏.‏

Amr bin Salama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported on the authority of his father that they visited the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When they intended to return, they said : Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), who will lead us in prayer? He said : The one of you who knows most of the Qur’an, or memorizes most of the Qur’an. There was none in the clan who knew more of the Quran than I did. They,  therefore, put me in front of them and I was only a boy. And I wore a mantle, Whenever I was present in the gathering of Jarm (name of his clan), I would act as their Imam, and lead them in their funeral prayer until today.

Imam Abu Dawud said, this tradition has been narrated by Amr bin Salama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) through a different chain of transmitters. This version has : 'When my clan visited the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)', but He did not report it on the authority of his father.

 

 
Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said when the first emigrants came (to Madina), they stayed at al-Asbah (a place near Madina) before the arrival of the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Salim, the client of Abu Hudhaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), acted as their Imam, as he knew the Quran better than all of them.  Al-Haitham (the narrator) added : and Umar bin al-Khattab and Abu Salama bin Abdul Asad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) were among them.
 
 

Malik bin Al-Huwairith (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told him or some of his companions : When the time of prayer comes, call the Adhan, then call the Iqama, then the one who is oldest of you should act as your Imam. The version narrated by Maslamah goes : He said : On that day we were almost equal in knowledge. The version narrated by Isma’il says : Khalid said : I said to Abu Qilaba : where is the Qur’an (why did the Prophet ﷺ not say the one who knows the Qur’an most should act as Imam)? He replied : both of them were equal in the knowledge of the Qur’an.

 

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا حُسَيْنُ بْنُ عِيسَى الْحَنَفِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الْحَكَمُ بْنُ أَبَانَ، عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ لِيُؤَذِّنْ لَكُمْ خِيَارُكُمْ وَلْيَؤُمَّكُمْ قُرَّاؤُكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abdullah Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Let the best among you call the Adhan for you, and the Quran reciters act as your Imams.

 

 

CHAPTER (62)

باب إِمَامَةِ النِّسَاءِ

On woman action as Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 201

حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعُ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جُمَيْعٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَتْنِي جَدَّتِي، وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ خَلاَّدٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، عَنْ أُمِّ وَرَقَةَ بِنْتِ نَوْفَلٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمَّا غَزَا بَدْرًا قَالَتْ قُلْتُ لَهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ائْذَنْ لِي فِي الْغَزْوِ مَعَكَ أُمَرِّضُ مَرْضَاكُمْ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ أَنْ يَرْزُقَنِي شَهَادَةً ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ "‏ قِرِّي فِي بَيْتِكِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يَرْزُقُكِ الشَّهَادَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَانَتْ تُسَمَّى الشَّهِيدَةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَكَانَتْ قَدْ قَرَأَتِ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَأْذَنَتِ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ تَتَّخِذَ فِي دَارِهَا مُؤَذِّنًا فَأَذِنَ لَهَا قَالَ وَكَانَتْ دَبَّرَتْ غُلاَمًا لَهَا وَجَارِيَةً فَقَامَا إِلَيْهَا بِاللَّيْلِ فَغَمَّاهَا بِقَطِيفَةٍ لَهَا حَتَّى مَاتَتْ وَذَهَبَا فَأَصْبَحَ عُمَرُ فَقَامَ فِي النَّاسِ فَقَالَ مَنْ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ هَذَيْنِ عِلْمٌ أَوْ مَنْ رَآهُمَا فَلْيَجِئْ بِهِمَا فَأَمَرَ بِهِمَا فَصُلِبَا فَكَانَا أَوَّلَ مَصْلُوبٍ بِالْمَدِينَةِ ‏.‏

Umm Waraqa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) daughter of Nawfal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) proceeded for the Battle of Badr, I said to him : Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) allow me to accompany you in the battle. I shall act as a nurse for patients. It is possible that Allah might bestow martyrdom upon me. He said : Stay at your home. Allah, the Almighty, will bestow martyrdom upon you.

The narrator said : Hence she was called martyr. She read the Qur'an. She sought permission from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to have a mu'adh-dhin in her house. He, therefore, permitted her (to do so).

She announced that her slave and slave-girl would be free after her death. One night they went to her and strangled her with a sheet of cloth until she died, and they ran away.  Next day Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) announced among the people, 'Anyone who has knowledge about them, or has seen them, should bring them (to him). (After their arrest) Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ordered (to crucify them) and they were crucified. This was the first crucifixion at Medina.


 
This tradition has also been narrated through a different chain of transmitters by Umm Waraqah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) daughter of ‘Abdullah bin Al-Harith (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). The first version is complete. This version goes : The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to visit her at her house. He appointed a mu’adhdhin to call Adhan for her; and he commanded her to lead the inmates of her house in prayer.  Abdur Rahman said : I saw her mu’adhdhin who was an old man.
 
 
 

CHAPTER (63)

باب الرَّجُلِ يَؤُمُّ الْقَوْمَ وَهُمْ لَهُ كَارِهُونَ

A person who is the Imam of a group that diskes him

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 203
 
حَدَّثَنَا الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ غَانِمٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ عَبْدٍ الْمَعَافِرِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ ثَلاَثَةٌ لاَ يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ صَلاَةً مَنْ تَقَدَّمَ قَوْمًا وَهُمْ لَهُ كَارِهُونَ وَرَجُلٌ أَتَى الصَّلاَةَ دِبَارًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَالدِّبَارُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا بَعْدَ أَنْ تَفُوتَهُ ‏"‏ وَرَجُلٌ اعْتَبَدَ مُحَرَّرَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abdullah Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : there are three types of people whose prayer is not accepted by Allah : One who goes in front of people when they do not like him; a man whocomes to it too late; and a man who takes into slavery an emancipated male or female slave.

 

CHAPTER (64)

باب إِمَامَةِ الْبَرِّ وَالْفَاجِرِ

Pious and wicked people as Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 204
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، حَدَّثَنِي مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ، عَنْ مَكْحُولٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ الصَّلاَةُ الْمَكْتُوبَةُ وَاجِبَةٌ خَلْفَ كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ بَرًّا كَانَ أَوْ فَاجِرًا وَإِنْ عَمِلَ الْكَبَائِرَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : the obligatory prayer is essential behind every Muslim, pious or impious, even if he has committed big sins.
 
 
 

CHAPTER (65)

باب إِمَامَةِ الأَعْمَى

A blind man as an Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 205
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْعَنْبَرِيُّ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ، حَدَّثَنَا عِمْرَانُ الْقَطَّانُ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم اسْتَخْلَفَ ابْنَ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ يَؤُمُّ النَّاسَ وَهُوَ أَعْمَى ‏.‏
 
Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) appointed Ibn Umm Maktum (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) as substitute to lead the people in prayer, and he was blind.
 
 

CHAPTER (66)

باب إِمَامَةِ الزَّائِرِ

A visitor as an Imam

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 206

حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانُ، عَنْ بُدَيْلٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو عَطِيَّةَ، مَوْلًى مِنَّا قَالَ كَانَ مَالِكُ بْنُ حُوَيْرِثٍ يَأْتِينَا إِلَى مُصَلاَّنَا هَذَا فَأُقِيمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَقُلْنَا لَهُ تَقَدَّمْ فَصَلِّهْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَنَا قَدِّمُوا رَجُلاً مِنْكُمْ يُصَلِّي بِكُمْ وَسَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ لِمَ لاَ أُصَلِّي بِكُمْ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ مَنْ زَارَ قَوْمًا فَلاَ يَؤُمَّهُمْ وَلْيَؤُمَّهُمْ رَجُلٌ مِنْهُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Abu Atiyyah, a freed slave, narrated that Malik bin al-Huwairith (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to their place of prayer, and the Iqamah for prayer was called. We said to him : come forward and lead the prayer. He said to us : put one of your own men forward to lead you in prayer. I heard the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : If anyone visits people, he should not lead them in prayer, but some person of them should lead the prayer.
 
 
 

CHAPTER (67)

باب الإِمَامِ يَقُومُ مَكَانًا أَرْفَعَ مِنْ مَكَانِ الْقَوْمِ

On the Imam standing in a location above the level of congregation

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 207
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ سِنَانٍ، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْفُرَاتِ أَبُو مَسْعُودٍ الرَّازِيُّ، - الْمَعْنَى - قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا يَعْلَى، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، أَنَّ حُذَيْفَةَ أَمَّ النَّاسَ، بِالْمَدَائِنِ عَلَى دُكَّانٍ فَأَخَذَ أَبُو مَسْعُودٍ بِقَمِيصِهِ فَجَبَذَهُ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْ صَلاَتِهِ قَالَ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُنْهَوْنَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ بَلَى قَدْ ذَكَرْتُ حِينَ مَدَدْتَنِي ‏.‏

Hammam reported that Hudhaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) led the people in prayer in al-Mada’in standing on the shop (or a bench). Abu Mas’ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) took him by his shirt, and brought him down. When he (Abu Mas’ud -  رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) finished his prayer, he said : Do you not know that they (the people) were prohibited to do so. He said : Yes, I remembered when you pulled me down.
 
 
Adi bin Thabit al-Ansari reported that once, a man related to him, was in the company of Ammar bin Yasir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in al-Mada’in (a city near Ku’fah). The Iqama was called for prayer : ‘Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came forward and stood on an elevated place (or a bench) and prayed while the people stood on a lower place than him. Hudaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came forward and took him by the hands and Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) followed him till Hudaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) brought him down. When Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) finished his prayer. Hudaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) told him: Did you not hear the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) say : 'When a man leads the people in prayer, he must not stand in a position higher than theirs, or words to that effect? Ammar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) replied : that is why I followed you when you took me by the hand.
 
 
 

CHAPTER (68)

باب إِمَامَةِ مَنْ يُصَلِّي بِقَوْمٍ وَقَدْ صَلَّى تِلْكَ الصَّلاَةَ

On someone having prayed and then leading others for that prayer

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 209
 
حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَجْلاَنَ، حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مِقْسَمٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَنَّ مُعَاذَ بْنَ جَبَلٍ، كَانَ يُصَلِّي مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْعِشَاءَ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي قَوْمَهُ فَيُصَلِّي بِهِمْ تِلْكَ الصَّلاَةَ ‏.‏

Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said Mu’adh bin Jabal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) would pray Isha along with the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then go and lead his people in the same prayer.
 
 
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، سَمِعَ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ إِنَّ مُعَاذًا كَانَ يُصَلِّي مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ فَيَؤُمُّ قَوْمَهُ ‏.‏
 
Jabir bin Abdulla (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that Mu’ad bin Jabal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) would pray along the prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), then go and lead his people in prayer.
 
 

CHAPTER (69)

باب الإِمَامِ يُصَلِّي مِنْ قُعُودٍ

About theImam praying while sitting down

 

Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 211
 
حَدَّثَنَا الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَكِبَ فَرَسًا فَصُرِعَ عَنْهُ فَجُحِشَ شِقُّهُ الأَيْمَنُ فَصَلَّى صَلاَةً مِنَ الصَّلَوَاتِ وَهُوَ قَاعِدٌ وَصَلَّيْنَا وَرَاءَهُ قُعُودًا فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الإِمَامُ لِيُؤْتَمَّ بِهِ فَإِذَا صَلَّى قَائِمًا فَصَلُّوا قِيَامًا وَإِذَا رَكَعَ فَارْكَعُوا وَإِذَا رَفَعَ فَارْفَعُوا وَإِذَا قَالَ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ فَقُولُوا رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ وَإِذَا صَلَّى جَالِسًا فَصَلُّوا جُلُوسًا أَجْمَعُونَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) rode a horse and fell off it and his right side was grazed. Thus, he prayed one of the prayers sitting and we prayed one of the prayers sitting, and when he finished he said : the Imam is appointed only to be followed; so when he prays standing, pray standing, and when he bows, bow; when he raises himself, raise yourselves; when he says -  سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ  [Allah listen to him who praises Him] say - رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ [ 'Our Lord ! to You be the praise]  and when he prays sitting,  all of you pray sitting.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 212
 

Jabir ibn Abdulla (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) rode a horse in Madina. It threw him off at the root of a date-palm. His foot was injured. We visited him to inquire about his health. We found him praying sitting in the apartment of Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا). We, therefore, stood, (praying) behind him. He kept silent.

We again visited to inquire about him. He offered the obligatory prayer sitting. We, therefore, stood (praying) behind him; he made a sign to us and we sat down. When he finished the prayer, he said : When the Imam prays sitting, pray sitting; and when the Imam prays standing, pray standing, and do not act as the people of Persia used to act with their chiefs (the people stood and they were sitting).


حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَمُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، - الْمَعْنَى - عَنْ وُهَيْبٍ، عَنْ مُصْعَبِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الإِمَامُ لِيُؤْتَمَّ بِهِ فَإِذَا كَبَّرَ فَكَبِّرُوا وَلاَ تُكَبِّرُوا حَتَّى يُكَبِّرَ وَإِذَا رَكَعَ فَارْكَعُوا وَلاَ تَرْكَعُوا حَتَّى يَرْكَعَ وَإِذَا قَالَ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ فَقُولُوا اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ مُسْلِمٌ ‏"‏ وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ‏"‏ وَإِذَا سَجَدَ فَاسْجُدُوا وَلاَ تَسْجُدُوا حَتَّى يَسْجُدَ وَإِذَا صَلَّى قَائِمًا فَصَلُّوا قِيَامًا وَإِذَا صَلَّى قَاعِدًا فَصَلُّوا قُعُودًا أَجْمَعُونَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ أَفْهَمَنِي بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ ‏.‏ 

Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The Imam is appointed only to be followed; when he says - الله اكبر [Allah is most great], say - الله اكبر [Allah is most great] and do not say - الله اكبر [Allah is most great] until he says - الله اكبر [Allah is most great.] When he bows; bow; and do not bow until he bows. And when he says - سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ [Allah listens to him who praise Him],  say -  اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ  [O Allah, our Lord, to You be the praise.]

The version recorded by Muslim goes : "And to You be the praise: And when he prostrate; and do not prostrate until he prostrates. When he prays standing, pray standing, and when he prays sitting, all of you pray sitting.

Imam Abu Dawud said : The words "O Allah, our Lord, to You be the praise" reported by Sulaiman were explained to me by some of our companions.

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ آدَمَ الْمَصِّيصِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَالِدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَجْلاَنَ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الإِمَامُ لِيُؤْتَمَّ بِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ بِهَذَا الْخَبَرِ زَادَ ‏"‏ وَإِذَا قَرَأَ فَأَنْصِتُوا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَهَذِهِ الزِّيَادَةُ ‏"‏ وَإِذَا قَرَأَ فَأَنْصِتُوا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ لَيْسَتْ بِمَحْفُوظَةٍ الْوَهَمُ عِنْدَنَا مِنْ أَبِي خَالِدٍ ‏

Abu Hurayra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The Imam is appointed only to be followed. This version adds : When he recites (the Qur'an), keep silent."

Imam Abu Dawud said the addition of the words "When he recites, keep silent" in this version are not guarded. The misunderstanding, according to us, is on the part of Abu Khalid (a narrator).

 

 Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 215
 
حَدَّثَنَا الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ صَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَيْتِهِ وَهُوَ جَالِسٌ فَصَلَّى وَرَاءَهُ قَوْمٌ قِيَامًا فَأَشَارَ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اجْلِسُوا فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الإِمَامُ لِيُؤْتَمَّ بِهِ فَإِذَا رَكَعَ فَارْكَعُوا وَإِذَا رَفَعَ فَارْفَعُوا وَإِذَا صَلَّى جَالِسًا فَصَلُّوا جُلُوسًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Ummul Momineen Aishah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that the  Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) prayed in his house sitting and the people prayed behind him standing. He made a sign to them (asking them) to sit down. When he finished the prayer, he said : The Imam is appointed only to be followed; so when he prays standing, pray standing and when he raises himself, raise yourself and when he prays sitting, pray sitting.
 
 
 Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 216
 
Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) became seriously ill, we prayed behind him while he was sitting and Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was calling - الله اكبر [Allah is most great] in order that people hear the Takbir. Then he (the narrator) narrated the rest of the tradition.
 
 
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا زَيْدٌ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ الْحُبَابِ - عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنِي حُصَيْنٌ، مِنْ وَلَدِ سَعْدِ بْنِ مُعَاذٍ عَنْ أُسَيْدِ بْنِ حُضَيْرٍ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَؤُمُّهُمْ - قَالَ - فَجَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَعُودُهُ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ إِمَامَنَا مَرِيضٌ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ إِذَا صَلَّى قَاعِدًا فَصَلُّوا قُعُودًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ هذا الْحَدِيثُ لَيْسَ بِمُتَّصِلٍ ‏.‏

Husain reported on the authority of the children of Sa’d bin Mu’adh that Usaid bin Hudair used to act as their Imam. (when he fell ill) the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came to him inquiring about his illness. They said : Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), our Imam is ill. He said : When he prays sitting, pray sitting.

Imam Abu Dawud said the chain of this tradition is not continuous (muttasil).

 

 

CHAPTER (70)

باب الرَّجُلَيْنِ يَؤُمُّ أَحَدُهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ كَيْفَ يَقُومَانِ

If two people are praying, one of them is the Imam, how should they stand
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 218
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا ثَابِتٌ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم دَخَلَ عَلَى أُمِّ حَرَامٍ فَأَتَوْهُ بِسَمْنٍ وَتَمْرٍ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ رُدُّوا هَذَا فِي وِعَائِهِ وَهَذَا فِي سِقَائِهِ فَإِنِّي صَائِمٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَامَ فَصَلَّى بِنَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ تَطَوُّعًا فَقَامَتْ أُمُّ سُلَيْمٍ وَأُمُّ حَرَامٍ خَلْفَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ ثَابِتٌ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُهُ إِلاَّ قَالَ أَقَامَنِي عَنْ يَمِينِهِ عَلَى بِسَاطٍ ‏.‏

Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went to Umm Haram (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا). The people (in her house) brought some cooking oil dates to him. He said put it (dates) back in its container and return it (cooking oil) to its bag, because I am keeping fast. He then stood and led us in prayer two Rak’a supererogatory prayer. Then Umm Sulaim and Umm Haram (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہما) stood behind us (the men). Thabit (the narrator) said : I understand that Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said; he (the Prophet ) made me stand on his right side.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 219
 
حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُخْتَارِ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ أَنَسٍ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَمَّهُ وَامْرَأَةً مِنْهُمْ فَجَعَلَهُ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَالْمَرْأَةَ خَلْفَ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏
Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) led him and one of their women in prayer. He said (the Prophet ) put him on his right side and the woman behind him.
 
 
 
Abdullah bin Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that when he was spending a night in the house of his maternal aunt, Ummul Momineen Maimuna (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) got up at night, opened the mouth of the water skin and performed ablution. He then closed the mouth of the water-skin and stood for prayer. Then I got up and performed ablution as he did; then I came and stood on his left side. He took my hand, turned me round behind his back and set me on his right side; and I prayed along with him.
 
 
 
Another version of this tradition transmitted through a different chain of narrators by Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) says : 'He took my head or the hair of my head and made me stand on his right side'.
 
 

CHAPTER (71)

باب إِذَا كَانُوا ثَلاَثَةً كَيْفَ يَقُومُونَ

How should three people stand (in congregation) 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 222
 
 
Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said that his grandmother Mulaika (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) invited the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for a  meal which she prepared for him. He took some of it and prayed. He said : get up, I shall lead you in prayer. Anas said : I got up and took a mat which had become black on account of long use. I then washed it with water. The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stood upon it. I and the orphan (Ibn Abi Dumaira - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the freed slave of the Prophet ) stood in a row behind him. The old women stood behind us. He then led us in two Rak'a of prayer and left.
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 223

It is reported that Alqamah and al-Aswad sought permission from Abdullah (Ibn Mas'ud - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to meet him.  They remained sitting at his door for a long time. A slave-girl came out and gave them permission (to enter). He (Ibn Mas'ud - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) then got up and prayed (standing) between them (al-Aswad and Alqamah). He then said : I witnessed the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) doing similarly.

 

CHAPTER (72)

باب الإِمَامِ يَنْحَرِفُ بَعْدَ التَّسْلِيمِ

The Imam should turn around after the Tasleem
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 224

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، حَدَّثَنِي يَعْلَى بْنُ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ صَلَّيْتُ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَكَانَ إِذَا انْصَرَفَ انْحَرَفَ ‏.‏

Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al-Aswad reported on the authority of his father that he prayed behind the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When he finished the prayer, he (the Prophet ﷺ) would turn (his face from the direction of the Ka'bah).

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أَحْمَدَ الزُّبَيْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مِسْعَرٌ، عَنْ ثَابِتِ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ الْبَرَاءِ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا إِذَا صَلَّيْنَا خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَحْبَبْنَا أَنْ نَكُونَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ فَيُقْبِلُ عَلَيْنَا بِوَجْهِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ 

Al-Bara' Ibn Azib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that when they would pray behind the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), they liked to be on his right side. He (the Prophet ) would sit turning his face towards us (and back towards the Ka'ba).

 

 

CHAPTER (73)

باب الإِمَامِ يَتَطَوَّعُ فِي مَكَانِهِ

The Imam praying voluntary prayers in his place
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 226
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو تَوْبَةَ الرَّبِيعُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُرَشِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَطَاءٌ الْخُرَاسَانِيُّ، عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ لاَ يُصَلِّي الإِمَامُ فِي الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي صَلَّى فِيهِ حَتَّى يَتَحَوَّلَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ عَطَاءٌ الْخُرَاسَانِيُّ لَمْ يُدْرِكِ الْمُغِيرَةَ بْنَ شُعْبَةَ ‏.‏

Ata al-Khurasani reported that Mughirah Ibn Shu'ba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The Imam should not pray (the remaining prayers) at the place where he led the prayer until he moves (from there).

Imam Abu Dawud said: 'Ata' al-Khurasani did not see Mughirah bin Shu'ba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

 

 

CHAPTER (74)

باب الإِمَامِ يُحْدِثُ بَعْدَ مَا يَرْفَعُ رَأْسَهُ مِنْ آخِرِ الرَّكْعَةِ

About the Imam breaking his Wudu after he rises (from prostration) during the last Rakah
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 227
 
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ زِيَادِ بْنِ أَنْعُمَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ رَافِعٍ، وَبَكْرِ بْنِ سَوَادَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِذَا قَضَى الإِمَامُ الصَّلاَةَ وَقَعَدَ فَأَحْدَثَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمَ فَقَدْ تَمَّتْ صَلاَتُهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ خَلْفَهُ مِمَّنْ أَتَمَّ الصَّلاَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-'Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : When the Imam completes the prayer and sits (for reciting tashahhud), and then becomes defiled (his ablution becomes void) before he speaks (to someone), his prayer becomes complete. And the prayer of those who prayed behind him is also complete.


 

CHAPTER (75)

باب فِي تَحْرِيمِ الصَّلاَةِ وَتَحْلِيلِهَا

On the beginning and end of the prayer
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 228
حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَقِيلٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ ابْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، - رضى الله عنه - قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلاَةِ الطُّهُورُ وَتَحْرِيمُهَا التَّكْبِيرُ وَتَحْلِيلُهَا التَّسْلِيمُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Ali ibn Abi Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The key of prayer is purification. Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar ) makes (all acts which break prayer) unlawful and Taslim (salutation) makes (all such acts) lawful.

 

CHAPTER (76)

باب مَا يُؤْمَرُ بِهِ الْمَأْمُومُ مِنَ اتِّبَاعِ الإِمَامِ
The one behind the Imam is commanded to follow the Imam
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 229
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنِ ابْنِ عَجْلاَنَ، حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ حَبَّانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ مُحَيْرِيزٍ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ لاَ تُبَادِرُونِي بِرُكُوعٍ وَلاَ بِسُجُودٍ فَإِنَّهُ مَهْمَا أَسْبِقْكُمْ بِهِ إِذَا رَكَعْتُ تُدْرِكُونِي بِهِ إِذَا رَفَعْتُ إِنِّي قَدْ بَدَّنْتُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Narrated Mu'awiya ibn Abu Sufyan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Do not try to outstrip me in bowing and prostrating because however earlier I bow you will join me when I raise (my head from bowing). 'I have become bulky'.

 

Explanation

It looks the above Hadith is the narration of Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) addressed to the people who were praying behind him.  He told them that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has instructed the people to follow the Imam and not outstrip him in bowing and prostration.  Then Mauwiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) explained them that since he has become very bulky (fat), he has to bow and prostrate slowly taking sometime which was apparently too long for the people. Therefore,  after listening to the takbir, they were bowing and prostrating a little earlier than Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). He wanted people to know that he had become very bulky, therefore, they should do bowing and prostrations slowly behind him.

There is no authentic report in the entire Hadith literature that suggests that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had become bulky or fat anytime during his life time.

It is in Hadith - Narrated by Ibn Omer, Abu Huraira and Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم). Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) kept fast after fast, sometimes 5 days in a row.  Sahabah tried to emulate (follow his practice), but realized it was not possible.  Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم told his companions,  ‘I am not like you. I live with my Sustainer (Rabbul Aalameen) who feeds and provides me with drink. (Bukhari, Muslim). 

However, there are many authentic reports that testify that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) had become very fat.

It  is reported in Sahih Muslim, (Chapter - People who were cursed by Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) that once the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), but he did not respond to Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) call as he was eating and continued to enjoy his food. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called him again, but he ignored the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and continued eating. On this, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) showed displeasure and cursed him. 

It is in Hadith -  Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported: I was playing with children and Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) happened to pass by (us). I hid myself behind the door. He (the Prophet - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came and patted my shoulders and said : Go and call Mu'awiya. I returned and said : He is busy in eating food. He again asked me to go and call Mu'awiya to him. I went (and came back) and said that he was busy in eating, whereupon he said: May Allah not fill his belly! 

References - Muslim, Chapter 23 - titled 'people who were cursed by Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ',  Ahmed  Baihaqi,  Hakim.

Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was 30 years old when this incident happened.
 

Ibn kathir wrote when Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) became Governor of Syria, he used to eat seven times a day. The bowl which was brought to him for eating was full of meat and onions. He would eat from the bowl seven times a day along with a lot of sweets and fruits. Despite this he would still say : "By God! my belly is not full, but I am tired and food is a form of blessing with which all Kings are granted." (Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Volume 8 page 138)

Ibn Kathir also wrote :  وقال مغيرة عن الشعبي : أول من خطب جالسا معاوية حين كثر شحمه وعظم بطنه .وكذا روى عن مغيرة عن إبراهيم أنه قال: أول من خطب جالسا يوم الجمعة معاوية .وقال أبو المليح عن ميمون: أول من جلس على المنبر معاوية واستأذن الناس في الجلوس [And Mughira reported from Sh’ubi : "Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the first person who started giving sermon while sitting. And this happened at the time when Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) acquired thick layers of fat and his stomach grew very large. Mughira also reported from Ibrahim : "The first individual that delivered the Friday sermon while seated was Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)". And Abu Malih also reported the same from Memoon that Muawiya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the first who sat on the Minbar (Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Volume 8 page 119) ]

 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 230
 
 
Al-Bara (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who is not a liar said; when they (the companions) raised their heads from bowing along with the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), they would stand up, and when they saw him that he went down in prostration, they would prostrate (following the Prophet ).

 
 
Al-Bara bin‘Azib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said  we used to pray along with the prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم); none of us bowed his back until he saw that the prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  bowed (his back).

 
Al-Bara bin  Azib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said; They (the Companions) used to pray along with the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). When he bowed, they bowed; and when he said - سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ [Allah listens to him who praises him], they remained standing until they saw that he placed his placed his forehead on the ground: then they would follow him.
 
 

CHAPTER (77)

باب التَّشْدِيدِ فِيمَنْ يَرْفَعُ قَبْلَ الإِمَامِ أَوْ يَضَعُ قَبْلَهُ
The severity of one who raises or descends before the Imam
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 233
 
حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَمَا يَخْشَى - أَوْ أَلاَ يَخْشَى - أَحَدُكُمْ إِذَا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ وَالإِمَامُ سَاجِدٌ أَنْ يُحَوِّلَ اللَّهُ رَأْسَهُ رَأْسَ حِمَارٍ أَوْ صُورَتَهُ صُورَةَ حِمَارٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : Does he who raises his head while the Imam is prostrating not fear that Allah may change his head into a donkey’s head or his face into a donkey’s face.
 
 

CHAPTER (78)

باب فِيمَنْ يَنْصَرِفُ قَبْلَ الإِمَامِ
About turning around to leave before the Imam
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 234
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ بُغَيْلٍ الْمُرْهِبِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا زَائِدَةُ، عَنِ الْمُخْتَارِ بْنِ فُلْفُلٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَضَّهُمْ عَلَى الصَّلاَةِ وَنَهَاهُمْ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفُوا قَبْلَ انْصِرَافِهِ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ ‏.‏

Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) persuaded them to  pray in congregation and prohibited them to leave before he goes away from the prayer.
 
 

CHAPTER (79)

باب جِمَاعِ أَثْوَابِ مَا يُصَلَّى فِيهِ
The types of clothes in which it is permissible to pray
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 235
 
حَدَّثَنَا الْقَعْنَبِيُّ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سُئِلَ عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ فِي ثَوْبٍ وَاحِدٍ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ أَوَلِكُلِّكُمْ ثَوْبَانِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked the validity of prayer in a single garment. The prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Does every one of you has two garment?
 
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 236
 
Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying : None of you should pray in a single garment of which no part comes over the shoulders.
 
 
Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  reported the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as saying: if anyone prays in a single piece of cloth, he should cross the two ends.
 
 
‘Umar bin Abu Salama (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that he saw the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) praying girded with a single (piece of) cloth, place its two ends over his shoulders.
 
 
حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا مُلاَزِمُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو الْحَنَفِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ بَدْرٍ، عَنْ قَيْسِ بْنِ طَلْقٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ قَدِمْنَا عَلَى نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ مَا تَرَى فِي الصَّلاَةِ فِي الثَّوْبِ الْوَاحِدِ قَالَ فَأَطْلَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِزَارَهُ طَارَقَ بِهِ رِدَاءَهُ فَاشْتَمَلَ بِهِمَا ثُمَّ قَامَ فَصَلَّى بِنَا نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمَّا أَنْ قَضَى الصَّلاَةَ قَالَ ‏ "‏ أَوَكُلُّكُمْ يَجِدُ ثَوْبَيْنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Talq Ibn Ali al-Hanafi (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported : We came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and a man came and said : Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), what do you say if one prays in a single garment? The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then took off his wrapper and combined it with his sheet, and put it on them. He got up and the Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) led us in prayer. When he finished the prayer, he said : Does every one of you have two garments?

 

CHAPTER (80)

باب الرَّجُلِ يَعْقِدُ الثَّوْبَ فِي قَفَاهُ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّي
About a man tying his garment around the nape of his neck to pray
 
Sunan Abu Dawood, Vol 1,  Bk 2, Hadith # 240

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ الأَنْبَارِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، قَالَ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ الرِّجَالَ عَاقِدِي أُزُرِهِمْ فِي أَعْنَاقِهِمْ مِنْ ضِيقِ الأُزُرِ خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي الصَّلاَةِ كَأَمْثَالِ الصِّبْيَانِ فَقَالَ قَائِلٌ يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ لاَ تَرْفَعْنَ رُءُوسَكُنَّ حَتَّى يَرْفَعَ الرِّجَالُ ‏.‏

Sahl bin Sa’d (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated : I saw the people tying their wrappers over their necks like children due to the narrowness of the wrappers behind the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) during prayer. Someone said : O' women (praying in the back rows), do not raise your heads until the men raise (their heads).